click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Digambara

Digambara is one of the two major schools of Jainism, the other being Śvētāmbara. The word Digambara means "sky-clad", refers to their traditional monastic practice of neither possessing nor wearing any clothes; the Digambara and Svetambara traditions have had historical differences ranging from their dress code, their temples and iconography, attitude towards Jain nuns, their legends and the texts they consider as important. Digambara monks cherish the virtue of non-possession of any material goods, they own a begging bowl. They traditionally live and travel naked, receive donated food with open palms; the monks carry a picchi, a broom made up of fallen peacock feathers for removing and thus saving the life of insects in their path or before they sit. The Digambara literature can be traced only to the 1st-millennium CE, with its oldest surviving sacred text being the mid 2nd-century Satkhandagama of Dharasena. One of the most important scholar-monks of the Digambara tradition was Kundakunda. Digambara Jain communities are found in basadis of Karnataka, parts of south Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh.

According to Jeffery D. Long – a scholar of Hindu and Jain studies, less than one fifth of all Jains in India have a Digambara heritage. According to Zimmer, the word Digambara is a combination of two Sanskrit words: dik and ambara, referring to those whose garments are of the element that fills the four quarters of space. In 1943, Heinrich Zimmer proposed that the Greek records of 4th-century BC mention gymnosophists which may have links to the tradition of "nude ascetics" claimed by the Digambaras. In 2011, Patrick Olivelle stated that the context in which the Greek records mention gymnosophists include ritual suicide by cremation traceable to ancient Brahmanism, rather than the traditional Jain ritual of suicide by starvation. Dundas talks about the archeological evidences which indicate that Jain monks moved from the practice of total nudity towards wearing clothes in period. Tirthankara statues found in Mathura and dated to 2nd-century CE or after are naked; the oldest Tirthankara statue wearing a cloth is dated in 5th century CE.

Digamabara statues of tirthankara belonging to Gupta period has half-closed eyes. The Digambaras and Svetambaras disagree on. According to Digambaras, they are the original followers of Mahavira and Svetambaras branched off in the time of Bhadrabahu when their forecasted twelve-year famine triggered their migration from central India. One group of Jain monks headed west and north towards Rajasthan, while the second group headed south towards Karnataka; the former became Svetambaras and retained their "heretic" beliefs and practices such as wearing "white clothes" they adopted there, say the Digambaras. In contrast, according to Svetambaras, they are the original followers, Digambaras arose 609 years after the death of Mahavira because of an arrogant man named Sivabhuti who became a Jain monk in a fit of pique after a fight at home, he is accused of starting the Digambara Jain tradition with what Svetambara call as "eight concealments", of rejecting Jain texts preserved by the Svetambara tradition, misunderstanding the Jain ideology including those related to nuns and clothes.

Neither of these explanations can be found in early non-Jain texts. The earliest version of this Digambara story appears in the 10th-century CE, while the earliest version of the Svetambara story appears in the 5th-century CE. According to Digambara texts, after liberation of the Lord Mahavira, three Anubaddha Kevalīs attained Kevalajñāna sequentially – Gautama Gaņadhara, Acharya Sudharma, Jambusvami in next 62 years. During the next hundred years, five Āchāryas had complete knowledge of the scriptures, as such, called Śruta Kevalīs, the last of them being Āchārya Bhadrabahu. Spiritual lineage of heads of monastic orders is known as Pattavali. Digambara tradition consider Dharasena to be the 33rd teacher in succession of Gautama, 683 years after the nirvana of Mahavira. In the Digambara tradition, the following lineage of teachers are revered: Mahavira, Kundakunda, Umaswami, Siddhasena Divakara,Pujyapada, Virasena, Nemichandra. Kundakunda is considered the most significant scholar monk of the Digambara tradition of Jainism.

He authored Prakrit texts such as the Pravacanasāra. Other prominent Acharyas of this tradition were, Virasena and Siddhasena Divakara; the Satkhandagama and Kasayapahuda have major significance in the Digambara tradition. The Digambara sect of Jainism rejects the texts and canonical literature of the Svetambara sect, they believe that the words of Mahavira neither could be recorded. The original teachings went through a rapid period of decline, state the Digambaras, Svetambara claims of preserving the sacred knowledge and ancient angas is false. According to the Digambaras, their 33rd achārya was Dharasena who knew one anga, he taught these to Pushpadanta and Bhutabali, 683 years after the moksha of Mahavira; that anga was lost with the death of those two. Dharasena's teachings that have survived are Ṣaṭkhaṅḍāgama and Kasayapahuda, which were written on palm leaves near a cave in Mount Girnar and a copy of which with a 12th-century commentary came to Tulu Nadu; this has survived as the Mudbidri manuscripts, which were used by regional Jains not for reading and study, but as an object of devotiona

