House of Plantagenet
The House of Plantagenet was a royal house which originated from the lands of Anjou in France. The name Plantagenet is used by modern historians to identify four distinct royal houses: the Angevins, who were counts of Anjou; the family held the English throne from 1154, with the accession of Henry II, until 1485, when Richard III died in battle. Under the Plantagenets, England was transformed – although this was only intentional; the Plantagenet kings were forced to negotiate compromises such as Magna Carta. These constrained royal power in return for military support; the king was no longer just the most powerful man in the nation, holding the prerogative of judgement, feudal tribute and warfare. He now had defined duties to the realm, underpinned by a sophisticated justice system. A distinct national identity was shaped by conflict with the French, Scots and Irish, the establishment of English as the primary language. In the 15th century, the Plantagenets were defeated in the Hundred Years' War and beset with social and economic problems.
Popular revolts were commonplace. English nobles raised private armies, engaged in private feuds and defied Henry VI; the rivalry between the House of Plantagenet's two cadet branches of York and Lancaster brought about the Wars of the Roses, a decades-long fight for the English succession, culminating in the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, when the reign of the Plantagenets and the English Middle Ages both met their end with the death of King Richard III. Henry VII, of Lancastrian descent, became king of England; the Tudors worked to centralise English royal power, which allowed them to avoid some of the problems that had plagued the last Plantagenet rulers. The resulting stability allowed for the English Renaissance, the advent of early modern Britain. Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York, adopted Plantagenet as his family name in the 15th century. Plantegenest had been a 12th-century nickname for his ancestor Geoffrey, Count of Anjou and Duke of Normandy. One of many popular theories suggests the common broom, planta genista in medieval Latin, as the source of the nickname.
It is uncertain why Richard chose this specific name, although during the Wars of the Roses it emphasised Richard's status as Geoffrey's patrilineal descendant. The retrospective usage of the name for all of Geoffrey's male-line descendants was popular during the subsequent Tudor dynasty encouraged by the further legitimacy it gave to Richard's great-grandson, Henry VIII, it was only in the late 17th century. Angevin is French for "from Anjou"; the three Angevin kings were Richard I and John. "Angevin" can refer to the period of history in which they reigned. Many historians identify the Angevins as a distinct English royal house. "Angevin" is used in reference to any sovereign or government derived from Anjou. As a noun, it refers to any native of Anjou or an Angevin ruler, to other counts and dukes of Anjou, including the ancestors of the three kings who formed the English royal house. There is disagreement between those who consider Henry III to be the first Plantagenet monarch, those who do not distinguish between Angevins and Plantagenets and therefore consider the first Plantagenet to be Henry II.
The term "Angevin Empire" was coined by Kate Norgate in 1887. There was no known contemporary collective name for all of the territories under the rule of the Angevin Kings of England; this led to circumlocutions such as "our kingdom and everything subject to our rule whatever it may be" or "the whole of the kingdom which had belonged to his father". The "Empire" portion of "Angevin Empire" has been controversial as these territories were not subject to any unified laws or systems of governance, each retained its own laws and feudal relationships. In 1986 a convention of historians concluded that there had not been an Angevin state, therefore no "Angevin Empire", but that the term espace Plantagenet was acceptable. Nonetheless, historians have continued to use "Angevin Empire"; the counts of Anjou, including the Plantagenets, descended from Geoffrey II, Count of Gâtinais, his wife Ermengarde of Anjou. In 1060 the couple inherited the title via cognatic kinship from an Angevin family, descended from a noble named Ingelger, whose recorded history dates from 870.
