Hydraulic fracturing is a well stimulation technique in which rock is fractured by a pressurized liquid. The process involves the high-pressure injection of'fracking fluid' into a wellbore to create cracks in the deep-rock formations through which natural gas and brine will flow more freely; when the hydraulic pressure is removed from the well, small grains of hydraulic fracturing proppants hold the fractures open. Hydraulic fracturing began as an experiment in 1947, the first commercially successful application followed in 1950; as of 2012, 2.5 million "frac jobs" had been performed worldwide on gas wells. S; such treatment is necessary to achieve adequate flow rates in shale gas, tight gas, tight oil, coal seam gas wells. Some hydraulic fractures can form in certain veins or dikes. Hydraulic fracturing is controversial in many countries, its proponents advocate the economic benefits of more extensively accessible hydrocarbons, as well as replacing coal with gas, cleaner and emits less carbon dioxide.
Opponents argue that these are outweighed by the potential environmental impacts, which include risks of ground and surface water contamination and noise pollution, the triggering of earthquakes, along with the consequential hazards to public health and the environment. Methane leakage is a problem directly associated with hydraulic fracturing, as a Environmental Defense Fund report in the US highlights, where the leakage rate in Pennsylvania during extensive testing and analysis was found to be 10%, or over five times the reported figures; this leakage rate is considered representative of the hydraulic fracturing industry in the US generally. The EDF have announced a satellite mission to further locate and measure methane emissions. Increases in seismic activity following hydraulic fracturing along dormant or unknown faults are sometimes caused by the deep-injection disposal of hydraulic fracturing flowback, produced formation brine. For these reasons, hydraulic fracturing is under international scrutiny, restricted in some countries, banned altogether in others.
The European Union is drafting regulations that would permit the controlled application of hydraulic fracturing. Fracturing rocks at great depth becomes suppressed by pressure due to the weight of the overlying rock strata and the cementation of the formation; this suppression process is significant in "tensile" fractures which require the walls of the fracture to move against this pressure. Fracturing occurs; the minimum principal stress exceeds the tensile strength of the material. Fractures formed in this way are oriented in a plane perpendicular to the minimum principal stress, for this reason, hydraulic fractures in well bores can be used to determine the orientation of stresses. In natural examples, such as dikes or vein-filled fractures, the orientations can be used to infer past states of stress. Most mineral vein systems are a result of repeated natural fracturing during periods of high pore fluid pressure; the impact of high pore fluid pressure on the formation process of mineral vein systems is evident in "crack-seal" veins, where the vein material is part of a series of discrete fracturing events, extra vein material is deposited on each occasion.
One example of long-term repeated natural fracturing is in the effects of seismic activity. Stress levels rise and fall episodically, earthquakes can cause large volumes of connate water to be expelled from fluid-filled fractures; this process is referred to as "seismic pumping". Minor intrusions in the upper part of the crust, such as dikes, propagate in the form of fluid-filled cracks. In such cases, the fluid is magma. In sedimentary rocks with a significant water content, fluid at fracture tip will be steam. Fracturing as a method to stimulate shallow, hard rock oil wells dates back to the 1860s. Dynamite or nitroglycerin detonations were used to increase oil and natural gas production from petroleum bearing formations. On 25 April 1865, US Civil War veteran Col. Edward A. L. Roberts received a patent for an "exploding torpedo", it was employed in Pennsylvania, New York and West Virginia using liquid and later, solidified nitroglycerin. Still the same method was applied to water and gas wells.
