Digital cinema refers to the use of digital technology to distribute or project motion pictures as opposed to the historical use of reels of motion picture film, such as 35 mm film. Whereas film reels have to be shipped to movie theaters, a digital movie can be distributed to cinemas in a number of ways: over the Internet or dedicated satellite links, or by sending hard drives or optical discs such as Blu-ray discs. Digital movies are projected using a digital video projector instead of a film projector. Digital cinema is distinct from high-definition television and does not use traditional television or other traditional high-definition video standards, aspect ratios, or frame rates. In digital cinema, resolutions are represented by the horizontal pixel count 2K or 4K; as digital-cinema technology improved in the early 2010s, most theaters across the world converted to digital video projection. The transition from film to digital video was preceded by cinema's transition from analog to digital audio, with the release of the Dolby Digital audio coding standard in 1991.
Its main basis is a lossy audio compression algorithm. It is a modification of the discrete cosine transform algorithm, first proposed by Nasir Ahmed in 1972 and was intended for image compression; the DCT was adapted into the MDCT by J. P. Princen, A. W. Johnson and Alan B. Bradley at the University of Surrey in 1987, Dolby Laboratories adapted the MDCT algorithm along with perceptual coding principles to develop the AC-3 audio format for cinema needs. Cinema in the 1990s combined analog video with digital audio. Digital media playback of high-resolution 2K files has at least a 20-year history. Early video data storage units fed custom frame buffer systems with large memories. In early digital video units, content was restricted to several minutes of material. Transfer of content between remote locations had limited capacity, it was not until the late 1990s that feature-length films could be sent over the "wire". On October 23, 1998, Digital Light Processing projector technology was publicly demonstrated with the release of The Last Broadcast, the first feature-length movie, shot and distributed digitally.
In conjunction with Texas Instruments, the movie was publicly demonstrated in five theaters across the United States. In the United States, on June 18, 1999, Texas Instruments' DLP Cinema projector technology was publicly demonstrated on two screens in Los Angeles and New York for the release of Lucasfilm's Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace. In Europe, on February 2, 2000, Texas Instruments' DLP Cinema projector technology was publicly demonstrated, by Philippe Binant, on one screen in Paris for the release of Toy Story 2. From 1997 to 2000, the JPEG 2000 image compression standard was developed by a Joint Photographic Experts Group committee chaired by Touradj Ebrahimi. In contrast to the original 1992 JPEG standard, a DCT-based lossy compression format for static digital images, JPEG 2000 is a discrete wavelet transform based compression standard that could be adapted for motion imaging video compression with the Motion JPEG 2000 extension. JPEG 2000 technology was selected as the video coding standard for digital cinema in 2004.
On January 19, 2000, the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, in the United States, initiated the first standards group dedicated towards developing digital cinema. By December 2000, there were 15 digital cinema screens in the United States and Canada, 11 in Western Europe, 4 in Asia, 1 in South America. Digital Cinema Initiatives was formed in March 2002 as a joint project of many motion picture studios to develop a system specification for digital cinema. In April 2004, in cooperation with the American Society of Cinematographers, DCI created standard evaluation material for testing of 2K and 4K playback and compression technologies. DCI selected JPEG 2000 as the basis for the compression in the system the same year. Initial tests with JPEG 2000 produced bit-rates of around 75–125 Mbps for 2K resolution and 100–200 Mbps for 4K resolution. In China, in June 2005, an e-cinema system called "dMs" was established and was used in over 15,000 screens spread across China's 30 provinces.
DMs estimated that the system would expand to 40,000 screens in 2009. In 2005 the UK Film Council Digital Screen Network launched in the UK by Arts Alliance Media creating a chain of 250 2K digital cinema systems; the roll-out was completed in 2006. This was the first mass roll-out in Europe. AccessIT/Christie Digital started a roll-out in the United States and Canada. By mid 2006, about 400 theaters were equipped with 2K digital projectors with the number increasing every month. In August 2006, the Malayalam digital movie Moonnamathoral, produced by Benzy Martin, was distributed via satellite to cinemas, thus becoming the first Indian digital cinema; this was done by Emil and Eric Digital Films, a company based at Thrissur using the end-to-end digital cinema system developed by Singapore-based DG2L Technologies. In January 2007, Guru became the first Indian film mastered in the DCI-compliant JPEG 2000 Interop format and the first Indian film to be previewed digitally, internationally, at the Elgin Winter Garden in Toronto.
