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Digital subscriber line

Digital subscriber line is a family of technologies that are used to transmit digital data over telephone lines. In telecommunications marketing, the term DSL is understood to mean asymmetric digital subscriber line, the most installed DSL technology, for Internet access. DSL service can be delivered with wired telephone service on the same telephone line since DSL uses higher frequency bands for data. On the customer premises, a DSL filter on each non-DSL outlet blocks any high-frequency interference to enable simultaneous use of the voice and DSL services; the bit rate of consumer DSL services ranges from 256 kbit/s to over 100 Mbit/s in the direction to the customer, depending on DSL technology, line conditions, service-level implementation. Bit rates of 1 Gbit/s have been reached. In ADSL, the data throughput in the upstream direction is lower, hence the designation of asymmetric service. In symmetric digital subscriber line services, the downstream and upstream data rates are equal. Researchers at Bell Labs have reached speeds over 1 Gbit/s for symmetrical broadband access services using traditional copper telephone lines, though such speeds have not yet been deployed elsewhere.

It was thought that it was not possible to operate a conventional phone line beyond low-speed limits. In the 1950s, ordinary twisted-pair telephone cable carried four megahertz television signals between studios, suggesting that such lines would allow transmitting many megabits per second. One such circuit in the United Kingdom ran some 10 miles between the BBC studios in Newcastle-upon-Tyne and the Pontop Pike transmitting station. However, these cables had other impairments besides Gaussian noise, preventing such rates from becoming practical in the field; the 1980s saw the development of techniques for broadband communications that allowed the limit to be extended. A patent was filed in 1979 for the use of existing telephone wires for both telephones and data terminals that were connected to a remote computer via a digital data carrier system; the motivation for digital subscriber line technology was the Integrated Services Digital Network specification proposed in 1984 by the CCITT as part of Recommendation I.120 reused as ISDN digital subscriber line.

Employees at Bellcore developed asymmetric digital subscriber line by placing wide-band digital signals at frequencies above the existing baseband analog voice signal carried on conventional twisted pair cabling between telephone exchanges and customers. A patent was filed in 1988. Joseph W. Lechleider's contribution to DSL was his insight that an asymmetric arrangement offered more than double the bandwidth capacity of symmetric DSL; this allowed Internet service providers to offer efficient service to consumers, who benefited from the ability to download large amounts of data but needed to upload comparable amounts. ADSL supports two modes of transport: interleaved channel. Fast channel is preferred for streaming multimedia, where an occasional dropped bit is acceptable, but lags are less so. Interleaved channel works better for file transfers, where the delivered data must be error-free but latency incurred by the retransmission of error-containing packets is acceptable. Consumer-oriented ADSL was designed to operate on existing lines conditioned for Basic Rate Interface ISDN services.

Engineers developed high speed DSL facilities such as high bit rate digital subscriber line and symmetric digital subscriber line to provision traditional Digital Signal 1 services over standard copper pair facilities. Older ADSL standards delivered 8 Mbit/s to the customer over about 2 km of unshielded twisted-pair copper wire. Newer variants improved these rates. Distances greater than 2 km reduce the bandwidth usable on the wires, thus reducing the data rate, but ADSL loop extenders increase these distances by repeating the signal, allowing the LEC to deliver DSL speeds to any distance. Until the late 1990s, the cost of digital signal processors for DSL was prohibitive. All types of DSL employ complex digital signal processing algorithms to overcome the inherent limitations of the existing twisted pair wires. Due to the advancements of very-large-scale integration technology, the cost of the equipment associated with a DSL deployment lowered significantly; the two main pieces of equipment are a digital subscriber line access multiplexer at one end and a DSL modem at the other end.

A DSL connection can be deployed over existing cable. Such deployment including equipment, is much cheaper than installing a new, high-bandwidth fiber-optic cable over the same route and distance; this is true both for SDSL variations. The commercial success of DSL and similar technologies reflects the advances made in electronics over the decades that have increased performance and reduced costs while digging trenches in the ground for new cables remains expensive; these advantages made ADSL a better proposition for customers requiring Internet access than metered dial up, while allowing voice calls to be received at the same time as a data connection. Telephone companies were under pressure to move to ADSL owing to competition from cable companies, which use DOCSIS cable modem technology to achieve similar speeds. Demand for high bandwidth applications, such as video and file sharing contributed to the popularity of ADSL technology. Early DSL service required a dedicated dry loop, but when the U.