Stimulation of wells with acid, instead of explosive fluids, was introduced in the 1930s. Due to acid etching, fractures would not close resulting in further productivity increase. Harold Hamm, Aubrey McClendon, Tom Ward and George P. Mitchell are each considered to have pioneered hydraulic fracturing innovations toward practical applications; the relationship between well performance and treatment pressures was studied by Floyd Farris of Stanolind Oil and Gas Corporation. This study was the basis of the first hydraulic fracturing experiment, conducted in 1947 at the Hugoton gas field in Grant County of southwestern Kansas by Stanolind. For the well treatment, 1,000 US gallons of gelled gasoline and sand from the Arkansas River was injected into the gas-producing limestone formation at 2,400 feet; the experiment was not successful as deliverability of the well did not change appreciably. The process was further described by J. B. Clark of Stanol
Dimmitt is a city and county seat in Castro County, United States. The population was 4,393 at the 2010 census. Dimmitt is located on the old Ozark Trail, a road system from St. Louis, Missouri, to El Paso, Texas; the Ozark Trail is marked at the courthouse. In 1942, a meteorite was named after the town of Dimmitt, it is one of 311 approved meteorites from United States. Dimmitt is located west of the center of Castro County at 34°32′57″N 102°18′55″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.2 square miles, of which 3.2 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles, or 3.26%, is water. U. S. Route 385 passes through the city, leading north 20 miles to Hereford, the seat of Deaf Smith County, south 22 miles to Springlake. Texas State Highway 86 crosses US 385 near the center of town and leads east 32 miles to Tulia and west 33 miles to Bovina; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 4,393 people residing in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 68.8% Hispanic or Latino, 27.6% White, 2.3% Black, 0.3% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.1% from some other race and 0.3% from two or more races.
As of the census of 2000, there were 4,375 people, 1,464 households, 1,124 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,116.4 people per square mile. There were 1,692 housing units at an average density of 818.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 75.02% White, 2.99% African American, 1.69% Native American, 18.10% from other races, 2.19% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 56.94% of the population. There were 1,464 households out of which 39.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.7% were married couples living together, 12.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.2% were non-families. 22.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.94 and the average family size was 3.46. In the city, the population was spread out with 33.4% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 22.2% from 25 to 44, 21.3% from 45 to 64, 13.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,454, the median income for a family was $33,885. Males had a median income of $24,575 versus $20,162 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,228. About 19.0% of families and 23.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.1% of those under age 18 and 16.4% of those age 65 or over. Dimmitt is served by the Dimmitt Independent School District. Dimmitt I. S. D has a rich history of excellence in sports basketball; the Bobcats and Bobbies have won several state championships. Bobbies1953–1954 1A-2A Dimmitt 1954–1955 1A Dimmitt 1992–1993 3A DimmittBobcats1951–1952 1A-2A Division 2 Dimmitt 1974–1975 2A Dimmitt 1981–1982 3A Dimmitt 1982–1983 3A Dimmitt Dimmitt is served by the Castro County Healthcare System, it serves the surrounding county and the cities of Nazareth and Hart. Junior Coffey, former NFL football player Kent Hance, former U.
S. Representative from the Texas South Plains, former member of the Texas Railroad Commission, the chancellor of Texas Tech University in Lubbock since 2006. Herb Mayfield lived there through adulthood and was a former president of the Dimmitt Rodeo Association. Lometa Odom basketball player and coach, member of the Women's Basketball Hall of Fame Dimmitt Chamber of Commerce
Webb County, Texas
Webb County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 250,304, its county seat is Laredo. The county was named after James Webb, who served as Secretary of the Treasury, Secretary of State, Attorney General of the Republic of Texas, judge of the United States District Court following the admission of Texas to statehood. By area, Webb County is the sixth largest in the state. Webb County includes the Laredo metropolitan area. Webb County was split in 1856. Encinal County was established on February 1, 1856, was to have consisted of the eastern portion of Webb County. However, Encinal County was never organized and was dissolved on March 12, 1899, with its territory returned as part of Webb County. Much of Webb County history is based on the prevalence of ranching in the 19th century and continuing thereafter; the Webb County Heritage Foundation is a nonprofit organization that seeks to preserve documents and artifacts of the past to guarantee that the regional history is not lost to upcoming generations.