Julie Fernandez

Julie Mare Fernandez is a British actress and model best known for her role as Brenda in the BBC comedy The Office. Fernandez uses a wheelchair, she was a student at Treloar School in Hampshire. Her father is Argentinean and her mother is English. At the age of 14, Fernandez appeared. In October 2012, following a series of sexual abuse allegations made against the series' late host Jimmy Savile, Fernandez claimed that Savile had touched her inappropriately during the recording, her acting career began in 1992 when she starred as Vanessa Lockhead in the short-lived BBC soap opera Eldorado. She went on to play Sean Maguire's girlfriend in BBC1 drama Dangerfield before landing the role of Brenda in The Office. In 2004, Fernandez formed a television production company called The Wheelie Good Company and spent the time since working on new programme ideas; the company was set up by Fernandez to improve the representation of disabled people in the media but no longer focus on disability-related material.

She appeared. Fernandez runs an arts and craft small business in Cambridgeshire, Bee Crafty, specialising in patchwork and quilting. Fernandez is married to Andrew Elliott, she and her husband are foster parents. Fernandez is a disability rights activist in the United Kingdom and has supported campaigns for the Disability Rights Commission and Scope, she set up The Disability Foundation, a British pan-disability charity boasting one of the largest disability information databases in the UK. In January 2003, she co-hosted the opening ceremony for the European Year of People with Disabilities in Athens. Julie Fernandez's Official Website Julie Fernandez on IMDb Website of Julie Fernandez's craft shop

CNBC Arabiya

CNBC Arabiya is an Arab free-to-air television channel. It covers international affairs from an Arab economic perspective. CNBC Arabiya's daily program schedule features the region's business news summary, including regional stock market summary, regional corporate news, news about women in business, news about green businesses, personal finance, it includes developments from Europe and America, concentrating on how they affect the Middle East. It is the only business-focused channel that delivers live regional market data in the Middle East market, providing both a ticker and analytical reporting; the channel offers an interactive website at cnbcarabia.com. CNBC Arabiya's broadcast facilities are based at Dubai Media City in the United Arab Emirates. There are additional bureaus in Abu Dhabi, Riyadh, Kuwait and Qatar. In addition, the channel has correspondents reporting from London and Singapore, the headquarters of the main European and Asian channel of CNBC. In Bahrain, CNBC Arabiya shared the same bureau with CNBC Europe and both located in Manama, the capital city of Bahrain.

Since that, CNBC Arabiya now offering the Arabian market reports in dual languages and English for the European channel. Official Site Interview with Mohamed AbdelRahman from CNBC Arabia Company profile

Hennstedt (Amt Kirchspielslandgemeinde)

Kirchspielslandgemeinde Hennstedt was an Amt in the district Dithmarschen in Schleswig-Holstein, in northern Germany. Its administration was in the village Hennstedt. In January 2008, it was merged with the Ämter Kirchspielslandgemeinde Lunden and Kirchspielslandgemeinde Tellingstedt to form the Amt Kirchspielslandgemeinden Eider, it consisted of the following municipalities: Barkenholm Bergewöhrden Delve Fedderingen Glüsing Hägen Hennstedt Hollingstedt Kleve Linden Norderheistedt Schlichting Süderheistedt Wiemerstedt

Louis le Comte

Louis le Comte Louis-Daniel Lecomte, was a French Jesuit who participated in the 1687 French Jesuit mission to China under Jean de Fontaney. He arrived in China on 7 February 1688, he returned to France in 1691 as Procurator of the Jesuits. His Nouveau mémoire sur l'état présent de la Chine, published in Paris in 1696, caused great debate within the Chinese Rites Controversy. By 1696, he had been appointed Mathematician to the King of France. Jesuit China missions N. Standaert The interweaving of rituals: funerals in the cultural exchange between China and Europe, University of Washington Press, 2008, ISBN 0-295-98823-1, ISBN 978-0-295-98823-8 Xiping Zhang, Deshu Ding, Jinping Ye, Xiping Zhang, Deshu Ding, Jinping Ye Following the Steps of Matteo Ricci to China, published by 五洲传播出版社, Beijing, 2006 ISBN 7-5085-0982-X, ISBN 978-7-5085-0982-2

