Australia A national rugby union team
Australia A is a national representative rugby union football team of Australian rugby union. The last match played under the Australia A name was in 2008, matches played by Australia A were used as a stepping-stone to Wallaby selection, with the team playing at smaller venues than the Wallabies. Aspiring Wallaby players were given a chance to impress selectors during these games, in the past, the team would play touring sides, such as the British and Irish Lions, when they visited Australia. Australia was originally invited to take part in the IRB Pacific Nations Cup but decided against sending a team, Australia hosted two games in the inaugural 2006 tournament. Australia A played two matches against Fiji after the 2006 tournament, and joined the competition in 2007, in the 2007 Pacific Nations Cup, Australia A played 5 matches for 3 wins,1 draw, and 1 loss. The team finished second in the tournament won by the Junior All Blacks, in the 2008 Pacific Nations Cup, Australia A played 5 matches for 4 wins and 1 loss.
The team finished second in the tournament won by New Zealand Māori, at the end of the 2008, the Australian Rugby Union decided to scrap the Australia A team, citing financial constraints. Australia withdrew from the 2009 tournament, for the 2010 England tour to Australia, the ARU arranged for the Australian Barbarians Rugby Club to play two matches against the visiting England national team. This side was nominated as the national team and was, as such. The Australian Barbarians played a pre-World Cup friendly against Canada in 2011, the Wallabies Eight Wallabies to start for Australia A, as Campbell debuts as captain Strong team named for Australia A clash with Japan
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania. The name Melbourne refers to an urban agglomeration spanning 9,900 km2, the metropolis is located on the large natural bay of Port Phillip and expands into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon mountain ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley. It has a population of 4,641,636 as of 2016, and its inhabitants are called Melburnians. Founded by free settlers from the British Crown colony of Van Diemens Land on 30 August 1835, in what was the colony of New South Wales, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837. It was named Melbourne by the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Richard Bourke, in honour of the British Prime Minister of the day, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. It was officially declared a city by Queen Victoria, to whom Lord Melbourne was close, in 1847, during the Victorian gold rush of the 1850s, it was transformed into one of the worlds largest and wealthiest cities.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as the interim seat of government until 1927. It is a financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region. It is recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a centre for street art, music. It was the host city of the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games, the main passenger airport serving the metropolis and the state is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia. The Port of Melbourne is Australias busiest seaport for containerised and general cargo, Melbourne has an extensive transport network. The main metropolitan train terminus is Flinders Street Station, and the regional train. Melbourne is home to Australias most extensive network and has the worlds largest urban tram network. Before the arrival of settlers, humans had occupied the area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years. At the time of European settlement, it was inhabited by under 2000 hunter-gatherers from three indigenous tribes, the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong.
The area was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and it would be 30 years before another settlement was attempted. Batman selected a site on the bank of the Yarra River. Batman returned to Launceston in Tasmania, in early August 1835 a different group of settlers, including John Pascoe Fawkner, left Launceston on the ship Enterprize
Super Rugby is the preeminent professional mens rugby union football competition in the Southern Hemisphere and Japan. By 2006, matches were being broadcast in 41 countries, SANZAAR is the body that administers Super Rugby, and has the Australian, New Zealand, South African and Argentine rugby unions as its sole members. The organisation was formed in 1995 to establish and run the Super 12, prior to 2011, Super Rugby was a round-robin competition where each team played with every other team once, a team had six or seven home games, and six or seven away games each. The winner received four points, if the game was a draw two points were awarded to each team. The Rugby union bonus points system was used, where any team scoring four or more tries, and/or losing by seven points or less. In 2016, the try bonus changed, a team now has to score three more tries than their opponents. The top four teams at the end of the round-robin phase played semi-finals – the first placed team hosting the fourth placed team, the two winners played the final at the home ground of the top surviving seed.