Ramon Artiaga Zamora was a Filipino film actor best known for his leading roles in local martial arts films and action movies of the 1970s. He was popularly dubbed as the "Bruce Lee of the Philippines". Zamora was born in Rizal, he began his entertainment career in 1953 as a dancer for LVN Pictures. He persevered in the bodabil circuit, performing at the Clover Theater and the Manila Grand Opera House, he was a member of the Festival Dancers, a dance troupe which performed international tours regularly. From his stage performances, he was contracted in 1969 to star as a mainstay of the ABS-CBN gag show Super Laff-In. Zamora's most popular stock character in the show was a military-clad figure that bore an unmistakable physical resemblance to Adolf Hitler, who spoke in bastardized German and spouted catchphrases such as "Isprakenheit"; the role won him the "Best Actor Citizen's Award for Television". When Super Laff-In's network ABS-CBN was closed upon the declaration of martial law in 1972, Zamora shifted gears and focused on a film career.
He starred as the durable komiks character Pedro Penduko in the 1973 Celso Ad Castillo fantasy film Ang Mahiwagang Daigdig ni Pedro Penduko. The resulting success of the film boosted Zamora's popularity, he soon became one of the top box-office draws in Philippine cinema in the 1970s. Zamora was popular for a string of locally produced martial arts films that emerged following the international success of Bruce Lee. Patterning his film persona around a Bruce Lee-type with a comedic twist, Zamora starred in such films as Shadow of the Dragon, Cobra at Lawin, Game of Death, Return of the Dragon, Bruce Liit, he played his villain role as Edu Manzano's right-hand man to Lito Lapid in an action packed movie Hindi Palulupig By the 1980s, Zamora's career as a leading man petered out, he returned to guest-starring in television programs in his "Hitler" guise. He portrayed character roles in films, including one in the 1994 update of the Pedro Penduko saga now starring Janno Gibbs, Ang Pagbabalik ni Pedro Penduko.
At the time of his death from a heart attack in his Antipolo City home, Zamora had completed one last film that had yet to be released, Ataul for Rent. Ataul: For Rent.... Chairman Tando M. O. N. A. Y ni Mr. Shooli Lisensyadong kamao.... Pedring Pelukang itim: Agimat ko ito for victory again Pistolero Eva, lason kay Adan Eksperto: Ako ang Sasagupa!.... Mr. Lee Chang Loo Sgt. Isaias Marcos... Bawat hakbang panganib Isang lahi, isang dugo sa lupang pangako.... Arula Basta Tricycle Driver... Sweet Lover Pedro Penduko, Episode II: The Return of the Comeback.... Maguayen Duterte: Ang Berdugong Alkalde ng Davao.... Ka Diony Aguinaldo Eh kasi bata.... Frank Chavit Dudurugin Kita Ng Bala Ko Hindi Palulupig.... Ramon My Darling Domestic Me and Ninja Liit.... Papang Sang Damong makamandag Lorenzo Ruiz the Saint Vengeance Squad.... Special Participation The Rookies and the Mighty Kids Da Payting Ninja Death Raiders Porontoy Dalmacio Armas Ang Tapang para sa lahat!.... Joaquin Snake Dragon Connection Ahas sa Pugad Lawin Bruce liit Ang Hari at ang Alas Dragon, Boxer The Interceptors Peter Pandesal....
