The dime novel is a form of late 19th-century and early 20th-century U. S. popular fiction issued in series of inexpensive paperbound editions. The term dime novel has been used as a catchall term for several different but related forms, referring to story papers, five- and ten-cent weeklies, "thick book" reprints, sometimes early pulp magazines; the term was used as a title as late in the short-lived pulp magazine Western Dime Novels. In the modern age, the term dime novel has been used to refer to written, lurid potboilers as a pejorative to describe a sensationalized but superficial literary work. In 1860, the publishers Erastus and Irwin Beadle released a new series of cheap paperbacks, Beadle's Dime Novels. Dime novel became a general term for similar paperbacks produced by various publishers in the early twentieth century; the first book in the Beadle series was Malaeska, the Indian Wife of the White Hunter, by Ann S. Stephens, dated June 9, 1860; the novel was a reprint of Stephens's earlier serial, which had appeared in the Ladies' Companion magazine in February and April 1839.
It sold more than 65,000 copies in the first few months after its publication as a dime novel. Dime novels varied in size in the first Beadle series, but were about 6.5 by 4.25 inches, with 100 pages. The first 28 were published in a salmon-colored paper wrapper. A woodblock print was added in issue 29, the first 28 were reprinted with illustrated covers; the books were priced, at ten cents. This series ran for 321 issues and established all the conventions of the genre, from the lurid and outlandish story to the melodramatic double titling used throughout the series, which ended in the 1920s. Most of the stories were frontier tales reprinted from the numerous serials in the story papers and other sources, but many were original stories; as the popularity of dime novels increased, original stories came to be the norm. The books were reprinted many times, sometimes with different covers, the stories were further reprinted in different series and by different publishers; the literacy rate increased around the time of the American Civil War, Beadle's Dime Novels were popular among young, working-class readers.
By the end of the war, numerous competitors, such as George Munro and Robert DeWitt, were crowding the field, distinguishing their product only by title and the color of the paper wrappers. Beadle & Adams had their own alternate "brands", such as the Frank Starr line; as a whole, the quality of the fiction was derided by highbrow critics, the term dime novel came to refer to any form of cheap, sensational fiction, rather than the specific format. Nonetheless, the pocket-sized sea, railway, gold-digger, other adventures were an instant success. Author Armin Jaemmrich observes that Alexis de Tocqueville's theses in Democracy in America says that in democratic and permeable societies, like that of the U. S. the lower classes were not "naturally indifferent to science and the arts: only it must be acknowledged that they cultivate them after their own fashion, bring to the task their own peculiar qualifications and deficiencies." He found that in aristocratic societies education and interest in literature were confined to a small upper class, that the literary class would arrive at a "sort of aristocratic jargon... hardly less remote from pure language than was the coarse dialect of the people."
According to Tocqueville, due to the heterogeneity of its population, the situation in the U. S. was different, people were asking for reading matter. Since, in his view every American was busy earning a living with no time for obtaining a higher education let alone for timeconsuming distractions, they preferred books which "may be procured read, which require no learned researches to be understood... they require rapid emotions, startling passages.... Small productions will be more common than bulky books... The object of authors will be to astonish rather than to please, to stir the passions more than to charm the taste." Written twenty-five years prior to the emergence of the dimes, his words read like an exact anticipation of their main characteristics. Adding to the general confusion as to what is or is not a dime novel, many of the series, though similar in design and subject, cost ten to fifteen cents. Beadle & Adams complicated the matter by issuing some titles in the same salmon-colored covers at different prices.
There were a number of ten-cent, paper-covered books of the period that featured medieval romance stories and melodramatic tales. This makes it hard to define what falls in the category of the dime novel, with classification depending on format, price, or style of material. Examples of dime novel series that illustrate the diversity of the form include Bunce's Ten Cent Novels, Brady's Mercury Stories, Beadle's Dime Novels, Irwin P. Beadle's Ten Cent Stories, Munro's Ten Cent Novels, Dawley's Ten Penny Novels, Fireside Series, Chaney's Union Novels, DeWitt's Ten Cent Romances, Champion Novels, Frank Starr's American Novels, Ten Cent Novelettes, Richmond's Sensation Novels, Ten Cent Irish Novels. In 1874, Beadle & Adams added the novelty of color to the covers when their New Dime Novels series replaced the flagship title; the New Dime Novels were issued with a dual numbering system on the cover, one continuing the numbering from the first series and the second and more prominent one indicating the number in the current series.