There were 91 regular season games in total, games were held over 14 weekends with each team receiving one bye. From 2011 –2015 the format changed, with each country forming its own conference, each team within a conference plays each of the other teams in its conference twice, once at home and once away. Each team plays four out of the five teams each of the other conferences once. Competition points are awarded on a basis as before. The four lower ranking teams are paired in two sudden death games, the winners of two games each play one of the two top ranked teams. Those winners play for the championship, in 2016 the format changed with three more teams joining. There are four conferences with Africa getting two conferences, the finals now have eight teams with each conference winner getting a home quarter final. They are joined by four wild card teams, three will be from the Australasian group and one from the South African group, before 1996, a number of transnational competitions involving regional and provincial rugby union teams had taken shape in the southern hemisphere.
The earliest of these was the South Pacific Championship, which was launched in 1986, after the demise of the South Pacific Championship, with no tournament played in 1991, the competition was relaunched as the Super 6 in 1992. In 1993, the Super Six competition was revamped and expanded into the Super 10 tournament, the inaugural competition featured the following teams, Auckland and North Harbour, Natal and Northern Transvaal and New South Wales and Western Samoa. The Super 10 was won by Transvaal in 1993, and by Queensland in 1994 and 1995, the official declaration of professionalism in rugby union in August 1995 led to a restructuring of the Super 10 competition
The Bledisloe Cup is a rugby union competition between the national teams of Australia and New Zealand that has been competed for since the 1930s. New Zealand have had the most success, winning the trophy for the 44th time in 2016, there is some dispute as to when the first Bledisloe Cup match was played. The Australian Rugby Union contend that the one-off 1931 match played at Eden Park was first, the New Zealand Rugby Union believe that the first match was when New Zealand toured Australia in 1932. Between 1931 and 1981 it was contested irregularly in the course of rugby tours between the two countries, New Zealand won it 19 times and Australia four times in this period including in 1949 when Australia won it for the first time on New Zealand soil. The trophy itself was apparently lost during this period and reportedly rediscovered in a Melbourne store room, in the years 1982 to 1995 it was contested annually, sometimes as a series of three matches and other times in a single match. During these years New Zealand won it 11 times and Australia three times, since 1996 the cup has been contested as part of the annual Tri Nations tournament.
Until 1998 the cup was contested in a three series, the two Tri Nations matches between these sides and a third match. New Zealand won these series in 1996 and 1997, and Australia won it in 1998. In 1996 and from 1999 through 2005, the match was not played, during those years, Australia. If both teams won one of games, or if both games were drawn, the cup was retained by its current holder. The non-holder had to win the two games 2–0 or 1–0 to regain the Cup,2006 saw the return of the 3-game contest for the Bledisloe Cup as the Tri Nations series was extended so that each team played each other 3 times. The 2007 Cup, reverted to the two-game contest because the Tri Nations was abbreviated that year to minimise interference with the preparations for the World Cup. The Hong Kong match, which drew a crowd of 39,000 to see the All Blacks defeat the Wallabies 19–14, even before the match, the two countries rugby federations were considering taking Cup matches to the United States and Japan in 2009 and 2010.
Japan hosted a fourth Bledisloe Test match on 31 October 2009, each team is expected to clear at least A$3.8 million/NZ$5 million from the Tokyo match. However a 2010 fourth match was set in Hong Kong and has struggled to attract crowds, the three-match format for the Bledisloe Cup continued in 2012, with the first two matches taking place as part of the 2012 Rugby Championship. Since 1996, Fox Sports has televised it and they jointly televised it with Seven Network between 1996 to 2010, Nine Network in 2011 and 2012 and Network Ten since 2013. History of rugby matches between Australia and New Zealand Laurie OReilly Cup Rugby union trophies and awards
St Joseph's College, Gregory Terrace
St Josephs College, Gregory Terrace is a Greater Public Schools private, day school for boys only, located in Spring Hill, an inner suburb of Brisbane, Australia. Founded on 5 July 1875 by three Irish Christian Brothers, the College follows the Edmund Rice tradition, and currently caters for about 1436 students from Years 5 to 12, an Old Boy, Hugh Lunn, wrote books about his life at St Josephs College, Gregory Terrace. Terrace was founded in 1875 as both a day school and a boarding school, the original colours for the school were Navy Blue and White, adopted from the Congregational Crest of the Christian Brothers. In 1891 the boarding school was moved to Nudgee and in time became what is now Nudgee College, the original Gregory Terrace Navy and White rugby jersey was adopted by the Brothers Old Boys Rugby Club upon formation in 1905 and is still worn by them today. At the time the Christian Brothers were changing their Motto and Crest and Brother Reidy decided to change the Terrace colours to Black, the rivalry between the original school and the offshoot is legendary and no more so than at the annual GPS rugby match.
