click links in text for more info

Digital camera

A digital camera or digicam is a camera that captures photographs in digital memory. Most cameras produced today are digital, while there are still dedicated digital cameras, many more cameras are now being incorporated into mobile devices, portable touchscreen computers, which can, among many other purposes, use their cameras to initiate live video-telephony and directly edit and upload imagery to others. However, high-end, high-definition dedicated cameras are still used by professionals. Digital and movie cameras share an optical system using a lens with a variable diaphragm to focus light onto an image pickup device; the diaphragm and shutter admit the correct amount of light to the image, just as with film but the image pickup device is electronic rather than chemical. However, unlike film cameras, digital cameras can display images on a screen after being recorded, store and delete images from memory. Many digital cameras can record moving videos with sound; some digital cameras can perform other elementary image editing.

The basis for digital camera image sensors is metal–oxide–semiconductor technology, which originates from the invention of the MOSFET by Mohamed M. Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959; this led to the development of digital semiconductor image sensors, including the charge-coupled device and the CMOS sensor. The first semiconductor image sensor was the charge-coupled device, invented by Willard S. Boyle and George E. Smith at Bell Labs in 1969, based on MOS capacitor technology; the NMOS active-pixel sensor was invented by Tsutomu Nakamura's team at Olympus in 1985, which led to the development of the CMOS active-pixel sensor by Eric Fossum's team at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory in 1993. In the 1960s, Eugene F. Lally of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory was thinking about how to use a mosaic photosensor to capture digital images, his idea was to take pictures of the planets and stars while travelling through space to give information about the astronauts' position. As with Texas Instruments employee Willis Adcock's film-less camera in 1972, the technology had yet to catch up with the concept.

The Cromemco Cyclops was an all-digital camera introduced as a commercial product in 1975. Its design was published as a hobbyist construction project in the February 1975 issue of Popular Electronics magazine, it used a 32×32 metal-oxide-semiconductor image sensor, a modified MOS dynamic RAM memory chip. Steven Sasson, an engineer at Eastman Kodak and built a self-contained electronic camera that used a charge-coupled device image sensor in 1975. Around the same time, Fujifilm began developing CCD technology in the 1970s. Early uses were military and scientific. Practical digital cameras were enabled by advances in data compression, due to the impractically high memory and bandwidth requirements of uncompressed images and video; the most important compression algorithm is the discrete cosine transform, a lossy compression technique, first proposed by Nasir Ahmed while he was working at the University of Texas in 1972. Practical digital cameras were enabled by DCT-based compression standards, including the H.26x and MPEG video coding standards introduced from 1988 onwards, the JPEG image compression standard introduced in 1992.

Nikon was interested in digital photography since the mid-1980s. In 1986, while presenting to Photokina, Nikon introduced an operational prototype of the first SLR-type digital camera, manufactured by Panasonic; the Nikon SVC was built around a sensor 2/3 " charge-coupled device of 300,000 pixels. Storage media, a magnetic floppy inside the camera allows recording 25 or 50 B&W images, depending of the definition. In 1988, Nikon released the first commercial digital single-lens reflex camera, the QV-1000C. At Photokina 1988, Fujifilm introduced the FUJIX DS-1P, the first digital camera, capable of saving data to a semiconductor memory card; the camera's memory card had a capacity of 2 MB of SRAM, could hold up to ten photographs. In 1989, Fujifilm released the FUJIX DS-X, the first digital camera to be commercially released. In 1996, Toshiba's 40 MB flash; the first commercial camera phone was the Kyocera Visual Phone VP-210, released in Japan in May 1999. It was called a "mobile videophone" at the time, had a 110,000-pixel front-facing camera.