Pete They Call Him Chop-suey.... Chop-suey Return of the Dragon Landas ng Hari with Franco Rivero, Rhodora Silva & Lirio Vital Ang Mahiwagang daigdig ni Pedro Penduko.... Pedro Penduko Dobol trobol Pepeng Kuryente with Ramon Revilla Sr. Maging Sino Ka Man.... Simon Da Adventures of Pedro Penduko.... Father Ben Super Laff-In.... himself MMK: Shades.... Tatay Landro Rosalinda Galang. "Philippine Film". In Nicanor Tiongson. CCP Encyclopedia of Philippine Art. VIII. Manila: Cultural Center of the Philippines. Pp. 338–339. ISBN 971-8546-31-6. "Ramon Zamora - Find A Grave Tribute". Find A Grave. 2007-08-29. Retrieved 2007-11-08. Ramon Zamora on IMDb
Thirumakalam Mahakalanathar Temple is a Hindu temple located at Thirumakalam in Tiruvarur district, Tamil Nadu, India. The presiding deity is Shiva, he is called as Mahakalanathar. His consort is known as Bayakshambikai, it is one of the shrines of the 275 Paadal Petra Sthalams - Shiva Sthalams glorified in the early medieval Tevaram poems by Tamil Saivite Nayanar Tirugnanasambandar. Tirugnanasambandar describes the features of the deity as: "Sri Mahakalanathar temple". Dinamalar. "Maakaalanathar Temple, Ambar Maakaalam". Shiva Temples of Tamilnadu, Paadal Petra Sivasthalangal
A shock tube detonator is a non-electric explosive fuze or initiator in the form of small-diameter hollow plastic tubing used to transport an initiating signal to an explosive by means of a shock wave traveling the length of the tube. Shock tube is used to convey a detonation signal to a detonator. Shock tube is a hollow extruded tube containing a thin layer of energetic material upon its inner diameter. Once it is initiated, the shock tube transfers a signal to a detonating output charge, it was invented by Per Anders Persson of Nitro Nobel AB, sold by them under the registered trademark Nonel, containing a small quantity of high explosive, but safer and more reliable than detonating cord with the same quantity of explosive. Another early product contained an enclosed non-detonating fiber; the most common product is 3 mm outer diameter and 1 mm inner diameter, with a tiny dusting of HMX/aluminum explosive powder on the tubing's inner surface, which detonates down the tube at a speed greater than 6500 feet per second but does not burst the tube.
Being non-electrical and non-metallic, shock tubes are less sensitive to static electricity and radio frequency energy and thus have replaced many uses of electric detonators and are safer to handle and store than detonating cord. A version containing an explosive gas mixture has the additional advantage of being inert until the tubing is charged with the gas. One manufacturer estimates that over 2 billion feet of shock tube are used each year worldwide, in commercial blasting, military demolition, theatrical special effects, automobile airbags, aircraft ejection seats, IED initiation and professional fireworks. Shock Tube Detonator is available with an optional patented in-line initiator consisting of a threaded adapter and a pre-installed percussion primer providing convenient and reliable initiation
The Mersenne Twister is a pseudorandom number generator. It is by far the most used general-purpose PRNG, its name derives from the fact. The Mersenne Twister was developed in 1997 by Takuji Nishimura, it was designed to rectify most of the flaws found in older PRNGs. The most used version of the Mersenne Twister algorithm is based on the Mersenne prime 219937−1; the standard implementation of that, MT19937, uses a 32-bit word length. There is another implementation that uses a 64-bit word length, MT19937-64; the Mersenne Twister is the default PRNG for the following software systems: Microsoft Excel, GAUSS, GLib, GNU Multiple Precision Arithmetic Library, GNU Octave, GNU Scientific Library, gretl, IDL, Julia, CMU Common Lisp, Embeddable Common Lisp, Steel Bank Common Lisp, Maple, MATLAB, Free Pascal, PHP, Python, R, SageMath, Stata. It is available in Apache Commons, in standard C++, in Mathematica. Add-on implementations are provided in many program libraries, including the Boost C++ Libraries, the CUDA Library, the NAG Numerical Library.
The Mersenne Twister is one of two PRNGs in SPSS: the other generator is kept only for compatibility with older programs, the Mersenne Twister is stated to be "more reliable". The Mersenne Twister is one of the PRNGs in SAS: the other generators are older and deprecated. Permissively-licensed and patent-free for all variants except CryptMT. Passes numerous tests for statistical randomness, including the Diehard tests and most, but not all of the TestU01 tests. A long period of 219937 − 1. Note that while a long period is not a guarantee of quality in a random number generator, short periods, such as the 232 common in many older software packages, can be problematic. K-distributed to 32-bit accuracy for every 1 ≤ k ≤ 623 Implementations create random numbers faster than other methods. A study found that the Mersenne Twister creates 64-bit floating point random numbers twenty times faster than the hardware-implemented, processor-based RDRAND instruction set. Large state buffer, of 2.5 KiB, unless the TinyMT variant is used.
