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Digital Research

Digital Research, Inc. was a company created by Gary Kildall to market and develop his CP/M operating system and related 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit systems like MP/M, Concurrent DOS, FlexOS, Multiuser DOS, DOS Plus, DR DOS and GEM. It was the first large software company in the microcomputer world. Digital Research was based in Pacific Grove, California in Monterey, California. In 1972, Gary Kildall, an instructor at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, began working at Intel as a consultant under the business name Microcomputer Applications Associates. By 1974, he had developed Control Program/Monitor, or CP/M, the first disk operating system for microcomputers. In 1974 he incorporated as Intergalactic Digital Research, with his wife handling the business side of the operation; the company soon began operating under its shortened name Digital Research. The company's operating systems, starting with CP/M for 8080/Z80-based microcomputers, were the de facto standard of their era. Digital Research's product suite included the original 8-bit CP/M and its various offshoots like MP/M, a multi-tasking multi-user version of CP/M.

The first 16-bit system was CP/M-86, meant as direct competitor to MS-DOS. There followed the multi-tasking MP/M-86, Concurrent CP/M, a single-user version featuring virtual consoles from which applications could be launched to run concurrently. In May 1983 Digital Research announced that it would offer PC DOS versions of all of its languages and utilities, it remained influential, with US$45 million in 1983 sales making Digital Research the fourth-largest microcomputer software company. Admitting that it had "lost" the 8088 software market but hoped to succeed with the Intel 80286 and Motorola 68000, by 1984 the company formed a partnership with AT&T Corporation to develop software for Unix System V and sell its own and third-party products in retail stores. Jerry Pournelle warned that year, that "Many people of stature seem to have left or are leaving Digital Research. DR had better get its act together."Successive revisions of Concurrent CP/M incorporated MS-DOS API emulation, which added more support for DOS applications and the FAT file system.

These versions were named Concurrent DOS, with Concurrent PC DOS being the version adapted to run on IBM compatible PCs. In 1985, soon after the introduction of the 80286-based IBM PC/AT, Digital Research introduced a real-time system called Concurrent DOS 286, which evolved into the modular FlexOS; this exploited the greater memory addressing capability of the new CPU to provide a more flexible multi-tasking environment. There was a small but powerful set of system APIs, each with a synchronous and an asynchronous variant. Pipes were supported, all named resources could be aliased by setting environment variables; this system was to enjoy enduring favour in point-of-sale systems. Other successors of Concurrent DOS were Concurrent DOS XM and the 32-bit Concurrent DOS 386, Multiuser DOS. Digital Research's multi-user family of operating systems was sidelined by single-user offsprings DOS Plus and DR DOS; the latter system was marketed as a direct MS-DOS/PC DOS replacement with added functionality.

In order to achieve this, it gave up built-in support to run CP/M applications and was changed to use DOS-compatible internal structures. It became a successful product line in itself. Digital Research was purchased by Novell for US$80 million in 1991 for Novell to gain access to the operating system line. FlexOS had been adopted as the basis for Siemens S5-DOS/MT, IBM 4680 OS and 4690 OS, whereas Multiuser DOS evolved further into independent products like Datapac System Manager, IMS REAL/32 and REAL/NG. Continued development of the DR DOS line led to non-DRI products such as Novell PalmDOS, Novell DOS, Caldera OpenDOS and Dell RMK. In a parallel development Digital Research produced a selection of programming language compilers and interpreters for their OS-supported platforms, including C, Pascal, COBOL, FORTRAN, PL/I, PL/M, CBASIC, BASIC, Logo, they produced a microcomputer version of the GKS graphics standard called GSX, used this as the basis of their GEM GUI. Less known are their application programs, limited to the GSX-based DR DRAW, Dr. Halo for DOS and a small suite of GUI programs for GEM.

At the time the IBM Personal Computer was being developed, Digital Research's CP/M was the dominant operating system of the day. IBM asked Digital Research to supply a version of CP/M written for the Intel 8086 microprocessor as the standard operating system for the PC, which would use the code-compatible Intel 8088 chip. Digital Research, uneasy about the conditions related to making such an agreement with IBM, refused. Microsoft seized this opportunity to supply an OS, in addition to other software for the new IBM PC; when the IBM PC arrived in late 1981, it came with PC DOS, an OEM version of MS-DOS, developed from 86-DOS, which Microsoft had acquired for this purpose. By mid-1982, MS-DOS was marketed for use in hardware-compatible non-IBM computers; this one decision resulted in Microsoft becoming the leading name in computer software. This story is detailed from the point of view of Microsoft and IBM in the PBS series Triumph of the Nerds, from the point of view of Gary Kildall's friends and coworkers in The Computer Chronicles.