S. Federal Communic


Alusil as a hypereutectic aluminium-silicon alloy contains 78% aluminium and 17% silicon. This alloy was theoretically conceived in 1927 by Schweizer & Fehrenbach, but created only by Lancia in the same year, for its car engines. Further it was developed by Kolbenschmidt; the Alusil aluminium alloy is used to make linerless aluminium alloy engine blocks. Alusil, when etched, will expose a hard silicon precipitate; the silicon surface is non-porous enough to hold oil, is an excellent bearing surface. BMW switched from Nikasil-coated cylinder walls to Alusil in 1996 to eliminate the corrosion problems caused through the use of petrol/gasoline containing sulfur. Engines using Alusil include: Audi 2.4 V6 Audi 4.2 MPI V8 Audi 3.2 FSI V6 Audi 4.2 FSI V8 Audi 5.2 FSI V10 Audi/Volkswagen 6.0 W12 BMW M52 I6 BMW N52 I6 BMW M62 V8 BMW N62 V8 BMW N63 V8 BMW M70/M73 V12 BMW S65 & S85 M Engines Mercedes-Benz M112 engine V6 Mercedes-Benz M113 engine V8 Mercedes 560 SEL M117 V8 Mercedes M119 V8 Porsche 928 V8 Porsche 924S I4 Porsche 944 I4 Porsche 968 I4 Porsche Cayenne V8 Hypereutectic piston Kolbenschmidt Pierburg - official website of Alusil trademark holder

Apple–Intel architecture

The Apple–Intel architecture, or Mactel, is an unofficial name used for Apple Macintosh personal computers developed and manufactured by Apple Inc. that use Intel x86 processors, rather than the PowerPC and Motorola 68000 series processors used in their predecessors. With the change in architecture, a change in firmware became necessary. With the change in processor architecture to x86, Macs gained the ability to boot into x86-native operating systems, while Intel VT-x brought near-native virtualization with Mac OS X as the host OS. Apple–Intel architecture is an unofficial name used for Apple Macintosh personal computers developed and manufactured by Apple Inc. that use Intel x86 processors. As the name implies, it refers to changes in the architecture from the earlier PowerPC, Apple 68k, other preceding processors. Apple uses a subset of the standard PC architecture, which provides support for Mac OS X and support for other operating systems. Hardware and firmware components that must be supported to run an operating system on Apple-Intel hardware include the Extensible Firmware Interface.

With the change in architecture, a change in firmware became necessary. Extensible Firmware Interface is the firmware-based replacement for the PC BIOS from Intel. Designed by Intel, it was chosen by Apple to replace Open Firmware, used on PowerPC architectures. Since many operating systems, such as Windows XP and many versions of Windows Vista, are incompatible with EFI, Apple has released a firmware upgrade with a compatibility support module that provides a subset of traditional BIOS support with their Boot Camp product. GUID Partition Table is a standard for the layout of the partition table on a physical hard disk, it is a part of the Extensible Firmware Interface standard proposed by Intel as a substitute for the earlier PC BIOS. The GPT replaces the Master Boot Record used with BIOS. Intel Macs can boot in two ways: directly in a "legacy" BIOS compatibility mode. For multibooting, holding down "Option" gives a choice of bootable devices, while the rEFInd bootloader is used for added configurability.

Standard Live USBs cannot be used on Intel Macs. Many operating systems, such as earlier versions of Windows and Linux, can only be booted in BIOS mode, or are more booted or perform better when booted in BIOS mode, thus USB booting on Intel-based Macs was for a time limited to Mac OS X, which can be booted via EFI. On April 5, 2006, Apple made available for download a public beta version of Boot Camp, a collection of technologies which allows users of Intel-based Macs to boot Windows XP Service Pack 2; the first non-beta version of Boot Camp is included in Mac OS X v10.5, "Leopard." Before the introduction of Boot Camp, which provides most hardware drivers for Windows XP, drivers for XP were difficult to find. Linux can be booted with Boot Camp. Intel-based Mac computers use similar hardware to PCs from other manufacturers which ship with Microsoft Windows or Linux operating systems. In particular, CPUs, GPUs are compatible. However, Apple computers include some custom hardware and design choices not found in competing systems: System Management Controller is a custom Apple chip that controls various functions of the computer related to power management, including handling the power button, management of battery and thermal sensors, among others.

