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Digitalis

Digitalis is a genus of about 20 species of herbaceous perennials and biennials called foxgloves. This genus was traditionally placed in the figwort family Scrophulariaceae, but recent phylogenetic research has placed it in the much enlarged family Plantaginaceae; this genus is native to western and southwestern Europe and central Asia and northwestern Africa. The flowers are produced on a tall spike, are tubular, vary in colour with species, from purple to pink and yellow; the scientific name means "finger-like" and refers to the ease with which a flower can be fitted over a human fingertip. The best-known species is Digitalis purpurea; this biennial plant is grown as an ornamental plant due to its vivid flowers which range in colour from various purple tints through pink, purely white. The flowers can possess various marks and spottings. Other garden-worthy species include D. grandiflora, D. lutea and D. parviflora. The term digitalis is used for drug preparations that contain cardiac glycosides one called digoxin, extracted from various plants of this genus.

Foxglove has medicinal uses but can be toxic to humans and other animals. The name "foxglove" was first recorded in the year 1542 by Leonhard Fuchs, whose family name, Fuchs, is the German word for "fox"; the genus digitalis is from the Latin digitus referencing the shape of the flowers, which accommodate a finger when formed. Thus the name is recorded in fox's glove. Over time, folk myths obscured the literal origins of the name, insinuating that foxes wore the flowers on their paws to silence their movements as they stealthily hunted their prey; the woody hillsides where the foxes made their dens were covered with the toxic flowers. Some of the more menacing names, such as "witch's glove," reference the toxicity of the plant. Henry Fox Talbot proposed folks' glove. R. C. A. Prior suggested an etymology of foxes-glew, meaning'fairy music'. However, neither of these suggestions accounts for the Old English form foxes glofa. Digitalis species thrive in acidic soils, in partial sunlight to deep shade, in a range of habitats, including open woods, woodland clearings and heath margins, sea-cliffs, rocky mountain slopes and hedge banks.

It is found on sites where the ground has been disturbed, such as cleared woodland, or where the vegetation has been burnt. Larvae of the foxglove pug, a moth, consume the flowers of the common foxglove for food. Other species of Lepidoptera eat the leaves, including the lesser yellow underwing. A group of medicines extracted from foxglove plants are called digitalin; the use of D. purpurea extract containing cardiac glycosides for the treatment of heart conditions was first described in the English-speaking medical literature by William Withering, in 1785, considered the beginning of modern therapeutics. It is used to increase cardiac contractility and as an antiarrhythmic agent to control the heart rate in the irregular atrial fibrillation. Digitalis is hence prescribed for patients in atrial fibrillation if they have been diagnosed with congestive heart failure. Digoxin was approved for heart failure in 1998 under current regulations by the Food and Drug Administration on the basis of prospective, randomized study and clinical trials.

It was approved for the control of ventricular response rate for patients with atrial fibrillation. American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines recommend digoxin for symptomatic chronic heart failure for patients with reduced systolic function, preservation of systolic function, and/or rate control for atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response. Heart Failure Society of America guidelines for heart failure provide similar recommendations. Despite its recent approval by the Food and Drug Administration and the guideline recommendations, the therapeutic use of digoxin is declining in patients with heart failure—likely the result of several factors. Safety concerns regarding a proposed link between digoxin therapy and increased mortality in women may be contributing to the decline in therapeutic use of digoxin. A group of pharmacologically active compounds are extracted from the leaves of the second year's growth, in pure form are referred to by common chemical names, such as digitoxin or digoxin, or by brand names such as Crystodigin and Lanoxin, respectively.

The two drugs differ in that digoxin has an additional hydroxyl group at the C-3 position on the B-ring. Both molecules include a triple-repeating sugar called a glycoside. Digitalis works by inhibiting sodium-potassium ATPase; this results in an increased intracellular concentration of sodium ions and thus a decreased concentration gradient across the cell membrane. This increase in intracellular sodium causes the Na/CA exchanger to reverse potential, i.e. transition from pumping sodium into the cell in exchange for pumping calcium out of the cell, to pumping sodium out of the cell in exchange for pumping calcium into the cell. This leads to an increase in cytoplasmic calcium concentration, which improves cardiac contractility. Under normal physiological conditions, the cytoplasmic calcium used in cardiac contractions originates from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, an intracellular organelle that specializes in the storage of calcium. Human newborns, some animals, patients with chronic heart failure lack well developed and functioning sarcoplasmic reticula and must rely on the Na/Ca exchanger to provide all or a majori

Transgender rights in Germany

Transgender rights in the Federal Republic of Germany are regulated in the Transsexuellengesetz, since 1980. The law required them to undergo surgical alteration of their genitals in order to have key identity documents changed; this has since been declared unconstitutional. Discrimination protections on the basis of gender identity and sexual orientation vary across Germany, but discrimination in employment and the provision of goods and services is in principle banned countrywide. In 1980, West Germany passed a law that regulates the change of legal gender, it is called "Gesetz über die Änderung der Vornamen und die Feststellung der Geschlechtszugehörigkeit in besonderen Fällen". However, the name change becomes void if a child of the person's descent is born more than 300 days after the name change. Since 1990, the law applied to all of Germany following the reunification of West Germany. In the past, German law required parents to give their child a gender-specific name; this is no longer true, since the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany held in 2008 that there is no obligation that a name has to be sex-specific if it is the only one.