The game attracts large crowds and is contested between the two schools. The Battle of the Colours adds to old school tie passion that surrounds the traditional rivalry, during the January floods, St Josephs College, Gregory Terrace had their playing fields at Tennyson, inundated with toxic waste and water from the nearby Rocklea Fruit Market. No sports were able to be played at Tennyson during the 2011 school year and a refurbishment and rebuild involved the canteen and Boatshed. Soil and turf were removed and completely relaid due to nature of the debris. During 2011 Terrace played only one game, at Brisbane Grammar Sports ground. Tennyson reopened in 2012 and in 2014 is building a new grandstand, there are nine houses at Terrace, Buckley, Magee, Reidy, Treacy and Xavier. Originally six,3 new houses were introduced at the beginning of the 2009 school year, Barrett House - after Br James Barrett, the founding headmaster of the College, who arrived in Australia in 1871. Kearney House - after Br James Kearney who came to Australia in 1911 and he was the author of the School Song.
Mahoney House - after the Mahoney Family, including several Rhodes Scholars, Reidy House - after Br Mark Reidy, who spent 23 years at Terrace, for 16 of which he was headmaster. Treacy House - after Br Patrick Ambrose Treacy, who in charge of the three Brothers who restarted the mission of the Christian Brothers in Australia in Melbourne in 1868, Windsor House - after the Windsor Family. Dr Henry Windsor he became an eminent benefactor of Terrace when he arrived in Australia, Buckley House – after Br Barry Buckley, Headmaster at Terrace from 1973–1981 and a past student 1951-1952. Br Buckley is highly respected by the community for the significant contribution he made during his time as Headmaster, Br Buckley was made a Member of the Order of Australia in the 2008 Australia Day Honours List for his contribution to education and the church. Magee House – after Br Ted Magee, Headmaster at Terrace from 1990-1992, Xavier House – to acknowledge the long history of the St Francis Xavier Province
Union Sportive des Arlequins Perpignanais, generally referred to as USA Perpignan, is a French rugby union club that plays in the city of Perpignan in Pyrénées-Orientales. The club currently competes in the Rugby Pro D2, the level of the French league system. The club was founded in 1902 as AS Perpignan, renamed US Perpignan in 1919, Perpignan plays at Stade Aimé Giral. The club wears red and gold colours derived from the Catalan Senyera, the club was established in 1902 as AS Perpignan. It would be in 1914 that the club would go on to make its first ever final appearance, on 3 May, Perpignan defeated Stadoceste Tarbais 8–7 at Stade des Ponts Jumeaux in Toulouse in front of 15,000 people. Several of these champions were killed some months in World War I and, to honour their sacrifice, four years after the championship in 1914, the club was renamed as US Perpignan. Under the new name, US Perpignan made it to the final of the French championship three seasons after the change. On 17 April 1921, Perpignan defeated Stade Toulousain 5–0 at Parc des Sports de Sauclières in Béziers, three seasons later, the finalists of 1921 would meet again in the final of 1924, though this time Toulouse won the game 3–0 in Bordeaux.