It plays a part in the protection scheme deployed to restrict booting macOS to Apple hardware. Laptop input devices. Early MacBook and MacBook Pro computers used an internal variant of USB as a keyboard and trackpad interconnect. Since the 2013 revision of MacBook Air, Apple started to use a custom Serial Peripheral Interface controller instead; the 2016 MacBook Pro additionally uses a custom internal USB device dubbed "iBridge" as an interface to the Touch Bar and Touch ID components, as well as the FaceTime Camera. PC laptops use internal variant of the legacy PS/2 keyboard interconnect. PS/2 used to be the standard for PC laptop pointing devices, although a variety of other interfaces, including USB, SMBus, I2C, may be used. Additional custom hardware may include a GMUX chip that controls GPU switching, non-compliant implementations of NVMe solid-state storage and non-standard configurations of HD Audio subsystem. Keyboard layout has significant differences between IBM PC keyboards. While PC keyboards can be used in macOS, as well as Mac keyboards in Microsoft Windows, some functional differences occur.

For example, the Alt and ⌥ Option keys function equivalently. There are keys exclusive for each platform, some of which may require software remapping to achieve the desired function. Compact and laptop keyboards from Apple lack some keys considered essential on PCs, such as the forward Delete key, although some of them are accessible through the Fn key. Boot process. All Intel-based Macs have been using some version of EFI as the boot firmware. At the time the platform debuted in 2006, it was in a stark contrast to PCs, which universally employed legacy BIOS, Apple's implementation of EFI did not implement the Compatibility Support Modul

Internet Explorer

Internet Explorer is a series of graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included in the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, starting in 1995. It was first released as part of the add-on package Plus! for Windows 95 that year. Versions were available as free downloads, or in service packs, included in the original equipment manufacturer service releases of Windows 95 and versions of Windows; the browser is discontinued, but still maintained. Internet Explorer was once the most used web browser, attaining a peak of about 95% usage share by 2003; this came after Microsoft used bundling to win the first browser war against Netscape, the dominant browser in the 1990s. Its usage share has since declined with the launch of Firefox and Google Chrome, with the growing popularity of operating systems such as Android and iOS that do not support Internet Explorer. Estimates for Internet Explorer's market share are about 1.7% across all platforms, or by StatCounter's numbers ranked 8th.

On traditional PCs, the only platform on which it has had significant share it is ranked 5th at 3.7%, with Microsoft Edge, its successor, ranking 4th with a 4.7% market share. Edge first overtook Internet Explorer in terms of market share in August 2019. IE and Edge combined rank third, after Firefox being second after Chrome. Microsoft spent over US$100 million per year on Internet Explorer in the late 1990s, with over 1,000 people involved in the project by 1999. Versions of Internet Explorer for other operating systems have been produced, including an Xbox 360 version called Internet Explorer for Xbox and for platforms Microsoft no longer supports: Internet Explorer for Mac and Internet Explorer for UNIX, an embedded OEM version called Pocket Internet Explorer rebranded Internet Explorer Mobile made for Windows CE, Windows Phone and based on Internet Explorer 7 for Windows Phone 7. On March 17, 2015, Microsoft announced that Microsoft Edge would replace Internet Explorer as the default browser on its Windows 10 devices.

This makes Internet Explorer 11 the last release. Internet Explorer, remains on Windows 10 and Windows Server 2019 for enterprise purposes. Since January 12, 2016, only Internet Explorer 11 has official support for consumers. Support varies based on its support life cycle; the browser has been scrutinized throughout its development for use of third-party technology and security and privacy vulnerabilities, the United States and the European Union have alleged that integration of Internet Explorer with Windows has been to the detriment of fair browser competition. The Internet Explorer project was started in the summer of 1994 by Thomas Reardon, according to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Review of 2003, used source code from Spyglass, Inc. Mosaic, an early commercial web browser with formal ties to the pioneering National Center for Supercomputing Applications Mosaic browser. In late 1994, Microsoft licensed Spyglass Mosaic for a quarterly fee plus a percentage of Microsoft's non-Windows revenues for the software.

Although bearing a name similar to NCSA Mosaic, Spyglass Mosaic had used the NCSA Mosaic source code sparingly. The first version, dubbed Microsoft Internet Explorer, was installed as part of the Internet Jumpstart Kit in Microsoft Plus! for Windows 95 and Plus!. The Internet Explorer team began with about six people in early development. Internet Explorer 1.5 was released several months for Windows NT and added support for basic table rendering. By including it free of charge with their operating system, they did not have to pay royalties to Spyglass Inc, resulting in a lawsuit and a US$8 million settlement on January 22, 1997. Microsoft was sued over the trademark infringement. Internet Explorer 2 Internet Explorer 3 Internet Explorer 4 Internet Explorer 5 Internet Explorer 6 Internet Explorer 7 Internet Explorer 8 Internet Explorer 9 Internet Explorer 10 Internet Explorer 11 is featured in Windows 8.1, released on October 17, 2013. It includes an incomplete mechanism for syncing tabs, it is a major update to its developer tools, enhanced scaling for high DPI screens, HTML5 prerender and prefetch, hardware-accelerated JPEG decoding, closed captioning, HTML5 full screen, is the first Internet Explorer to support WebGL and Google's protocol SPDY.

