Dilma Vana Rousseff is a Brazilian economist and politician who served as the 36th president of Brazil, holding the position from 2011 until her impeachment and removal from office on 31 August 2016. She was the first woman to hold the Brazilian presidency and had served as Chief of Staff to former president Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva from 2005 to 2010; the daughter of a Bulgarian immigrant, Rousseff was raised in an upper middle class household in Belo Horizonte. She became a socialist in her youth and after the 1964 coup d'état joined left-wing and Marxist urban guerrilla groups that fought against the military dictatorship. Rousseff was captured and jailed from 1970 to 1972. After her release, Rousseff rebuilt her life in Porto Alegre with Carlos Araújo, her husband for 30 years, they both helped to found the Democratic Labour Party in Rio Grande do Sul, participated in several of the party's electoral campaigns. She became the treasury secretary of Porto Alegre under Alceu Collares, Secretary of Energy of Rio Grande do Sul under both Collares and Olívio Dutra.
In 2001, after an internal dispute in the Dutra cabinet, she left the PDT and joined the Workers' Party. In 2002, Rousseff became an energy policy advisor to presidential candidate Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, who on winning the election invited her to become his minister of energy. Chief of Staff José Dirceu resigned in 2005 in a political crisis triggered by the Mensalão corruption scandal. Rousseff became chief of staff and remained in that post until 31 March 2010, when she stepped down to run for president, she was elected in a run-off on 31 October 2010, beating Brazilian Social Democracy Party candidate José Serra. On 26 October 2014 she won a narrow second-round victory over Aécio Neves of the PSDB. Impeachment proceedings against Rousseff began in the Chamber of Deputies on 3 December 2015. On 12 May 2016, the Senate of Brazil suspended President Rousseff's powers and duties for up to six months or until the Senate decided whether to remove her from office or to acquit her. Vice President Michel Temer assumed her powers and duties as Acting President of Brazil during her suspension.
On 31 August 2016, the Senate voted 61–20 to impeach, finding Rousseff guilty of breaking budgetary laws and removing her from office. On 5 August 2018, the PT launched Rousseff's candidacy for a seat in the Federal Senate, from the state of Minas Gerais. However, despite leading in the polls in the run-up to the election, Rousseff finished fourth in the final vote and was not elected. Dilma Vana Rousseff was born in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, on 14 December 1947, to Bulgarian lawyer and entrepreneur Pedro Rousseff and schoolteacher Dilma Jane da Silva, her father was born in Gabrovo, in the Principality of Bulgaria, was a friend of the Nobel Prize-nominated Bulgarian poet Elisaveta Bagryana. As an active member of the Bulgarian Communist Party, banned in 1924, Petar Rusev fled Bulgaria in 1929 to escape political persecution, he arrived in Brazil in the 1930s widowed, but soon moved to Buenos Aires, Argentina. He returned to Brazil several years settling in São Paulo, where he succeeded in business.
Pétar Rúsev adapted his first name to the last to French. During a trip to Uberaba, he met Dilma Jane da Silva, a young schoolteacher born in Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro, raised in Minas Gerais, where her parents were ranchers; the two married and settled in Belo Horizonte, where they had three children: Igor, Dilma Vana, Zana Lúcia. Igor Rousseff, Dilma's elder brother, is a lawyer. Pedro Rousseff was a contractor for Mannesmann steel in addition to building and selling real estate; the family lived in a large house, had three servants, maintained European habits. The children had a classical education with French lessons. After they overcame the initial resistance of the community to accepting foreigners, the family attended traditional clubs and schools. Rousseff was enrolled in preschool at the Colégio Izabela Hendrix and primary school at Colégio Nossa Senhora de Sion, a girls' boarding school run by nuns, who taught in French, her father died in 1962. In 1964 Rousseff left the conservative Colégio Sion and joined the Central State High School, a co-ed public school where the students protested against the dictatorship, established after the 1964 Brazilian coup d'état.