The success continued throughout the 1920s, and following the defeat of the 1924 season. They faced US Carcassonne in Narbonne, and defeated them 5–0 to win the 1925 Championship, for the third season in a row, US Perpignan made it to the final. The opponents were Stade Toulousain once again, the two sides had defeated each other once in a final in recent years. After their prominence in the mid-1920s, Perpignans final appearance in 1926 was their last for nearly a decade, Perpignans next final appearance came in 1935 against Biarritz at Stade des Ponts Jumeaux in Toulouse on the 12th of May, with Biarritz winning 3–0. That season they won the Challenge Yves du Manoir. Three seasons Perpignan were again involved in the Championship final against Biarritz, the final was played on 8 May, and this time, Perpignan defeated Biarritz, winning 11–6 to claim their first Championship since 1921. They were runners-up of the Challenge Yves-du-Manoir that same season as well, the success continued throughout the late 1930s, with Perpignan again being runners-up of the Challenge Yves du Manoir in 1936.
It was the 1936 season that Biarritz and Perpignan would face off in the Championship, both of Perpignans last two final appearances were against Biarritz, and both Perpignan and Biarritz had won one each against each other. The final took place on 30 April, and Biarritz turned out to be victorious, two years later, Perpignan were in the final of the Challenge Yves du Manoir, but became runners-up. Their next final appearance would not be until the season of 1944, Perpignan played Aviron Bayonnais at Parc des Princes in Paris on 26 March to decide who would be the champions of France
Victoria is a state in southeast Australia. Victoria is Australias most densely populated state and its second-most populous state overall, most of its population is concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australias second-largest city. Prior to British European settlement, the area now constituting Victoria was inhabited by a number of Aboriginal peoples. With Great Britain having claimed the entire Australian continent east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria was included in the wider colony of New South Wales. The first settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, and much of what is now Victoria was included in the Port Phillip District in 1836, Victoria was officially created as a separate colony in 1851, and achieved self-government in 1855. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate, at state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
Victoria is currently governed by the Labor Party, with Daniel Andrews the current Premier, the personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria, currently Linda Dessau. Local government is concentrated in 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, Victorias total gross state product is ranked second in Australia, although Victoria is ranked fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne is home to a number of museums, art galleries and theatres and is described as the sporting capital of Australia. The Melbourne Cricket Ground is the largest stadium in Australia, and the host of the 1956 Summer Olympics, Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, having been founded in 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, who had been on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851.
The first British settlement in the known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. In the year 1826 Colonel Stewart, Captain S. Wright and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. Victorias next settlement was at Portland, on the south west coast of what is now Victoria, edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, from settlement the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after the now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe. And in 1838 Geelong was officially declared a town, despite earlier white settlements dating back to 1826, days later, still in 1851 gold was discovered near Ballarat, and subsequently at Bendigo. Later discoveries occurred at sites across Victoria
British and Irish Lions
The British and Irish Lions is a rugby union team selected from players eligible for any of the Home Nations – the national sides of England, Ireland and Wales. The Lions are a Test side, and generally select international players, the side tours every four years, with these rotating among Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa. The 2009 Test series was lost 2–1 to South Africa, while the 2013 Test series was won 2–1 over Australia, from 1888 onwards combined rugby sides from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland toured the Southern Hemisphere. The first tour was a venture, and was undertaken without official backing. The six subsequent visits enjoyed a degree of support from the authorities, before the 1910 South Africa tour. In 1949 the four Home Unions formally created a Tours Committee and for the first time, the 1950s tours saw high win rates in provincial games, but the Test series were typically lost or drawn. The winning series in 1971 and 1974 changed this pattern, the last tour of the amateur age took place in 1993.
The multi-nation team that is named the British and Irish Lions first came into existence in 1888 as the Shaw & Shrewsbury Team. It was primarily English in composition but contained players from Scotland, the name British Isles became associated with the team. When the team first emerged in the century, it represented the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The team continued to exist after the Irish war of independence and civil war, from the 2001 tour of Australia, the official name British and Irish Lions has been used. The team is referred to simply as the Lions. As the Lions represent two states, they do not have a national anthem. For more than half a century, the Lions have been synonymous with the red jersey that sports the amalgamated crests of the four unions, prior to 1950 the strip went through a number of significantly different formats. In 1888, the promoter of the first expedition to Australia and New Zealand, Arthur Shrewsbury, demanded something that would be good material, the result was a jersey in thick red and blue hoops, worn above white shorts and dark socks.