This version of IE has features dedicated to Windows 8.1, including cryptography, adaptive bitrate streaming and Encrypted Media Extensions. Internet Explorer 11 was made available for Windows 7 users to download on November 7, 2013, with Automatic Updates in the following weeks. Internet Explorer 11's user agent string now identifies the agent as "Trident" instead of "MSIE", it announces compatibility with Gecko. Microsoft claimed that Internet Explorer 11, running the WebKit SunSpider JavaScript Benchmark, was the fastest browser as of October 15, 2013. Internet Explorer 11 was made available for Windows Server 2012 and Windows Embedded 8 Standard in the spring of 2019. Microsoft Edge unveiled on


Wolfershausen is one of the sixteen constituent communities that form the town of Felsberg in Schwalm-Eder-Kreis, North Hesse, Germany. The boundary of the village encompasses an area of about 3.7 km2, in which 760 people live. The village is situated on the western bank of the river Eder. To the west of the village is the Lotterberg, a volcano, active in the Miocene and became extinct 7 million years ago; the Eder confluences with the river Fulda just 4.5 km downstream at Edermünde. Wolfershausen was first mentioned in 1061 in a document from the Fulda monastery; the abbot, Widerad von Eppenstein, transferred the land and farm of a gentleman and his wife from Maden to a monastery at Morschen. In this exchange, the towns of Wolfeshuson, Hebel and Heßlar were involved; the gentry of Wolferhausen were liegemen, they were noblemen who were obliged to pay a tithe to the Saint Peter's Church in Fritzlar. In 1232 Landgrave Konrad von Thüringen attacked the town of Fritzlar; the knights from Wolfershausen were defending the Heiligenburg Castle, destroyed in the landgrave's attack.

The Archbishop Siegfried III from Mainz gave the order for the castle to be rebuilt. This decision caused the nobles of Wolfershausen to transfer their allegiance to the Landgrave, which caused them great loss on. In fact, the nobles of Wolfershausen transferred their loyalty to the side that brought them the most, many times over history; the coat of arms for Wolfershausen originates from 1259. The shield is party per fess: upper — a wolf courant to dexter and langued, lower — three annulets argent in pile on azure; the annulets in pile signify the town of Rengshausen, a town in the community of Knüllwald 28 km south of Wolfershausen, from where the noble family originated. In 1273, the castle, built by the Wolfershausen noble family, was destroyed by soldiers from Fritzlar and never subsequently rebuilt. In 1291 the town was mentioned as Wolfishusen. In 1357 the town was called Wolfartdeshusen. In 1465 the Breitenau Monastery purchased the patronage of the church from the noble family von Löwenstein.

In 1555 the town belonged to Felsberg, in 1585 it was administered by Kassel. On 1 January 1972 the town joined the newly-formed municipality of Brunslar; this was incorporated into the town of Felsberg on 1 January 1974. In the 13th Century, after 1273, a fortified church, with a square tower, was built on the remains of the old castle; the present-day aisle was constructed in the Gothic art style around 1484. The menhir Riesenstein, 1.14 km to the north of the town. The Gothic art-style church

Phil Neer

Philip F. Neer was NCAA champion and a top-ranking amateur tennis player in the 1920s. Neer, a native of Portland, was one of the first male tennis players from the west coast to achieve national tennis success, he and partner Don Gilman won the Oregon state doubles championship in 1918, in 1919, was the national junior doubles runner-up and the Pacific Northwest singles champion. A year he won the British Columbia men’s singles championship and the Oregon state singles championship. Neer attended Stanford University and in 1921, became the first player from a western U. S. university to win the NCAA Men's Tennis Championship. A year Neer and partner Jim Davies won the NCAA doubles championship, the first team from a non-Ivy League school to do so; as a professional player, Neer won back-to-back doubles championships at the Pacific Coast Championships in 1932 and 1933. On January 28, 1933, ranked #8 in the United States at the time, played his friend and occasional mixed doubles partner Helen Wills Moody in an exhibition match in San Francisco.

Moody, the reigning ladies' Wimbledon champion, defeated Neer 6–3, 6–4. This match predated the Bobby Riggs-Billie Jean King "Battle of the Sexes" by 40 years. Neer was inducted into the United States Tennis Association Pacific Northwest Hall of Fame in 2003, is a member of the Stanford Athletic Hall of Fame. Neer's brothers and Henry, were prominent in Portland tennis, as well as his nephew Jack Neer