The stories were reprints from the first series. Like its predecessor, Beadle's New Dime Novels ran for 321 issues, until 1885. Much of the content of
Tanjong Datu is a state constituency in Sarawak, represented in the Sarawak State Legislative Assembly since 1991. The state constituency was created in the 1987 redistribution and is mandated to return a single member to the Sarawak State Legislative Assembly under the first past the post voting system. 2006–2016: The constituency contains the polling districts of Telok Melano, Sebat, Seling, Lundu, Sekambal, Kampung Sebemban, Sampadi, Rambungan. 2016–present: The constituency contains the polling districts of Telok Melano, Sebat, Seling, Lundu, Sekambal, Kampung Sebemban, Sampadi, Rambungan. "Keputusan Pilihan Raya Suruhanjaya Pilihan Raya". Election Commission of Malaysia. Archived from the original on 2016-04-24. Retrieved 2016-04-27
Rakt Sambandh is an Indian television series which aired on NDTV Imagine from 19 July 2010 to 1 April 2011. A visually impaired young woman with the help of four supportive elder sisters and a loving father has overcome her difficulties to lead a normal life, but life takes a different turn, when she finds her father dead under mysterious circumstances on her wedding day. With the affection showered by her husband Yuvraj and his family, Sandhya begins to smile again but not for too long. Unknown to her, Sandhya's new family have a dark secret. Sandhya in laws has murdered her father because he get to know that he was enuch soon Sandhya get to know all these secret and try to exposes r the faimly but everyone murdered her and throws her from cliff Sriti Jha as Sandhya Savratkar / Sandhya Yuvraj Jagirdar / Sandhya Neeraj Pradhan Naman Shaw as Neeraj Pradhan Dhruv Bhandari as Yuvraj Jagirdar Sonali Nikam as Shraddha Savratkar / Shraddha Rohit Deshmukh Sayantani Ghosh as Sakshi Savratkar / Sakshi Aditya Vaidya Sachin Shroff as Aditya Vaidys Gungun Uprari as Shreya Savratkar Kavita Kapoor as Prabha Purushottam Jagirdar Manish Raisinghani as Mohan Niyati Joshi as Anjali Kishori Shahane as Gayatri Devi Pratyusha Banerjee as Priya Jagirdar Supriya Kumari as Priya Mazher Sayed as Rohit Deshmukh Vishal Puri as DK Jagirdar Himanshi Chaudhary as Sunita DK Jagirdar Mohan Bhandari as Purushottam Jagirdar Rinku Karmarkar as Sarla Pankaj Jagirdar Adi Irani as Pankaj Jagirdar Raja Krishanmurti as Shyamrao Savratkar Bhargavi Chirmule as Savita Savratkar / Savita Jayesh Patil Nihar Thakkar as Jayesh Patil Rajesh Khera as Damodar
The concept of negative and positive frequency can be as simple as a wheel rotating one way or the other way: a signed value of frequency can indicate both the rate and direction of rotation. The rate is expressed in units such as revolutions per radian/second. Let ω be a nonnegative parameter with units of radians/sec; the angular function −ωt + θ, has slope −ω, called a negative frequency. But when the function is used as the argument of a cosine operator, the result is indistinguishable from cos. Sin is indistinguishable from sin, thus any sinusoid can be represented in terms of positive frequencies. The sign of the underlying phase slope is ambiguous; the ambiguity is resolved when the cosine and sine operators can be observed because cos leads sin by 1/4 cycle when ω > 0, lags by 1/4 cycle when ω < 0. A vector, rotates counter-clockwise at 1 radian/sec, completes a circle every 2π seconds, the vector rotates in the other direction; the sign of ω is preserved in the complex-valued function: since R and I can be separately extracted and compared.
Although e i ω t contains more information than either of its components, a common interpretation is that it is a simpler function, because: It simplifies many important trigonometric calculations, which leads to its formal description as the analytic representation of cos . A corollary of Eq.1 is: which gives rise to the interpretation that cos comprises both positive and negative frequencies. But the sum is a cancellation that contains less, not more, information. Any measure that indicates both frequencies includes a false positive, because ω can have only one sign; the Fourier transform, for instance tells us that cos cross-correlates well with cos + i sin as with cos − i sin. The most well-known application of negative frequency is the calculation: X = ∫ a b x ⋅ e − i ω t d t, a measure of the amount of frequency ω in the function x over the interval; when evaluated as a continuous function of ω for the theoretical interval, it is known as the Fourier transform of x. A brief explanation is that the product of two complex sinusoids is a complex sinusoid whose frequency is the sum of the original frequencies.
So when ω is positive, e − i ω t causes all the frequencies of x to be reduced by amount ω. Whatever part of x, at frequency ω is changed to frequency zero, just a constant whose amplitude level is a measure of the strength of the original ω content, and whatever part of x, at frequency zero is changed to a sinusoid at frequency −ω. All other frequencies are changed to non-zero values; as the interval increases, the contribution of the constant term grows in proportion. But the contributions of the sinusoidal terms only oscillate around zero. So X improves as a relative measure of the amount of frequency ω in the function x; the Fourier transform of e i ω t produces a non-zero response only at frequency ω. The transform of cos has responses at both ω and −ω, as anticipated by Eq.2. Positive and Negative Frequencies Lyons, Richard G.. Chapt 8.4. Understanding Digital Signal Processing. Prentice Hall. 944 pgs. ISBN 0137027419
Conus cepasi is a species of predatory sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, known as the cone snails, cone shells or cones. Like all species within the genus Conus, these snails are venomous, they are capable of "stinging" humans, therefore live ones should be handled or not at all. The size of the shell varies between 50 mm; this marine species is endemic to Africa. Bouchet, P. 1996. Conus cepasi. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 6 August 2007. Rolán E. & Röckel D. 2000. The endemic Conus of Angola. Argonauta 13: 5-44, 150 figs. Filmer R. M.. A Catalogue of Nomenclature and Taxonomy in the Living Conidae 1758 - 1998. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden. 388pp. Tucker J. K.. Recent cone species database. September 4, 2009 Edition Puillandre N. Duda T. F. Meyer C. Olivera B. M. & Bouchet P.. One, four or 100 genera? A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 "Varioconus cepasi". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 18 July 2011. Cone Shells - Knights of the Sea
Masjid Raya Mosque on Penyengat Island is located outside Tanjung Pinang on Bintan island, Indonesia. The mosque was built in 1844 and is today one of Tanjung Pinang's most popular attractions for visitors. Penyengat Island was the royal seat of the once powerful Sultanate of Riau-Lingga and it is famous for its viceroys of Riau during the 18th century conflict with European powers. Penyengat still bears the traces of its mystic past. Ruins, abandoned for 70 years, are restored; the old ruler's palace and royal tombs, among them the grave of the respected Raja Ali Haji, creator and author of the first Malay Language grammar book, are among the legacies left by the Riau Sultanate. Still in use is the old vice-royal mosque, the Mesjid Raya. Islam in Indonesia List of mosques in Indonesia Tanjung Pinang travel guide from Wikivoyage