In 1967 she joined Worker's Politics, an organization founded in 1961 as a spinoff of the Brazilian Socialist Party. Its members found. Rousseff joined the second group. According to Apolo Heringer Lisboa, leader of Colina in 1968 who taught Marxism to Rousseff in high school, she chose armed struggle after reading Revolution inside the Revolution by Régis Debray, a French intellectual who had moved to Cuba and become a friend of Fidel Castro and Che Guevara. Heringer says that "the book inflamed everybody, including Dilma". During that period, Rousseff met a brother-in-arms five years her senior. Galeno, who had joined POLOP in 1962, had served in the Army, participating in the uprising of sailors against the military coup, for which he had been arrested in Ilha das Cobras, they married in 1968
Melvin John Bridgman is a Canadian former professional ice hockey centre who played 14 seasons in the National Hockey League from 1975–76 until 1988–89. Bridgman was born in Trenton, but grew up in Thunder Bay, before moving to Victoria, British Columbia. After his playing career, he earned his MBA from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. In 1992, Bridgman was the first general manager of the modern-day Ottawa Senators of the NHL. Bridgman was drafted first overall by the Philadelphia Flyers in the 1975 NHL Amateur Draft, he played 977 career NHL games, scoring 252 goals and 449 assists for 701 points, as well as adding 1625 penalty minutes. His best offensive season was the 1981–82 season, when he set career highs with 33 goals, 54 assists, 87 points. Throughout his career Bridgman was known as a consistent offensive contributor, a smart defensive centre, a gritty, hard-nosed, power forward who would check and fight regularly. Biographical information and career statistics from NHL.com, or Hockey-Reference.com, or Legends of Hockey, or The Internet Hockey Database Meltzer, Bill Flyers Heroes of the Past: Mel Bridgman at philadelphiaflyers.com
The Stoomvaart Maatschappij Nederland or SMN known as the Netherland Line or Nederland Line, was a Dutch shipping line that operated from 1870 until 1970, when it merged with several other companies to form what would become Royal Nedlloyd. The company's motto, Semper Mare Navigandum, conveniently fitted the same initials; the SMN was founded on May 13th, 1870 in Amsterdam for the trade between North Western Europe and the former Dutch East Indies via the newly opened Suez Canal. One of the founders was Prince Hendrik, nicknamed "The Seafarer". All transport to and from the East Indies was by mail boat; these vessels carried passengers and some freight, a fast and regular service was required. Passengers from or for Holland went by train to and from Naples, Marseilles or Genoa in order to keep the travelling time as short as possible. In the early days the company profited from shipping goods produced by the government-run plantations and industries in the East Indies, from Bangka tin to tobacco and copra.
From Europe came manufactured goods, factory equipment and railroad materials. From 1870 to 1879 the company used its own warehouses in Den Helder for unloading. With the 1876 opening of the Noordzeekanaal connecting Amsterdam directly to the North Sea an easier route to its home base became available; the Oostelijke Handelskade and the Java and Sumatra docks became the center of the SMN in The Netherlands. In Europe ships called at Amsterdam and Genoa. In the Dutch East Indies ships plied to the ports on the northern coast of the island of Java, e.g. Jakarta and Tanjung Priok. Coal was taken at Valletta, Port Said, Aden and Sabang. In the early decades of the 20th century the company opened new routes operating across the Pacific Ocean between Java and the American West Coast, via the Panama Canal, between Java and New York City. After the mail boats came more specialised vessels: freighters and the known passenger liners, including famous ships such as Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft, Christiaan Huygens, Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, Oranje.
During the Second World War many of the company's ships were commandeered to support the Allied military effort, a number were lost to enemy action. Following the birth of the State of Indonesia in 1949, the subsequent loosening of the old colonial ties, trade with the former colonies declined. In dire need of new business, the company intensified development of its other routes – linking Holland, South Africa and South America and the Far East – and built up its chartering business. In addition to its freight and passenger services, SMN actively took part in other transport ventures – for example, Martin Air Charter, the specialized LNG tanker Antilla Cape, Container Terminal Amsterdam and van Swieten Trucking. In the 1960s SMN acquired Hollandsche Stoomboot Maatschappij with regular services to England and West Africa. Starting in the late 1950s, the advent of mass air travel spelled the end of the ocean liners; the company's passenger routes were closed and the ships sold, leaving the company to concentrate on freight, which from the 1970s onwards meant container ships.
Hailing from Amsterdam, SMN always enjoyed friendly competition and rivalry with Rotterdam shipping company Rotterdamsche Lloyd on the East Indies route. In 1963 SMN and KRL jointly founded Nedlloyd Lines. From 1968 the SMN closely cooperated with KJCPL–RIL of Amsterdam and Hong Kong; this cooperation amongst friendly Dutch shipowners resulted in a full merger. On January 20th, 1970, the SMN joined with three other companies to form the Nederlandsche Scheepvaart Unie and ceased to exist as a separate entity, having just failed to reach its 100th anniversary; the NSU partners were: Stoomvaart Maatschappij Nederland Koninklijke Rotterdamsche Lloyd Koninklijke Java-China-Paketvaart-Lijnen Vereenigde Nederlandsche Scheepvaartmaatschappij Later on NSU became Nedlloyd, in 1977 the name changed to Koninklijke Nedlloyd. In 1981 the Koninklijke Nederlandsche Stoomboot-Maatschappij completed the group. In 1996, Koninklijke Nedlloyd merged its container shipping interests with the British company P&O to become, as P&O Nedlloyd, a major player in the worldwide container trade.
In 2005 A. P. Moller-Maersk Group from Denmark acquired P&O Nedlloyd and the newly formed Maersk Line subsequently became the world’s largest container shipping line. SMN headquartered at the IJgracht in Amsterdam at the Scheepvaarthuis together with other shipping companies. Employees arriving by bicycle came through the side entrance and used the famous Paternoster elevators to reach their floors. A monumental staircase led directly to the directors' floor; the company maintained offices in Jakarta. The history and heritage of the Stoomboot Maatschappij'Nederland' and other Dutch shipping companies is preserved at the Amsterdam and Rotterdam maritime museums; the Netherland Line's first vessel, SS Willem II, was launched in 1871. Its last under that flag were the Neder "L-class" vessels Neder Linge and Neder Lek, launched in 1967/68; the following is a selected list of the vessels operated by the company throughout its 100-year history. Tonnages are approximate. Bali Balong Banda Banggai Batjan Batu Bawean Bengkali