It stored up to 20 JPEG digital images, which could be sent over e-mail, or the phone could send up to two images per second over Japan's Personal Handy-phone System cellular network. The Samsung SCH-V200, released in South Korea in June 2000, was one of the first phones with a built-in camera, it stored up to 20 digital photos at 350,000-pixel resolution. However, it could not send the resulting image over the telephone function, but required a computer connection to access photos; the first mass-market camera phone was the J-SH04, a Sharp J-Phone model sold in Japan in November 2000. It could transmit pictures via cell phone telecommunication. By the mid-2000s, higher-end cell phones had an integrated digital camera. By the beginning of the 2010s all smartphones had an integrated digital camera; the two major types of digital image sensor are CCD and CMOS. A CCD sensor has one amplifier for all the pixels, while each pixel in a CMOS active-pixel sensor has its own amplifier. Compared to CCDs, CMOS sensors use less power.

Cameras with a small sensor use a back-side-illuminated CMOS sensor. Overall final image quality is more d


Ural-batyr or Ural-batır is the most famous kubair of the Bashkirs. It is telling of heroic deeds and legendary creatures, the formation of natural phenomena, so on, it is analog many similar epics. The epic poem propagates the idea of the nation's eternal life and the ability of man to vanquish evil. Based on the Turkic, Iranian and, to some extent, Semitic folk song traditions, the poem narrates about the heroic deeds of Ural-batyr. Ural is born to an elderly couple and Yanbirðe. Yan, Yanbirðe means "Given Soul", while Yanbike means "Woman of Soul". Ural evinces from his infancy all the features of a legendary hero, such as unflinching courage, kindheartedness and great physical strength. Unlike his cunning and treacherous brother Shulgan, Ural is an eager enemy of the evil and of Death which personifies it. Having matured, Ural sets out with the desire to find and destroy Him. On his way, he meets with various people and legendary creatures and is deferred by long adventures. Riding his winged stallion Akbuthat, he saves young men and women prepared for sacrifice by the tyrannical Shah Katil from imminent death, tames a wild bull, destroys an immense number of devs, marries the legendary Humai, a swan-maid, smites the chief dev Azraka, whose dead body is said to have formed Mount Yaman-tau in the South Urals.

Ural-batyr perishes in his final grapple with the devs, as he is forced to drink up a whole lake where they had hidden from him, but he leaves his sons to continue his initiative. The poem existing in the oral form of a song, was set in the written form by the Bashkir folk poet Mukhamedsha Burangulov in 1910; this story is ancient, reminds of some of stories from Babylon and Sumer. The epos reproduces some pre-Biblical story about Abel. There are traces of Iranian civilization in Bashkort and Tatar cultures, as some words and names of cities and people; the epic was transmitted orally from generation to generation by storytellers - sesens. In 1910, Mukhamedsha Burangulov recorded an epic from two kuraist musician) and sesens, Gabit Argynbaev from the аul of Idris and Khamit Almukhametov from village of Malyi Itkul. Researchers believe that M. Burangulov came to sesens more than once, wrote down the epic in parts. Researchers found. Both sesen well knew Lakes Shulgankul, Yylkysykkankul. Gabit-sesen’s grandfather Argynbay moved from the highlands of Burzyan to the steppe region.

Both sesen were in kinship. There are known other versions of the epic. A fairy tale of the same name in prose was recorded in 1956 by Ismagil Rakhmatullin in the village of Imangul in the Uchalinsky district of Bashkorostan by researcher Akhnaf Kharisov; the version, conventionally referred to as an "etiological myth, was recorded in 1984 from Shamsia Safargalina in the village of Gabbas, Zianchurinsky district of Bashkortostan. In 1968, the epic "Ural-Batyr" was published in the Bashkir language in the journal "Agidel" in 1968 with abbreviations. In 1972, the first full publication in the Bashkir language took place — in the first volume of the book series “Bashkir Folk Oeuvre”. In 1975, it was published in the first volume of the collection “Heroic Epic of the Peoples of the USSR” in the series “Library of World Literature”, in the series “ The Epos of the Peoples of the USSR ” in abbreviated form. For the first time, the profound originality of the epic “Ural-Batyr” was announced in the works of A. A. Petrosyan.