Mediocre throughput by modern standards. Exhibits two clear failures in both Crush and BigCrush in the TestU01 suite. There are a number of other generators. Multiple instances that differ only in seed value are not appropriate for Monte-Carlo simulations that require independent random number generators, though there exists a method for choosing multiple sets of parameter values. Can take a long time to start generating output that passes randomness tests, if the initial state is non-random—particularly if the initial state has many zeros. A consequence of this is that two instances of the generator, started with initial states that are the same, will output nearly the same sequence for many iterations, before diverging; the 2002 update to the MT algorithm has improved initialization, so that beginning with such a state is unlikely. Is not cryptographically secure, unless the CryptMT variant is used; the reason is that observing a sufficient number of iterations allows one to predict all future iterations.
An alternative generator, WELL, offers quicker recovery, equal randomness, nearly equal speed. Marsaglia's xorshift generators and variants are the fastest in this class. 64-bit MELGs are optimized in terms of the k-distribution properties. The ACORN family is another k-distributed PRNG, which shows similar computational speed to MT, better statistical properties as it satisfies all the current TestU01 criteria. A pseudorandom sequence xi of w-bit integers of period P is said to be k-distributed to v-bit accuracy if the following holds. Let truncv denote the number formed by the leading v bits of x, consider P of the k v-bit vectors; each of the 2kv possible combinations of bits occurs the same number of times in a period, except for the all-zero combination that occurs once less often. For a w-bit word length, the Mersenne Twister generates integers in the range; the Mersenne Twister algorithm is based on a matrix linear recurrence over a finite binary field F2. The algorithm is a twisted generalised feedback shift register of rational normal form, with state bit reflection and tempering.
The basic idea is to define a series x i through a simple recurrence relation, and
Lester Novros was an American artist and teacher. Born in Passaic, New Jersey in 1909, Novros studied painting at the National Academy of Design in New York City, was an active member of the Art Students League of New York and studied at the Prado Museum in Madrid, Spain, his curiosity in the study of movement lead to an interest in motion pictures. In 1936 he was recruited by the Walt Disney Company to come to Hollywood to work on feature animation projects. Novros was an "inbetweener" on the 1937 Disney animated film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, received a credit for art direction for the "Night on Bald Mountain" sequence of Fantasia. In 1941, Novros left Disney to form Graphic Films; that same year he joined the faculty of the Cinema Department of the University of Southern California. Thousands of students took his course on "Filmic Expression" before his retirement in 1984. Graphic Films found immediate success producing training films for the military during World War II; as the United States Air Force and NASA emerged in the post war period, Graphic's expertise in animating the visual dimensions of space exploration played a key role in interesting the United States Congress and the general public in supporting the country's first forays into space.
Among his many achievements, Novros may be most remembered as a pioneer in the large format and special venue film industries. Included in his filmography are numerous specialty films produced for World Fair Expositions, including several titles for the 1964 New York's World Fair, including Chemical Man for Abbott Laboratories, Reaching for the Stars, for Lockheed Corporation, Voyage to America for the United States Pavilion. However, it was the 10-perf, 70mm film To the Moon and Beyond, that caught the attention of filmmaker Stanley Kubrick, who soon enlisted the creativity of Novros and his special effects team in the creation of A Space Odyssey. Novros's interest in large format film technology led him to produce some of the first Imax/Omnimax films, for the Reuben H. Fleet Space Center in San Diego, including Voyage to the Outer Planets, Cosmos: the World of Loren Eisley and Tomorrow in Space. In 1976 Novros won national acclaim and an Academy Award nomination for his documentary film Universe.
Novros's much sought after course at USC helped young filmmakers understand the relationship of color, light and form as they related to the film medium. Upon his retirement from USC, he continued to assemble his lectures into a textbook. Former student and friend George Lucas penned these words for the introduction of the manuscript: "The first time I understood the unique quality of film was when I took Les Novros' class. Stressing that film is a kinetic medium, Les has kept the Eisenstienian flame burning at USC, it is a tradition that has influenced my work." At the age of 91, Novros died in Sherman Oaks, after an extended illness