In 2015, the foundation, headed by President James E. Moore, presented Heritage Awards to such local notables as the artist Janet Krueger, the journalist Maria Eugenia Guerra, the Laredo Community College art instructor Martha F. Fenstermaker. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,376 square miles, of which 3,361 square miles is land and 14 square miles is covered by water; the Webb County - City of Laredo Regional Mobility Authority has responsibility for a comprehensive transport system in the region. As of the 2015 Texas Population Estimate Program, the population of the county was 273,536, non-Hispanic whites 8,699. Black Americans 552. Other non-Hispanic 2,134. Hispanics and Latinos 262,151; as of the census of 2000, 193,117 people, 50,740 households, 43,433 families resided in the county. The county gained 57,000 additional residents between 2000 and 2010; the population density was 58 people per square mile. The 55,206 housing units averaged 16 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 82.16% White, 0.37% Black or African American, 0.47% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 14.00% from other races, 2.54% from two or more races. About 94% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 50,740 households, 53.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.60% were married couples living together, 18.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 14.40% were not families. The average household size was 3.75 and the average family size was 4.10. In the county, the population was distributed as 36.20% under the age of 18, 11.40% from 18 to 24, 29.30% from 25 to 44, 15.60% from 45 to 64, 7.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 26 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,100, for a family was $29,394. Males had a median income of $23,618 versus $19,018 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $10,759. About 26.70% of families and 31.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 39.40% of those under age 18 and 26.90% of those age 65 or over. Like all Texas counties, Webb County is governed by four part-time county commissioners paid $76,220 annually and elected by single-member districts of equivalent population, a county-wide county judge, the full-time administrator of the county. County judge Danny Valdez left the position after two terms on December 31, 2014, was succeeded by Tano Tijerina, a former professional baseball player and local businessman. Valdez narrowly defeated Tijerina in 2010, but Tijerina rebounded with a 65 to 35% victory over Valdez in the Democratic primary election held on March 4, 2014; the private prison operator GEO Group runs the Rio Grande Detention Center in Webb County, which opened in 2008 and holds a maximum of 1900 federal detainees. On March 27, 2017, the Laredo attorney Victor G. Villarreal was named judge of Position 2 of the Webb County Court at Law.
He succeeds Jesus "Chuy" Garza, a popular veteran judge who resigned after indictment on an influence peddling charge. The commissioners interviewed six candidates for the position before deciding on Villarreal. Meanwhile, jury selection for Garza's trial is scheduled to begin on October 2, 2017; the indictment alleges that Garza in 2015 sought a $3,000 loan from Shirley Mathis on behalf of Christopher Casarez, a coordinator in Garza’s court. Casarez committed suicide in December 2016 the day before being scheduled to meet with authorities about the probe into the Garza case. On April 26, 2017, the Federal Bureau of Investigation conducted raids on municipal and county offices in Laredo to seek information in an undisclosed public corruption probe. Mayor Pete Saenz called the raids "embarrassing," but welcomed the investigation to halt any corruption that may be uncovered. A raid was conducted on Dannenbaum Engineering Company, a firm that holds large contracts in Laredo, San Antonio, other Texas cities.
Webb County Judge Tano Tijerina, who like Saenz indicated that he does not know the details of the matter, said that local officials would be standing for "justice and truth" and would cooperate with the FBI in the probes. County Commissioner John Galo said he was not surprised at the developments, which closed off Laredo City Hall for the day: “Corruption in Webb County has been going on for too long,” Galo added; this seat
Carrizo Springs, Texas
Carrizo Springs is a city in and the county seat of Dimmit County, United States. The population was 5,368 at the 2010 census.. The name of the town is derived from the local springs, which were named by the Spanish for the cane grass that once grew around them, it is the oldest town in Dimmit County. Artesian wells in the area are known for their clean water; this water is exported from Carrizo Springs for use as holy water. Carrizo Springs lies along U. S. Route 83 82 miles northwest of Laredo and 45 miles north of the Mexican border. Route 83 intersects U. S. Route 277 there; the name "Carrizo Springs" derives from named springs in the area. Founded in 1865 by settlers from Atascosa County, Carrizo Springs is the oldest community in the county. Carrizo Springs, along with San Antonio, Crystal City, Corpus Christi, was a major stop on the defunct San Antonio and Gulf Railroad, a Class I line which operated from 1909 until it was merged into the Missouri Pacific Railroad in 1956. More Carrizo Springs has become the home of the only olive orchard and oil press in Texas.