Digital Research developed CP/M-86 as an alternative to MS-DOS and it was made available through IBM in early 1982. The company created an MS-DOS clone with advanced features called DR DOS, which pressured Microsoft to further improve its own DOS

Xu Zhiyong

Xu Zhiyong is a Chinese civil rights activist and a lecturer at the Beijing University of Post and Telecommunications. He was one of the founders of the NGO Open Constitution Initiative and an active rights lawyer in China who helped those underprivileged, he is the icon of the New Citizens' Movement in China. In January 2014 he was sentenced to four years in prison for "gathering crowds to disrupt public order", he was detained again on 2020, in the southern city of Guangzhou. Xu was born in Minquan County, Henan Province in 1973, he is married to a journalist. Their daughter was born on January 2014, while Xu was in a detention center facing trial, he had been in hiding since late 2019 and was detained by Chinese police on February 15, 2020. Xu received his Bachelor of Law degree from Lanzhou University in 1994 and Doctor of Law degree from Peking University in 2002. In 2003, he was elected to the Haidian District People's Congress as an independent, he won the re-election in 2006. However, in the 2011 election, Xu's name was pulled off the candidate list, but he still gathered more than 3,500 votes out of 22,000 voters in his district.

Unlike other human rights activists, Xu and pushed his calls for political change and social justice in existing laws, his group has been regarded as cautious and conservative. In his recent interview before his arrest, he described his dream I wish our country could be a free and happy one; every citizen need not go against their conscience and can find their own place by their virtue and talents. In 2009, July 29, he was arrested at his home, detained by Chinese authorities on charges of tax evasion. At the same time Xu's colleague Zhuang Lu was arrested by authorities; the Open Constitution Initiative, which Xu co-founded, was fined 1.46 million RMB on July 14, 2009 for'dodging taxes' and was shut down by the authorities by declaring it "illegal". Xu Zhiyong was released on bail on August 23, 2009; the Australian newspaper The Age reported that the release of Xu, Zhuang and another Chinese dissident, Ilham Tohti, was in part due to pressure on Beijing from the administration of American President Barack Obama.

After Gong Meng was shut down, Xu Zhiyong and supporters adopted the name "Citizens" to continue their cause. In May 2012, Xu formally established the "New Citizens' Movement" and "New Citizens' Spirit" as the high-level concept of their activism. In 2013, Xu Zhiyong was placed under house arrest for more than three months, before being formally arrested on August 22, his trial started on Jan 22, 2014. Xu and his lawyer Zhang Qingfang remained silent throughout the trial to protest the violation of basic legal procedure. Xu's closing statement was cut short by the judge, but the text was circulated on the internet and raised tremendous support. On January 26, 2014, Xu was sentenced to four years in prison for "gathering crowds to disrupt public order". In February 2020, through postings on social media, Xu publicly asked Chinese Communist Party general secretary Xi Jinping to resign, for what he described as an obvious inability to handle the coronavirus crisis, he was arrested. Xu is listed in 2013's Top 100 Global Thinkers by Foreign Policy.

Xu Zhiyong's closing statement in court Chinese English The Last Ten Years, China's rights movement through the work of Gong Meng. Chinese English A trip to Ngaba. Chinese English New Citizens Movement, a "manifesto" published on May 29, 2012. Chinese English Weiquan movement New Citizens' Movement Xu Zhiyong's Blogspot page Xu Zhiyong's Google+ page Xu Zhiyong on Twitter xuzhiyong.org: Xu Zhiyong's supporter page "Where is Xu Zhiyong?" The New Yorker, July 31, 2009 Gongmeng Open Constitution Initiative on Twitter Free Xu Zhiyong News Blog "Chinese Public-Interest Lawyer Charged Amid Crackdown" The New York Times, August 18, 2009 Demick, Barbara. "Beijing frees legal activist Xu Zhiyong. Los Angeles Times August 24, 2009. Chinese:有線新聞:學生致函溫質疑扣留許志永

Rhéal Fortin

Rhéal Éloi Fortin is a Canadian lawyer and politician. A lawyer by profession, he is the president of Bissonnette Fortin Giroux, a law firm in Saint-Jérôme, he studied law at University of Sherbrooke. He was elected to the House of Commons of Canada in the 2015 election in Rivière-du-Nord as a member of the Bloc Québécois, served as interim leader of the party after the resignation of leader Gilles Duceppe until the next leader, Martine Ouellet was named on March 18, 2017. He, along with six other Bloc MPs, resigned from the Bloc's caucus to sit as an independent MP on February 28, 2018 citing conflicts with Ouellet's leadership, subsequently served as leader of Québec debout, he rejoined the Bloc Québécois caucus on September 17, 2018. Fortin was named interim leader of the Bloc Québécois on October 22, 2015 following the resignation of Gilles Duceppe as leader after Duceppe was unable to win his seat in the October 19, 2015 federal election. Fortin was born in Quebec, he started working when he was 18.