One can either obtain a change of name alone, proceed with a change of legal gender, if possible or desired, or obtain both in a single legal procedure. For both, two independent medical court experts have to be commissioned by the judge, they are asked to evaluate, whether the person "does not identify with the birth-assigned sex/gender, but with the other one", "feels a compulsion to live according to his/her ideas for at least three years", it is to be assumed with high probability, that the feeling of belonging to the other sex/gender is not going to change". For the change of legal gender, it was once required that the person is permanently infertile, has had surgery through which their outer sexual characteristics are changed to a "significant approximation" to the appearance of their preferred biological sex; these requirements were declared unconstitutional by supreme court ruling in a 2011. The law stated that neither change of name nor legal gender were available for people under 25 years of age.

This condition has been declared void by the courts, today there is no minimum age. Until 2008, the person had to be unmarried; the TSG applies only to German citizens. Several court decisions have further specified several matters. For example, a person with only a name change has the right to be called "Herr" or "Frau" according to their first name, not their legal gender. Job references and similar from the time before the change of name may be reissued with the new name, so there is no way for a new employer to learn about the change of name and/or legal gender. People with only a name change do not have to divulge their legal gender to employers. In 2011, the German Constitutional Court ruled that a person did not need either sex reassignment surgery or sterilization in order to change their gender. In January 2011, the German Constitutional Court ruled that these two requirements were unconstitutional; the Equal Treatment Act came into force on 18 August 2006. It law bans discrimination based on sexual orientation, gender identity and sex characteristics in employment and the provision of goods and services.

Hate speeches on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity are not banned nationwide in Germany. Some states have laws banning all forms of discrimination in their constitutions. In those states, hate speeches based on both sexual orientation and gender identity are prohibited. In November 2017, the Federal Constitutional Court ruled that civil status law must allow a third gender option; this means. LGBT rights in Germany Legal aspects of transgenderism Intersex rights in Germany

Albert J. Ellis Airport

Albert J. Ellis Airport is a county-owned public-use airport in Onslow County, North Carolina, United States, it is located in Richlands, 10 nautical miles northwest of the central business district of Jacksonville and Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune. The airport has three gates. Opening on February 15, 1971, the airport is used by general aviation, the military, two commercial airlines, American Eagle and Delta Connection. American Eagle operates services to Charlotte; these services are operated by PSA Airlines, which operates CRJ-200s, CRJ-700s, CRJ-900s. On August 30, 2006, Delta Air Lines announced new service from the airport to Atlanta, operated by Delta Connection carrier Express Jet Airlines, starting on December 11, 2006. Delta Connection operated by ExpressJet operates CRJ-200/700s/900s and Delta Air Lines at OAJ. Delta began operating B-717 aircraft on the OAJ-ATL route on August 28, 2016. Albert J. Ellis Airport covers an area of 775 acres at an elevation of 94 ft above mean sea level.

It has one runway designated 5/23 with an asphalt surface measuring 7,100 by 150 ft. For the 12-month period ending May 31, 2014, the airport had 39,262 aircraft operations, an average of 107 per day: 53% general aviation, 22% scheduled commercial, 19% military, 6% air taxi. At that time, 24 aircraft were based at this airport: 81% single-engined and 19% multiengined; the airport is served by a fixed-base operator, Skyport Aviation, which offers fueling, flight instruction, aircraft rentals for the new 10,000-ft2 executive terminal, which opened in 2015. In 2013, the airport began construction on a two-story, 67,000 ft2 replacement passenger terminal building; the new terminal features passenger loading bridges, new concessions, expanded passenger areas, space for additional airlines. This is part of the Airport's $50-million Terminal Area Redevelopment Program; the new terminal was topped off on June 10, 2014, opened on August 19, 2015. On December 6, 2017, the airport began construction on its first air traffic control tower.

The six-story-tall tower opened on November 1, 2018. A project to add a 900-ft extension to the northeast end of the runway is scheduled to begin in 2023, with construction beginning in 2025. Projects to improve the airfield lighting and taxiways are planned to begin between 2023 and 2027. FAA Airport Diagram, effective February 27, 2020 "Albert J. Ellis Airport". at NCDOT airport directory Aerial image as of March 1993 from USGS The National Map FAA Terminal Procedures for OAJ, effective February 27, 2020 Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for OAJ AirNav airport information for KOAJ ASN accident history for OAJ FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS weather observations: current, past three days SkyVector aeronautical chart, Terminal Procedures