During the 10th and 11th centuries, power struggles occurred between rulers in northern and western France including those of Anjou, Brittany, Blois and the kings of France. In the early 12th century Geoffrey of Anjou married Empress Matilda, King Henry I's only surviving legitimate child and heir to the English throne; as a result of this marriage, Geoffrey's son Henry II inherited the English throne as well as Norman and Angevin titles, thus marking the beginning of the Angevin and Plantagenet dynasties. The marriage was the third attempt of Geoffrey's father, Fulk V, Count of Anjou, to build a political alliance with Normandy, he first espoused Alice, to William Adelin, Henry I's heir. After William drowned in the wreck of the White Ship Fulk married another of his daughter
Monarchy of the United Kingdom
The monarchy of the United Kingdom referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories. The current monarch and head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who ascended the throne in 1952; the monarch and their immediate family undertake various official, ceremonial and representational duties. As the monarchy is constitutional, the monarch is limited to non-partisan functions such as bestowing honours and appointing the Prime Minister; the monarch is commander-in-chief of the British Armed Forces. Though the ultimate executive authority over the government is still formally by and through the monarch's royal prerogative, these powers may only be used according to laws enacted in Parliament and, in practice, within the constraints of convention and precedent; the British monarchy traces its origins from the petty kingdoms of early medieval Scotland and Anglo-Saxon England, which consolidated into the kingdoms of England and Scotland by the 10th century.
England was conquered by the Normans in 1066, after which Wales too came under control of Anglo-Normans. The process was completed in the 13th century when the Principality of Wales became a client state of the English kingdom. Meanwhile, Magna Carta began a process of reducing the English monarch's political powers. From 1603, the English and Scottish kingdoms were ruled by a single sovereign. From 1649 to 1660, the tradition of monarchy was broken by the republican Commonwealth of England, which followed the Wars of the Three Kingdoms; the Act of Settlement 1701 excluded Roman Catholics, or those who married them, from succession to the English throne. In 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland were merged to create the Kingdom of Great Britain, in 1801, the Kingdom of Ireland joined to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; the British monarch was the nominal head of the vast British Empire, which covered a quarter of the world's surface at its greatest extent in 1921. In the early 1920s the Balfour Declaration recognised the evolution of the Dominions of the Empire into separate, self-governing countries within a Commonwealth of Nations.
After the Second World War, the vast majority of British colonies and territories became independent bringing the Empire to an end. George VI and his successor, Elizabeth II, adopted the title Head of the Commonwealth as a symbol of the free association of its independent member states; the United Kingdom and fifteen other independent sovereign states that share the same person as their monarch are called Commonwealth realms. Although the monarch is shared, each country is sovereign and independent of the others, the monarch has a different and official national title and style for each realm. In the uncodified Constitution of the United Kingdom, the monarch is the head of state; the Queen's image is used to signify British sovereignty and government authority—her profile, for instance, appearing on currency, her portrait in government buildings. The sovereign is further both mentioned in and the subject of songs, loyal toasts, salutes. "God Save the Queen" is the British national anthem. Oaths of allegiance are made to her lawful successors.
The monarch takes little direct part in government. The decisions to exercise sovereign powers are delegated from the monarch, either by statute or by convention, to ministers or officers of the Crown, or other public bodies, exclusive of the monarch personally, thus the acts of state done in the name of the Crown, such as Crown Appointments if performed by the monarch, such as the Queen's Speech and the State Opening of Parliament, depend upon decisions made elsewhere: Legislative power is exercised by the Queen-in-Parliament, by and with the advice and consent of Parliament, the House of Lords and the House of Commons. Executive power is exercised by Her Majesty's Government, which comprises ministers the prime minister and the Cabinet, technically a committee of the Privy Council, they have the direction of the Armed Forces of the Crown, the Civil Service and other Crown Servants such as the Diplomatic and Secret Services. Judicial power is vested in the various judiciaries of the United Kingdom, who by constitution and statute have judicial independence of the Government.