Carrizo Springs is located at 28°31′36″N 99°51′45″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.1 square miles, of which 3.1 square miles is land and 0.32% is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,655 people, 1,816 households and 1,450 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,812.9 people per square mile. There were 2,109 housing units at an average density of 676.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 75.28% White, 1.34% African American, 0.69% Native American, 1.10% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 18.83% from other races, 2.63% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 87.21% of the population. Out of the Residents under the age of 18 living with them, 54.0% were married couples living together, 20.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.1% were non-families. 17.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.06 and the average family size was 3.47.
In the city, the population was spread out with 33.3% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 25.0% from 25 to 44, 18.8% from 45 to 64, 13.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $21,306, the median income for a family was $22,375. Males had a median income of $24,536 versus $15,000 for females; the per capita income for the city was $8,642. About 30.8% of families and 33.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 42.9% of those under age 18 and 29.9% of those age 65 or over. Carrizo Springs is served by the Carrizo Springs Consolidated Independent School District and home to the Carrizo Springs High School Wildcats; the following schools serve students in the city: Carrizo Springs High School Carrizo Springs Junior High School Carrizo Springs Intermediate School Carrizo Springs Elementary School Handbook of Texas Online article about Carrizo Springs Carrizo Springs CISD Website Carrizo Springs, TX Detailed Profile on City-Data
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States. Established pursuant to Article III of the U. S. Constitution in 1789, it has original jurisdiction over a narrow range of cases, including suits between two or more states and those involving ambassadors, it has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all federal court and state court cases that involve a point of federal constitutional or statutory law. The Court has the power of judicial review, the ability to invalidate a statute for violating a provision of the Constitution or an executive act for being unlawful. However, it may act only within the context of a case in an area of law over which it has jurisdiction; the court may decide cases having political overtones, but it has ruled that it does not have power to decide nonjusticiable political questions. Each year it agrees to hear about one hundred to one hundred fifty of the more than seven thousand cases that it is asked to review.
According to federal statute, the court consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices, all of whom are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Once appointed, justices have lifetime tenure unless they resign, retire, or are removed from office; each justice has a single vote in deciding. When the chief justice is in the majority, he decides. In modern discourse, justices are categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. While a far greater number of cases in recent history have been decided unanimously, decisions in cases of the highest profile have come down to just one single vote, exemplifying the justices' alignment according to these categories; the Court meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C, its law enforcement arm is the Supreme Court of the United States Police. It was while debating the division of powers between the legislative and executive departments that delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention established the parameters for the national judiciary.
Creating a "third branch" of government was a novel idea. Early on, some delegates argued that national laws could be enforced by state courts, while others, including James Madison, advocated for a national judicial authority consisting of various tribunals chosen by the national legislature, it was proposed that the judiciary should have a role in checking the executive power to veto or revise laws. In the end, the Framers compromised by sketching only a general outline of the judiciary, vesting federal judicial power in "one supreme Court, in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish", they delineated neither the exact powers and prerogatives of the Supreme Court nor the organization of the Template:Judicial branch as a whole. The 1st United States Congress provided the detailed organization of a federal judiciary through the Judiciary Act of 1789; the Supreme Court, the country's highest judicial tribunal, was to sit in the nation's Capital and would be composed of a chief justice and five associate justices.
The act divided the country into judicial districts, which were in turn organized into circuits. Justices were required to "ride circuit" and hold circuit court twice a year in their assigned judicial district. After signing the act into law, President George Washington nominated the following people to serve on the court: John Jay for chief justice and John Rutledge, William Cushing, Robert H. Harrison, James Wilson, John Blair Jr. as associate justices. All six were confirmed by the Senate on September 26, 1789. Harrison, declined to serve. In his place, Washington nominated James Iredell; the Supreme Court held its inaugural session from February 2 through February 10, 1790, at the Royal Exchange in New York City the U. S. capital. A second session was held there in August 1790; the earliest sessions of the court were devoted to organizational proceedings, as the first cases did not reach it until 1791. When the national capital moved to Philadelphia in 1790, the Supreme Court did so as well.