The tours to South Africa in 1891 and 1896 retained the red and blue theme but this time as red and white hooped jerseys and dark blue shorts and socks. The 1899 trip to Australia saw a reversion to red and blue jerseys, but with the used in thick hoops. The shorts remained blue, as did the socks although a white flash was added to the latter, in 1903, the South Africa tour followed on from the 1896 tour, with red and white hooped jerseys
Japan is a sovereign island nation in Eastern Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asia Mainland and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea, the kanji that make up Japans name mean sun origin. 日 can be read as ni and means sun while 本 can be read as hon, or pon, Japan is often referred to by the famous epithet Land of the Rising Sun in reference to its Japanese name. Japan is an archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands. The four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, the country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions. Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one, the population of 127 million is the worlds tenth largest. Japanese people make up 98. 5% of Japans total population, approximately 9.1 million people live in the city of Tokyo, the capital of Japan. Archaeological research indicates that Japan was inhabited as early as the Upper Paleolithic period, the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions, mainly China, followed by periods of isolation, from the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shoguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a period of isolation in the early 17th century. The Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japan is a member of the UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the country has the worlds third-largest economy by nominal GDP and the worlds fourth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It is the worlds fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer, although Japan has officially renounced its right to declare war, it maintains a modern military with the worlds eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a country with a very high standard of living. Its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and the third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, in ancient China, Japan was called Wo 倭.
It was mentioned in the third century Chinese historical text Records of the Three Kingdoms in the section for the Wei kingdom, Wa became disliked because it has the connotation of the character 矮, meaning dwarf. The 倭 kanji has been replaced with the homophone Wa, meaning harmony, the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, which is pronounced Nippon or Nihon and literally means the origin of the sun. The earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, at the start of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan introduced their country as Nihon
Australia national rugby union team
The Australian national rugby union team is the representative side of Australia in rugby union. Australia have competed in all eight Rugby World Cups, and have won the World Cup on two occasions, in 1991 beating England in the final, and in 1999 when their opponents in the final were France. Australia lost in the final after extra time to England in the 2003 competition, Australia are governed by the Australian Rugby Union. Eleven former Australian players have been inducted into either the International Rugby Hall of Fame or the IRB Hall of Fame, three are members of the International Hall only, four are members of the IRB Hall only, and four are members of both Halls of Fame. In 1882 the Southern Rugby Football Union toured New Zealand, the New Zealand national team toured New South Wales in 1884 – defeating New South Wales in all three matches, and winning all nine matches on tour. The first tour by a British team took place in 1888, a British Isles team toured Australia and New Zealand, though no Test matches were played.
Although they had representatives from all four nations, the players were drawn mainly from England. The tour was not sanctioned by the Rugby Football Union as it was organised by entrepreneurs, in 1899 the first officially sanctioned British Isles team toured Australia. Four Tests were played between Australia and the British Isles, the Australian team for the first Test match consisted of six players from Queensland and nine from New South Wales. The first Test was played at the Sydney Cricket Ground and won 13–3 by Australia, the first Test between Australia and New Zealand was played on 15 August 1903 at the Sydney Cricket Ground. Despite Australia losing 22–3, this tour improved rugbys popularity in Australia and helped to increase attendances at matches in Sydney. In 1907 the New South Wales Rugby League was formed and star player Dally Messenger left the Rugby union for the rival code, the next year the first Australian team to tour the British Isles left Sydney. Newspapers in England initially gave the team the name Rabbits, the Australian players thought this nickname derogatory and replaced it with Wallabies.
Australias last Test before First World War was against New Zealand in July 1914, the war had a very negative effect on rugby union in Australia. This resulted in all but closed down in New South Wales. In Queensland regular competitions did not commence again until 1928 and this caused many players to switch to rugby league – which did not cease playing during the war. War hero Sir Edward Weary Dunlop played for Australia before World War II and he played on the side that was the first to win the Bledisloe Cup. The first Test to following World War Two was played at Carisbrook, Australia did not win on the three match tour, beaten 20–0 by New Zealand Maori, and losing 14–10 to the All Blacks the following week