She was the first of the researchers to discover a plot similarity between the Bashkir epic and the Sumerian-Akkadian epic about Gilgamesh. But she came to the conclusion that there are deep differences in the ideological and artistic concepts of these works: “The main motive of the epic“ Ural-Batyr ”is that man is stronger than all that is, good is indestructible; the Babylonian epic rests on another idea - everything from the will of the gods. The philosopher Damir Valeyev considered the epos “a source for studying the history of social consciousness and social thought of the Bashkirs”. There are several translations of the epic into Russian - both poetic. Translations into Russian were made by several poets; the prose arrangement of the epic was performed by the writer Aidar Khusainov, the poetic translation into Russian was done by the poet Gazim Shafikov. In 2003, a gift edition of the epos was published in Ufa in three languages. In 2006, Ural-Batyr was published in German, translated by the doctor of philology Aliya Taysina.

The epos "Ural-Batyr" has been translated into other languages of the world (Abkhazian, Turkish, French a

Thom Harinck

Thom Harinck is a Dutch kickboxing trainer and founder of the Chakuriki Gym in Amsterdam. He is married to Marjan Olfers, former member of the board of Ajax and from 1 May 2012 professor in sports law. Harinck started wrestling at 8 years of age, he ended up giving up on judo, after he wasn't allowed to advance to the rank of black belt, due to his youth. Outside of martial arts, he partook in football and Shooting. While working on a cruise ship he met a French sailor, a national champion of Savate; the sailor began training Harinck alongside others. Harinck continued practicing Savate after arriving in South Africa, he took up boxing after he returned to the Netherlands and started teaching Savate in Holland. While serving in the military as a teenager, Harinck started boxing at the competitive level. At the age of seventeen he worked as a bouncer at a local Club and began a partnership with Jan Stapper, a Kyokushin instructor, his global journeys continued after he moved to Japan where he received the Uchi-deshi instruction under numerous masters in Tokyo and Yokohama.

He received judo and traditional jujutsu instruction from Tokyo police department. He spent plenty of time in Taiwan, where he entered to train Chinese Kenpo in addition to karate, he traveled to Thailand where he received the rank of the grand master in Muay Thai as one of the first foreigners ever. In 1972, he founded the Chakuriki Gym in Amsterdam teaching his own style named "Chakuriki", a mixture of techniques from Kyokushin karate, judo and wrestling which would be known as modern contact karate or kickboxing in Holland. Chakuriki became a kickboxing gym as Harinck added Japanese kickboxing and Savate to his repertoire. Harinck founded the NKBB in 1976, the MTBN in 1983, the WMTA and the EMTA in 1984. Harinck is one of the most famous trainers in the sport and has trained numerous world champions including Peter Aerts, Branko Cikatić, Jérôme Le Banner, Badr Hari and Hesdy Gerges, he announced his retirement in April 2013 at the age of sixty-nine. In January 2016 Thom Harinck began coaching again.

He trains a group of fighters daily. In May 2016 Harinck published his memoirs in the English language; the book is called "Thom Harinck: Godfather of Muay Thai in The West" and is co-written with Julio Punch. Site of the authors of Thom Harinck's English biography

Average White Band

The Average White Band are a Scottish funk and R&B band that had a series of soul and disco hits between 1974 and 1980. They are best known for their million-selling instrumental track "Pick Up the Pieces", their albums AWB and Cut the Cake; the band name was proposed by Bonnie Bramlett. They have influenced others such as the Brand New Heavies, been sampled by various musicians, including the Beastie Boys, Public Enemy, TLC, The Beatnuts, Too Short, Ice Cube, Eric B. & Rakim, Nas, A Tribe Called Quest, Christina Milian, Arrested Development, making them the 15th most sampled act in history. As of 2018, 46 years after their formation, they continue to perform. AWB was formed in early 1972 in London by Alan Gorrie, Malcolm "Molly" Duncan, with Owen "Onnie" McIntyre, Michael Rosen, Roger Ball, Robbie McIntosh joining them in the original line-up. Hamish Stuart replaced Rosen. Duncan and Ball, affectionately known as the Dundee Horns, studied at Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art, were members of Mogul Thrash.