He completed a CEGEP electrician's diploma, equivalent to junior college. He was a worker in a factory in Laval from 1977 to 1985 left to attend university to study law. After completing his legal education, he began practising law in Saint-Jérôme in 1992, he has been politically active since high school, when he volunteered to put up lawn signs for the Parti Québécois. He ran for the Parti Québécois nomination for the election for the National Assembly of Quebec for Prévost, but lost to Gilles Robert. In 2015 he won, he became the interim leader of Bloc Québécois on October 22, 2015. On December 7, 2016, he announced that he would not be seeking the permanent leadership of the party at its leadership election in 2017, he served as the BQ's critic for intergovernmental affairs, human rights and access to information in the House of Commons until February 2018, when he and six other Bloc MPs quit the caucus and formed the Groupe parlementaire québécois in protest of Martine Ouellet's leadership style.

Fortin was named the group's spokesperson on March 21, 2018

Mike Lowry

Michael Edward Lowry was an American Democratic politician who served as the 20th Governor of the U. S. state of Washington from 1993 to 1997. His political career ended abruptly following a sexual misconduct allegation made against him by his deputy press secretary, Susanne Albright. Prior to assuming the governorship, Lowry served as a United States Representative from Washington's 7th district between 1979 and 1989. Lowry was born and raised in St. John, son of Helen and Robert Lowry, he graduated from Washington State University in 1962. Lowry had a brief career working for the Washington State Senate and as a lobbyist for Group Health Cooperative before being elected to the King County Council in 1975, he was elected to the United States House of Representatives from Washington's Seventh Congressional District in 1978, where he served until 1989. Lowry twice ran unsuccessfully for the United States Senate. In a 1983 special election, he was defeated by Republican former Governor Dan Evans an appointed Senator and the incumbent, in a race to replace Democrat Henry "Scoop" Jackson, in 1988 he lost to Slade Gorton a Republican, in a close race.

Lowry began working at Seattle University and an environmental group. Lowry was served for a single term, his principal policy initiative was enactment of a statewide system of health insurance with premiums based on ability to pay. He chose not to run for re-election to a second term due to a sexual harassment scandal in which his deputy press secretary, Susanne Albright, accused him of making inappropriate remarks and fondling her, he was an unsuccessful candidate for Commissioner of Public Lands in 2000. More Lowry was active in building affordable housing for Washington's migrant farm workers. Lowry died on May 1, 2017 from complications of a stroke at the age of 78. During his career, Mike Lowry was compared to Yasser Arafat by both media and political opponents in the state of Washington, due to a perceived similarity in physical appearance between the two. According to some reports, Lowry shaved off a beard he sported to avoid comparisons to the Palestinian leader. United States Congress.

"Mike Lowry". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Congressional Papers at the University of Washington library Oral history interview with Mike Lowry, 2006 Seattle Civil Rights and Labor History Project Appearances on C-SPAN

Amelia von Ende

Amelia Kemper von Ende was a Polish-born American writer, composer and translator. Born in Warsaw of Polish and French extraction, von Ende emigrated to the United States when she was six, settling with her family in Milwaukee, she moved at 19 to Chicago, becoming a radical journalist in partnership with her husband, Heinrich von Ende, who died in 1879. The following year she opened a boarding school for girls of German-American extraction, the Minerva Institute. In 1893 she moved to New York City, where she would become a journalist writing for American and German audiences on cultural themes, she soon became known as an intermediary between the American cultures. She championed the work of Emily Dickinson and Walt Whitman, whose poetry she introduced to German-language audiences. 1914 saw the publication of her article "Women as a Creative Force in Music" in Musical America. Von Ende had an active career as a pianist and composer while living in New York, taught music history at the Von Ende School of Music, founded by her son Herwegh.

She lectured on various topics, including "German Women Writers", "Woman in Music", "Poland, Old & New", "Post-war Literature at home and abroad" and "Three Centuries of French Thought", to women's societies throughout the United States. Her compositions, some of which remain in manuscript, include works for solo voice, chorus and violin, she was known for her literary work, leaving at her death many monographs, works of literary criticism, translation. A book on New York was published in Berlin in 1909, she published a variety of translations during her career, of works by writers including Georges Clemenceau, Carl Hauptmann, Egbert W. Fowler, Jakob Schaffner. Von Ende died in New York City, her papers are held by the New York Public Library

HMS Cotswold (L54)

HMS Cotswold was a Type I Hunt-class destroyer of the Royal Navy which served in World War II. She was scrapped in 1957. Cotswold was ordered on 11 April 1939 under the 1939 War Emergency Build Programme as job number 1836, she was completed in November 1940. She was adopted by the civil community of North Cotswold Urban District in Gloucestershire as part of Warship Week in 1942, she earned battle honours during the Second World War for the North Sea 1941–1945, where she spent the majority of her service. During 1942 she struck a mine off Ordfordness, was subsequently repaired in HM Dockyard, Chatham. In June 1944 she formed part of the Naval escort force in support of the Normandy Landings. Following the war she was transferred to the Reserve Fleet at Portsmouth in June 1946, transferring to Harwich in 1958, she remained there. She arrived at the breakers yard at Grays, Essex on 1 September 1957. Colledge, J. J.. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy.

London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8. English, John; the Hunts: A history of the design and careers of the 86 destroyers of this class built for the Royal and Allied Navies during World War II. World Ship Society. ISBN 0-905617-44-4