The Church of England, of which the monarch is the head, has its own legislative and executive structures. Powers independent of government are granted to other public bodies by statute or Statutory Instrument such as an Order in Council, Royal Commission or otherwise; the sovereign's role as a constitutional monarch is limited to non-partisan functions, such as granting honours. This role has been recognised since the 19th century; the constitutional writer Walter Bagehot identified the monarchy in 1867 as the "dignified part" rather than the "efficient part" of government. Whenever necessary, the monarch is responsible for appointing a new prime minister. In accordance with unwritten constitutional conventions, the sovereign must appoint an individual who commands the support of the House of Commons the leader of the party or coalition that has a majority in that House; the prime minister takes office by attending the monarch in private audience, after "kissing hands" that appointment is effective without any other f
Christchurch is the largest city in the South Island of New Zealand and the seat of the Canterbury Region. The Christchurch urban area lies on the South Island's east coast, just north of Banks Peninsula, it is home to 404,500 residents, making it New Zealand's third-most populous city behind Auckland and Wellington. The Avon River flows with an urban park located along its banks. Archaeological evidence has indicated that the Christchurch area was first settled by humans in about 1250. Christchurch became a city by Royal Charter on 31 July 1856, making it the oldest established city in New Zealand; the Canterbury Association, which settled the Canterbury Plains, named the city after Christ Church, Oxford. The new settlement was laid out in a grid pattern centred on Cathedral Square. Agriculture is the historic mainstay of Christchurch's economy; the early presence of the University of Canterbury and the heritage of the city's academic institutions in association with local businesses has fostered a number of technology-based industries.
Christchurch is one of five'gateway cities' for Antarctic exploration, hosting Antarctic support bases for several nations. The city suffered a series of earthquakes between September 2010 and early 2012, with the most destructive of them occurring at 12.51 p.m. on Tuesday, 22 February 2011, in which 185 people were killed and thousands of buildings across the city collapsed or suffered severe damage. By late 2013, 1,500 buildings in the city had been demolished, leading to an ongoing recovery and rebuilding project; the name of "Christchurch" was agreed on at the first meeting of the Canterbury Association on 27 March 1848. It was suggested by founder John Robert Godley, whose alma mater was Oxford; the Māori name Ōtautahi was adopted in the 1930s. The site was a seasonal dwelling of Ngāi Tahu chief Te Potiki Tautahi, whose main home was Port Levy on Banks Peninsula. Prior to that the Ngāi Tahu referred to the Christchurch area as Karaitiana, a transliteration of the English word Christian. Archaeological evidence found in a cave at Redcliffs in 1876 has indicated that the Christchurch area was first settled by moa-hunting tribes about 1250 CE.
These first inhabitants were thought to have been followed by the Waitaha tribe, who are said to have migrated from the East coast of the North Island in the 16th century. Following tribal warfare, the Waitaha were dispossessed by the Ngāti Māmoe tribe, they were in turn subjugated by the Ngāi Tahu tribe, who remained in control until the arrival of European settlers. Following the purchase of land at Putaringamotu by the Weller brothers, whalers of Otago and Sydney, a party of European settlers led by Herriott and McGillivray established themselves in what is now Christchurch, early in 1840, their abandoned holdings were taken over by the Deans brothers in 1843. The First Four Ships were chartered by the Canterbury Association and brought the first 792 of the Canterbury Pilgrims to Lyttelton Harbour; these sailing vessels were the Randolph, Charlotte Jane, Sir George Seymour, Cressy. The Charlotte Jane was the first to arrive on 16 December 1850; the Canterbury Pilgrims had aspirations of building a city around a cathedral and college, on the model of Christ Church in Oxford.
The name "Christ Church" was decided prior to the ships' arrival, at the Association's first meeting, on 27 March 1848. The exact basis for the name is not known, it has been suggested that it is named in Dorset, England. The last explanation is the one accepted. At the request of the Deans brothers — whose farm was the earliest European settlement in the area — the river was named after the River Avon in Scotland, which rises in the Ayrshire hills near to where their grandfather's farm was located. Captain Joseph Thomas, the Canterbury Association's Chief Surveyor, surveyed the surrounding area. By December 1849 he had commissioned the construction of a road from Port Cooper Lyttelton, to Christchurch via Sumner; however this proved more difficult than expected and road construction was stopped while a steep foot and pack horse track was constructed over the hill between the port and the Heathcote valley, where access to the site of the proposed settlement could be gained. This track became known as the Bridle Path, because the path was so steep that pack horses needed to be led by the bridle.