After meeting at Independence Hall, the Court established its chambers at City Hall. Under Chief Justices Jay and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases; as the Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the court's full membership to make decisions, starting with a quorum of four justices in 1789; the court lacked a home of its own and had little prestige, a situation not helped by the era's highest-profile case, Chisholm v. Georgia, reversed within two years by the adoption of the Eleventh Amendment; the court's power and prestige grew during the Marshall Court. Under Marshall, the court established the power of judicial review over acts of Congress, including specifying itself as the supreme expositor of the Constitution and making several important constitutional rulings that gave shape and substance to the balance of power between the federal government and states; the Marshall Court ended the practice of each justice issuin
Atascosa County, Texas
Atascosa County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 44,911, its county seat is Jourdanton. The county is named for the Atascosa River. Atascosa County is part of TX Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,221 square miles, of which 1,220 square miles is land and 1.9 square miles is water. Interstate 35 Interstate 37 U. S. Highway 281 Alt. US 281 State Highway 16 State Highway 85 State Highway 97 Bexar County Wilson County Karnes County Live Oak County McMullen County La Salle County Frio County Medina County As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 44,911 people residing in the county. 84.9% were White, 0.8% Black or African American, 0.8% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 10.9% of some other race and 2.3% of two or more races. 61.9% were Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 38,628 people, 12,816 households, 10,022 families residing in the county.
The population density was 31 people per square mile. There were 14,883 housing units at an average density of 12 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 73.23% White, 0.60% Black or African American, 0.80% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 21.53% from other races, 3.47% from two or more races. 58.56% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 12,816 households out of which 41.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.30% were married couples living together, 13.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.80% were non-families. 18.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.99 and the average family size was 3.41. In the county, the population was spread out with 31.70% under the age of 18, 8.90% from 18 to 24, 27.60% from 25 to 44, 21.00% from 45 to 64, 10.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years.
For every 100 females, there were 96.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,081, the median income for a family was $37,705. Males had a median income of $27,702 versus $18,810 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,276. About 16.10% of families and 20.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.60% of those under age 18 and 21.70% of those age 65 or over. The following school districts serve Atascosa County: Charlotte Independent School District Jourdanton Independent School District Karnes City Independent School District Lytle Independent School District Pleasanton Independent School District Poteet Independent School District Somerset Independent School District Charlotte Jourdanton Lytle Pleasanton Poteet Christine Leming National Register of Historic Places listings in Atascosa County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Atascosa County Atascosa County Government Atascosa County, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online Atascosa County from the Texas Almanac Atascosa County from the TXGenWeb Project "Atascosa County Profile" from the Texas Association of Counties
A formation or geological formation is the fundamental unit of lithostratigraphy. A formation consists of a certain amount of rock strata that have a comparable lithology, facies or other similar properties. Formations are not defined by the thickness of their rock strata; the concept of formally defined layers or strata is central to the geologic discipline of stratigraphy. Groups of strata are divided into formations; the definition and recognition of formations allow geologists to correlate geologic strata across wide distances between outcrops and exposures of rock strata. Formations were at first described as the essential geologic time markers, based on their relative ages and the law of superposition; the divisions of the geological time scale were described and put in chronological order by the geologists and stratigraphers of the 18th and 19th centuries. The lithology of a rock is a description of its visible physical characteristics. Modern geology prefers to use lithology, that it an examination of the visible features of the component rocks, to identify discrete formations.
Geologic formations are divided into the broad categories of: sedimentary rock layers. Intrusive igneous rocks are not considered to be formations; the contrast in lithology between formations required to justify their establishment varies with the complexity of the geology of a region. Formations must be able to be delineated at the scale of geologic mapping practiced in the region. Geologic formations are named after the geographic area in which they were first described. Formations cannot be defined by any criteria other than primary lithology, it is useful to define biostratigraphic units on paleontological criteria, chronostratigraphic units on the age of the rocks, chemostratigraphic units on geochemical criteria. The term "formation" is used informally to refer to a specific grouping of rocks, such as those encountered within a certain depth range in an oil well "Formation" is used informally to describe the odd shapes that rocks acquire through erosional or depositional processes; such a formation is abandoned.
Some well-known cave formations include stalagmites. Geochronology – Science of determining the age of rocks and fossils List of rock formations – Links to Wikipedia articles about notable rock outcrops List of Chinese geological formations List of fossil sites – A table of worldwide localities notable for the presence of fossils