Paul Williams (architect)

Paul Revere Williams, FAIA was an African American architect based in Los Angeles, California. He practiced in Southern California and designed the homes of numerous celebrities, including Frank Sinatra, Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz, Lon Chaney, Barbara Stanwyck and Charles Correll, he designed many public and private buildings. Orphaned at four years of age, Williams was the only African-American student in his elementary school, he studied at the Los Angeles School of Art and Design and at the Los Angeles branch of the New York Beaux-Arts Institute of Design Atelier, subsequently working as a landscape architect. He went on to attend the University of Southern California, designing several residential buildings while still a student there. Williams became a certified architect in 1921, the first certified African-American architect west of the Mississippi, he married Della Mae Givens on June 1917, at the First AME Church in Los Angeles. They had three children: Paul Revere Williams Jr.. Williams won an architectural competition at age 25, three years opened his own office.

Known as an outstanding draftsman, he perfected the skill of rendering drawings "upside down." This skill was developed because in the 1920s many of his white clients felt uncomfortable sitting directly next to a black man. He learned to draft upside down so that he could sit across the desk from his clients who would see his drafts right-side-up. Struggling to gain attention, he served on the first Los Angeles City Planning Commission in 1920. From 1921 through 1924, Williams worked for Los Angeles architect John C. Austin becoming chief draftsman, before establishing his own office. In 1923, Williams became the first African-American member of the American Institute of Architects. In 1939, he won the AIA Award of Merit for his design of the MCA Building in Beverly Hills. A. Quincy Jones was an architect, claimed to have hired Williams and collaborated with him on projects in Palm Springs, including the Palm Springs Tennis Club and the Town & Country and Romanoff's on the Rocks restaurants. During World War II, Williams worked for the Navy Department as an architect.

In 1951, Williams won the Omega Psi Phi fraternity, Man of the Year award and in 1953 he received the Spingarn Medal from the NAACP for his outstanding contributions as an architect and member of the African-American community. Williams received honorary doctorates from Lincoln University of Missouri, Howard University, the Tuskegee Institute. In 1956, he won an award for service, from Wisdom magazine, for "contributions to knowledge and distinguished service to mankind." In 1957, he became the first black member to be inducted into the AIA's College of Fellows. An April 2, 1957 letter from the Executive Secretary of AIA, offered Williams the honor of Fellowship and membership in the College of Fellows "for your notable contribution in Public Service." Book: The Small Home of Tomorrow, with a successor volume New Homes for Today. Essay: "I Am a Negro," American Magazine. USC listed him among its distinguished alumni in the television commercial for the school shown during its football games in 2004.

The American Institute of Architects gave him its Gold Medal in 2017. "Our profession needs more architects like Paul Williams," wrote William J. Bates, FAIA, in his support of William's nomination for the AIA Gold Medal. "His pioneering career has encouraged others to cross a chasm of historic biases. I can't think of another architect, his recognition demonstrates a significant shift in the equity for the profession and the institute." Williams designed more than 2,000 private homes, most of which were in the Hollywood Hills and the Mid-Wilshire portion of Los Angeles. He designed at least one home in the San Rafael district along with many others in Pasadena and La Cañada Flintridge; the Linda Vista Area of Pasadena has many Spanish Colonial and French Country homes of his design including many commissioned by business magnates and actors. His most famous homes were for celebrities, he was well regarded for his mastery of various architectural styles. Modern interpretations of Tudor-revival, French Chateau, French Country, Mediterranean architecture were all within his vernacular.

One notable home, which he designed for Jay Paley in Holmby Hills, the current residence of Barron Hilton, was used as the'Colby mansion' in exterior scenes for The Colbys television series. Williams's client list included Frank Sinatra, Bill "Bojangles" Robinson, Lon Chaney, Sr. Lucille Ball, Julie London, Tyrone Power, Barbara Stanwyck, Bert Lahr, Charles Correll, Will Hays, Zasu Pitts, Danny Thomas. In contrast to these splendid mansions, Williams co-designed with Hilyard Robinson the first federally funded public housing projects of the post-war period and the Pueblo del Rio project in southeast Los Angeles. Williams famously remarked upon the bitter irony of the fact that most of the homes he designed, whose construction he oversaw, were on parcels whose deeds included segregation covenants barring blacks from purchasing them. A number of his works are listed on the National Register of Historic Pl