Gorrie and McIntyre had been members of Forever More. McIntyre and McIntosh were used as session musicians on Chuck Berry's recording of "My Ding-a-Ling". According to Duncan, members of the band had played together before in Scotland, but had moved to London separately and met up by chance at a Traffic concert, they decided to jam together. The band's breakthrough was a support slot at Eric Clapton's comeback concert in 1973. MCA Records released their debut album, Show Your Hand. Bruce McCaskill, Clapton's tour manager, liked the band's music and agreed to manage them, he borrowed money to promote them. McCaskill had many contacts from his days with Clapton and managed to get Atlantic Records to sign them; the band released the follow-up, AWB, better known as The White Album. It was the first of many with renowned producer Arif Mardin. McIntosh died of a heroin overdose at a Los Angeles party on 23 September 1974. Gorrie overdosed, but Cher kept him conscious until medical help arrived; the NME reported in January 1975 that AWB played a benefit show for McIntosh's widow at the Marquee Club in London.

McIntosh was replaced by Steve Ferrone, like McIntosh with Brian Auger's Oblivion Express. In 1975, the single "Pick Up the Pieces", taken from the No. 1 AWB album, reached No. 1 on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart. The song sold over one million copies, it was awarded a gold disc by the R. I. A. A. in March 1975. It prompted The J. B.'s, the backup band of the "Godfather of Soul", James Brown, to record and release a song in reply, "Pick Up the Pieces, One by One", under the name AABB. It was both a tribute to AWB's knowledge of funk and a tongue-in-cheek play on the Scottish band's name. AWB followed up with the LPs Cut the Cake and Soul Searching, both big sellers and yielding further Top 40 singles. Cut the Cake was dedicated by the surviving band members to McIntosh's memory. A double live album "Person To Person" was issued in late 1976, their next LP, Benny & Us, was a collaboration with Ben E. King. After several more albums, "Warmer Communications", "Feel No Fret" and after a switch to the U.

S. Arista label, "Shine" and "Cupid's In Fashion", AWB's audience and sales dwindled; the group disbanded by 1983. Their 1980 disco hit "Let's Go Round Again", was covered in the late 1990s by Louise. Ferrone went on to work with Duran Duran and with Tom Petty and The Heartbreakers from 1994 until Petty's death in 2017. Hamish Stuart joined Paul McCartney's touring group. In 1985 Gorrie released Sleepless Nights; the classic lineup of Gorrie, McIntyre, Stuart and Ferrone reunited for one last time at the Atlantic Records 40th Anniversary in 1988. Gorrie, McIntyre, Ball continued in 1989 to record Aftershock. Alex Ligertwood appeared on this album, replacing lead singer Hamish Stuart, along with Eliot Lewis who co-wrote with Gorrie and joined the band. Ligertwood left after the album's recording and drummer Tiger McNeil joined for the reunited band's live shows. McNeil was with the group until 1994, he was succeeded by Peter Abbott, who in turn was replaced by Fred "Catfish" Alias in September 1998.

Drummer Adam Deitch did a two-year stint with AWB from 1999 to 2001. Average White Band has continued touring since. Ball worked on Soul Tattoo with the group but was replaced by Fred Vigdor in 1996. Brian Dunne took over the drum chair in 2001 and when Eliot Lewis left the band in September 2002 to pursue other musical opportunities, he was replaced by Klyde Jones, their line-up as of 2002 became Alan Gorrie, Klyde Jones, Onnie McIntyre, Freddy V, Brian Dunne. Dunne was replaced by Rocky Bryant as drummer as of the 2006 tour. After Jones left in 2011 to join Hall and Oates, Monte Croft and former Earth Wind and Fire member Morris Pleasure came in to do brief stints before Ro