Goods that were too heavy or bulky to be transported by pack horse over the Bridle Path were shipped by small sailing vessels some eight miles by water around the coast and up the estuary to Ferrymead. New Zealand's first public railway line, the Ferrymead Railway, opened from Ferrymead to Christchurch in 1863. Due to the difficulties in travelling over the Port Hills and the dangers associated with shipping navigating the Sumner bar, a railway tunnel was bored through the Port Hills to Lyttelton, opening in 1867. Christchurch became a city by royal charter on 31 July 1856, the first in New Zealand. Many of the city's Gothic Revival buildings by architect Benjamin Mountfort date from this period. Christchurch was the seat of provincial administration for the Province of Canterbury, abolished in 1876. Christchurch buildings were damaged by earthquakes in 1869, 1881 and 1888. In 1947, New Zealand's worst fire disaster occurred at Ballantyne's Department Store in the inner city, with 41 people killed in a blaze which razed
Sherborne School is an English independent boarding school for boys in the parish of the Abbey Church of St Mary the Virgin at Sherborne, located in the town of Sherborne in Dorset. The school has remained in the same location for over 1200 years, it was founded in 705 AD by Aldhelm and, following the dissolution of the monasteries, re-founded in 1550 by King Edward VI, making it one of the oldest schools in the United Kingdom. Sherborne was one of the founder member public schools of the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference in 1869, is a member of the Eton Group. In the public school tradition, Sherborne remains a full boarding school with boys living in one of nine boarding houses, although a few day pupils are admitted to the school from time to time, it educates about 550 pupils, aged 13 to 18. Sherborne's A level results placed it in the top 1% of all schools in England in 2016 and 2017; the school has a close partnership with Sherborne Girls, with whom it shares many academic, co-curricular and social activities.
Sherborne was founded as a cathedral school when in 705 AD King Ine of Wessex instructed Aldhelm, the foremost churchman and most distinguished scholar of his day, to found a cathedral and college of clergy at Sherborne to relieve pressure from the growing see of Winchester. It is one of the oldest schools in the United Kingdom. Anglo-Saxon masonry survives in the Beckett Room, below the School Library, a reminder that Sherborne continues to occupy part of the Saxon Cathedral to which it owes its foundation. Alfred the Great, King of the Anglo Saxons, is held to have been an early pupil of the school, a tradition supported by the seat of West Saxon government having moved to Sherborne in 860 when Alfred was about 11 years old; that Alfred's son Bishop of Sherborne, was educated at a cathedral school is regarded as additional presumptive evidence in support of the claim. Aldhelm was the first Bishop of Sherborne, the school remained under the direction of Sherborne's bishops until 1122 when its supervision passed to the abbot of the Benedictine monastery, established at Sherborne by Wulfsige III in 998.
The School continued under monastic direction until the dissolution of the monasteries by King Henry VIII in 1539. The school continues to occupy the site of the former monastery; the outlines of the monastic cloister, curious first floor Abbot’s Chapel, are visible on the walls beyond the Abbot's House. While the dissolution of the Benedictine Monastery of Sherborne in 1539 had an impact on administration and finances, Sherborne School remained in continuous operation, as evidenced by extant documents including the Abbey churchwardens' accounts for 1542, which record a rent received from the school, conclusively from a note on the certificate for Dorset under the Chantries Act, dated 14 January 1548, which records the school at Sherborne as continuatur quousque. On 29 March 1550 a formal instruction was issued by King Edward VI to re-found Sherborne School together with a good endowment of lands that the school might endure. A beautifully engrossed Royal Charter was sealed on 13 May 1550, under which the school was to have a headmaster and usher for the education of boys, a board of twenty governors under a warden.
A further note of continuity was struck when the last headmaster of Sherborne under the old foundation, William Gibson, was appointed as the first headmaster under the new foundation. When Edward VI re-founded Sherborne, he granted the school an endowment of valuable lands which belonged to abolished Chantries in the churches of Martock, Lytchett Matravers and the Free Chapel of Thornton in the parish of Marnhull; the lands with which the Chantries were endowed are predominantly in Dorset in the manors of: It has been said that nowhere else in England is the connection of the present with the past more pleasingly marked than at Sherborne School. Established in 1977, Sherborne International is an independent co-educational boarding school and governed by Sherborne School, for those from non-British educational backgrounds who wish to improve their English language skills before moving on to study at boarding schools elsewhere in the United Kingdom, it is located in Sherborne, occupying its own campus, Newell Grange, while sharing some facilities with Sherborne School.
In 2009 Sherborne founded Sherborne Qatar Prep School in Doha, followed by Sherborne Qatar Senior School in 2012. In 2005, 50 of the country's leading independent schools, including Sherborne, were found guilty of running an illegal price-fixing cartel, which had allowed them to drive up fees for thousands of parents; each school was required to pay a nominal penalty of £10,000. All schools involved in the scandal agreed to make ex-gratia payments, totalling £3 million, into a trust; the trust was designed to benefit pupils who attended the schools during the period in respect of which fee information was shared. However, Jean Scott, the head of the Independent Schools Council, said that independent schools had always been exempt from anti-cartel rules applied to business, were following a long-established procedure in sharing the information with each other, were unaware of the change to the law, she wrote to John Vickers, the OFT director-general, saying, "They are not a group of businessmen meeting behind closed doors to fi
The Albany Courthouse is found in the Albany Courthouse Complex known as the Albany Justice Complex, a series of buildings situated on Stirling Terrace and Collie Streets in Albany in the Great Southern region of Western Australia. Heritage buildings found on the site include the Albany Courthouse, Gaolkeepers House and Residence 1845; the courthouse was built by Charles Layton. It was decided to build the courthouse on the site of the old state school, which had to be demolished. Building commenced in 1896 with the laying of the foundation stone on 29 December 1896 by Frederick Piesse; the building was to take nine months to complete but was delayed in 1897 when the supply of bricks was exhausted. Construction was completed on 7 February 1898 and the building was opened the acting Premier, Edward Wittenoom, it is a two storey building made from granite and red brick with rounded front corners and granite arched convolute doorways. The roof is covered with grey tiles with brick chimneys; the building also contained a police station and for offices for the Public Works Department.
The court was the most expensive of the regional courts built during the gold boom, only Geraldton and Coolgardie courts, that were combined with other Government offices, having grander buildings. The courts in Perth had to wait until 1903 to outshine the Albany building when the Supreme Court building was completed. In 1908 a lockup and keeper's residence were constructed behind the court. A garage and wood shed were added in 1945 and the building was connected to the town sewer system in 1957. Following the construction of a new police station in 1966 the police offices were taken over by the bailiff. A major renovation was carried out in 1978 with a second court room being added and the offices being redesigned. List of places on the State Register of Heritage Places in the City of Albany
The Age is a daily newspaper, published in Melbourne, since 1854. Owned and published by Nine, The Age serves Victoria but is available for purchase in Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and border regions of South Australia and southern New South Wales, it is delivered in both hardcopy and online formats. The newspaper shares many articles with other Fairfax Media metropolitan daily newspapers, such as The Sydney Morning Herald; as at February 2017, The Age had an average weekday circulation of 88,000, increasing to 152,000 on Saturdays. The Sunday Age had a circulation of 123,000; these represented year-on-year declines of somewhere from 8% to 9%. The Age's website, according to third-party web analytics providers Alexa and SimilarWeb, is the 44th and 58th most visited website in Australia as of July 2015. SimilarWeb rates the site as the seventh most visited news website in Australia, attracting more than 7 million visitors per month; the Age was founded by three Melbourne businessmen, the brothers John and Henry Cooke, who had arrived from New Zealand in the 1840s, Walter Powell.