Маsanchi is a Kazakhstani village in the Korday District of the Jambyl Province. The village is located near the border with Kyrgyzstan, is 45 kilometers southeast of the village of Korday, 130 kilometers southwest of Almaty; the village has been reported as having a large amount of ethnically Dungan people. Town was called Karakunuz, which means "black beetle" in Turkic languages; the Dungans themselves used to refer to Karakunuz as Ingpan, an archaic word in Chinese languages for "military camp." From 1903 to 1918, the town was renamed Nikolaevka after Tsar Nicholas II of Russia. In 1965, Karakunuz was renamed Masanchi, after Magaza Masanchi or Masanchin, a Dungan participant in the Communist Revolution and a Soviet Kazakhstan statesman. According to the 2009 Census, the village of Masanchi had a population of 13,606 people, the administrative district governing the village had a population of 14,502; the 1999 Census reported populations of 9,608, respectively. Of the 13,606 people in the village, 6,914 people were reported as men, 6,692 were reported as women.

On February 7th of 2020 an apparent conflict between members of Kazakh people and Dungan people broke out over the alleged beating of an elderly Kazakh man by a Dungan man. The subsequent clashes have killed 8 people, caused the arrest of 47 more, resulted in damage to local properties

David D. Busch

David D. Busch is a photographer and well-known award-winning author and publisher of more than 250 books with a total of more than two million copies in print, thousands of photography- and technology-related articles for Popular Photography, Professional Photographer, Computer Shopper, other magazines, he is best known for the classic imaging handbook Digital Photography All in One Desk Reference for Dummies, along with Mastering Digital Photography, was named by as the top two of five recommended books for digital photography beginners. He is the main author and series editor of David Busch's Quick Snap Guides, David Busch's Pro Secrets, David Busch's Fast Track Guides, David Busch's Guides to Digital SLR Photography. Busch began writing about photography and computers in the early 1970s, for 20 years was a photojournalist who roamed the United States writing illustrated articles on imaging and technology, he was the author of the popular Kitchen Table International humor column in the early computer magazine 80 Microcomputing from 1981 to 1983.

In 1984, his first book, Sorry About The Explosion, based on the KTI columns, was published and won a Computer Press Association Award the following year for Best Fiction Book. In 1986, his book Secrets of MacWrite, MacPaint, MacDraw was voted Best Product Specific Book, Busch was asked to co-host the Computer Press Awards held at the Plaza Hotel in 1987. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, he turned from programming and application books to imaging technology, writing some of the first books devoted to scanners and digital Photography While working full-time as an author, Busch continued to write articles and monthly columns for magazines such HomePC, Internet World, NetGuide, Windows Magazine, Windows Sources, many other publications, he reviewed digital cameras and printers for CNet Network and Computer Shopper Magazine. Today he is best known for photography books such as David Busch's Digital Photography Bucket List: 100 Great Digital Photos You Must Take Before You Die, featuring the work of members of the Cleveland Photographic Society, Digital Photography for Dummies Quick Reference, Digital SLR Cameras and Photography for Dummies, seventy-five Digital Field Guides for leading Nikon and Sony digital SLR camera models, sixteen guidebooks for Canon dSLRs.

Many of Busch's books, such as Digital SLR Pro Secrets and Digital Infrared Pro Secrets highlight often-quirky do-it-yourself projects, including equipment testing devices, camera hacks and conversions, lighting equipment, other gadgets. Busch was born in Ravenna, but lived in Rochester, N. Y. for four years. He has a B. A. in Public Relations - Journalism from Kent State University, has worked as a newspaper and magazine journalist, PR consultant, sports photographer, sports information director and studio photographer. Computer Press Association Book Awards: Best Fiction Book: Sorry About The Explosion! Best Product Specific Book: Secrets of MacWrite, MacPaint, MacDraw David D. Busch Official website