The first edition appeared on 17 October 1854. The venture was not a success, in June 1856 the Cookes sold the paper to Ebenezer Syme, a Scottish-born businessman, James McEwan, an ironmonger and founder of McEwans & Co, for 2,000 pounds at auction; the first edition under the new owners was on 17 June 1856. From its foundation the paper was self-consciously liberal in its politics: "aiming at a wide extension of the rights of free citizenship and a full development of representative institutions," and supporting "the removal of all restrictions upon freedom of commerce, freedom of religion and—to the utmost extent, compatible with public morality—upon freedom of personal action."Ebenezer Syme was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly shortly after buying The Age, his brother David Syme soon came to dominate the paper and managerially. When Ebenezer died in 1860, David became editor-in-chief, a position he retained until his death in 1908, although a succession of editors did the day-to-day editorial work.
In 1891, Syme bought out Ebenezer's heirs and McEwan's and became sole proprietor. He built up The Age into Victoria's leading newspaper. In circulation, it soon overtook its rivals The Herald and The Argus, by 1890 it was selling 100,000 copies a day, making it one of the world's most successful newspapers. Under Syme's control The Age exercised enormous political power in Victoria, it supported liberal politicians such as Graham Berry, George Higinbotham and George Turner, other leading liberals such as Alfred Deakin and Charles Pearson furthered their careers as The Age journalists. Syme was a free trader, but converted to protectionism through his belief that Victoria needed to develop its manufacturing industries behind tariff barriers. In the 1890s, The Age was a leading supporter of Australian federation and of the White Australia policy. After Syme's death the paper remained in the hands of his three sons, with his eldest son Herbert Syme becoming general manager until his death in 1939.
Syme's will prevented the sale of any equity in the paper during his sons' lifetimes, an arrangement designed to protect family control but which had the effect of starving the paper of investment capital for 40 years. Under the management of Sir Geoffrey Syme, his chosen editors Gottlieb Schuler and Harold Campbell, The Age failed to modernise, lost market share to The Argus and to the tabloid The Sun News-Pictorial, although its classified advertisement sections kept the paper profitable. By the 1940s, the paper's circulation was smaller than it had been in 1900, its political influence declined. Although it remained more liberal than the conservative Argus, it lost much of its distinct political identity; the historian Sybil Nolan writes: "Accounts of The Age in these years suggest that the paper was second-rate, outdated in both its outlook and appearance. Walker described a newspaper which had fallen asleep in the embrace of the Liberal Party, it is criticised not only for its increasing conservatism, but for its failure to keep pace with innovations in layout and editorial technique so demonstrated in papers like The Sun News-Pictorial and The Herald."
In 1942, David Syme's last surviving son, Oswald Syme, took over the paper. He modernised the paper's appearance and standards of news coverage. In 1948, convinced the paper needed outside capital, he persuaded the courts to overturn his father's will and floated David Syme and Co. as a public company, selling 400,000 pounds worth of shares, enabling a badly needed technical modernisation of the newspaper's production. A takeover attempt by the Warwick Fairfax family, publishers of The Sydney Morning Herald, was beaten off; this new lease on life allowed The Age to recover commercially, in 1957 it received a great boost when The Argus ceased publication. Oswald Syme retired in 1964, his grandson Ranald Macdonald became chairman of the company, he was the first chairman to hand over full control of the paper to a professional editor from outside the Syme family. This was Graham Perkin, appointed in 1966, who radically changed the paper's format and shifted its editorial line from the rather conservative liberalism of the Symes to a new "left liberalism" characterised by attention to issues such as race and the environment, opposition to White Australia and the death penalty.
It became more s