Hip hop is a subculture and art movement developed by African-Americans and Latinos from the inner-city South Bronx neighbourhood in New York City in the late 1970s. Jamaican immigrant DJ Kool Herc played a key role in developing hip hop music, at 1520 Sedgwick Avenue, Herc mixed samples of existing records and DJed percussion breaks, mixing this music with his own Jamaican-style toasting to rev up the crowd and dancers. These youths mixed these influences with existing musical styles associated with African Americans prior to the 1970s, Hip hop music became popular outside of the African-American community in the late 1980s, with the mainstream commercial success of gangsta rap. Critic Greg Tate described the hip hop movement as the only avant-garde still around, Hip hop culture has spread to both urban and suburban communities throughout the United States and subsequently the world. These elements were adapted and developed considerably, particularly as the art spread to new continents and merged with local styles in the 1990s.
Sampling older culture and re-using it in a new context or a new format is called flipping in hip hop culture. Hip hop music follows in the footsteps of earlier African-American-rooted musical genres such as blues, rag-time, cowboy worked the hip hop cadence into his stage performance. The group frequently performed with artists who would refer to this new type of music by calling them hip hoppers. The name was meant as a sign of disrespect, but soon came to identify this new music. The song Rappers Delight, by The Sugarhill Gang, released in 1979, begins with the phrase I said a hip, hop the hippie the hippie to the hip hip hop, and you dont stop. Lovebug Starski, a Bronx DJ who put out a single called The Positive Life in 1981, and DJ Hollywood began using the term when referring to this new disco rap music. Bill Alder, an independent consultant, once said, There was hardly ever a moment when rap music was underground, one of the very first so-called rap records, was a monster hit. Hip hop pioneer and South Bronx community leader Afrika Bambaataa credits Lovebug Starski as the first to use the hip hop.
Bambaataa, former leader of the Black Spades gang, did much to popularize the term. In the 1970s, an urban movement known as Hip Hop began to develop in the South Bronx in New York City. It focused on emceeing over breakbeats, house parties and neighbourhood block party events, Hip hop music has been a powerful medium for protesting the impact of legal institutions on minorities, particularly police and prisons. Jamaican-born DJ Clive Kool Herc Cindy Campbell pioneered the use of DJing percussion breaks in hip hop music, beginning at Hercs home in a high-rise apartment at 1520 Sedgwick Avenue, the movement spread across the entire borough. Herc created the blueprint for hip hop music and culture by building upon the Jamaican tradition of impromptu toasting, on August 11,1973 DJ Kool Herc was the DJ at his sisters back-to-school party
Vijay Antony is an Indian music composer, playback singer and actor working in the Tamil film industry. His real name is Cyril Raja Anthony and was given a stage name Vijay Anthony by Director S A Chandrasekar He made his acting debut, the film received mostly positive reviews from critics. Naan marks music director Vijay Antony in a dual role debut, one that of a hero and it is significant for him in terms of his musical journey as Naan is the 25th film for the talented music director. His next venture as an actor and music director was Salim, in which he portrayed the character from Naan. India Pakistan, his release, a romantic comedy, was starred in. He has acted in Pichaikkaran, collaborating with his Dishyum director Sasi and it is an emotional movie and was released in Tamil and Hindi. Looks like the film is set to become yet another shot hit for Vijay Antony. It gave him two Blockbuster Hit movie in 2016, after the Success of ‘Pichaikkaran’ & ‘Saithan’ movie, Actor Vijay Antony is back with Yaman directed by Jeeva Shankar.
Yeman produced by A. Subaskaran under the banner Lyca Productions, the film stars with Mia George and Thiagarajan in lead roles. The film has been censored with U certificate and will hit the screens on 24 February worldwide, the unique promotions and youthful script has attracted everyone which leads to massive hit at the box office. After Yaman, his next is Anna Durai, in which he plays dual role for third time and this movie is bankrolled by Sarathkumar and Radhika Sarathkumar. In April 2017, he has signed his next project which is titled as Kaali, awards, He is the first Indian to win the 2009 Cannes Golden Lion for the Nakka Mukka commercial in the Best of Music category. Nakka Mukka raised his fame and that song was played in the 2011 Cricket World Cup
Telugu cinema, known by its sobriquet Tollywood, is the segment of Indian cinema dedicated to the production of motion pictures in the Telugu language. The industry is based in Film Nagar, a neighbourhood of Hyderabad, since 1909, Raghupathi Venkaiah Naidu, an Indian film maker, was involved in producing short films and travelling to different regions in Asia to promote film work. In 1921, he produced the first Telugu silent film, Bhishma Pratigna and he is cited as the father of Telugu cinema. In 1933, East India Film Company produced its first Indian film, the blockbuster film has received an honorary diploma at Venice Film Festival. Multilingual actor Vuppaladadiyam Nagaiah was known as the Paul Muni of India, one of the actors of south Indian cinema. The 1951 film Patala Bhairavi was the first South Indian film, premiering at the first India International Film Festival, held in Mumbai on 24 January 1952. CNN-IBN listed Patala Bhairavi, Devadasu, Nartanasala, Maro Charithra, Maa Bhoomi, Sagara Sangamam, the first film studio in South India, Durga Cinetone, was built in 1936 by Nidamarthi Surayya in Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh.
In the years 2005,2006,2008, and 2014 the industry has produced the largest number of films in India, the industry holds the Guinness World Record for the largest film production facility in the world. The Prasads IMAX located in Hyderabad is one of the largest 3D IMAX screens, as per the CBFC report of 2014, the industry is placed first in India, in terms of films produced yearly. The industry holds a memorandum of understanding with the Motion Picture Association of America to combat video piracy, contemporary films like Dookudu and Race Gurram have each grossed more than ₹100 crore at the worldwide box office. Baahubali, The Beginning became the second globally highest-grossing Indian film of all time, on the other hand, Yaragudipati Varada Rao and, R. S. In 1935, Andhra Cine Tone was built in Visakhapatnam by Gottumukkala Jagannadha Raju and he introduced digital theater sound with the 1935 film Jagadamba. The first Telugu film with dialogue, Bhakta Prahlada, was produced by H. M. Reddy.
Bhakta Prahlada was completed on 15 September 1931, which became known as Telugu Film Day to commemorate its completion. Popularly known as talkies, films with sound quickly grew in number, in 1934, the industry saw its first major commercial success with Lavakusa. Pullaiah and starring Parupalli Subbarao and Sriranjani in lead roles, the film attracted unprecedented numbers of viewers to theatres, by 1936, the mass appeal of film allowed directors to move away from religious and mythological themes. That year, under the direction of Krithiventi Nageswara Rao, Prema Vijayam, in 1938, Gudavalli Ramabrahmam, has co-produced and directed the social problem film, Mala Pilla which dealt with the crusade against untouchability, prevailing in pre-independent India. In 1939, He directed Raithu Bidda, starring thespian Bellary Raghava, the film was directed by Y. V. Rao and scripted by Balijepalli Lakshmikanta Kavi, starring Chittor V. Nagaiah in the lead role
Lingaa is a 2014 Indian Tamil action film written and directed by K. S. The film was produced by Rockline Venkatesh under Rockline Entertainment, the films script was written by Pon Kumaran. The film stars Rajinikanth, Anushka Shetty and Sonakshi Sinha in the lead roles while Santhanam, Jagapati Babu, the soundtrack was composed by A. R. Rahman. The cinematography and editing was handled by R. Rathnavelu and Samjith Mhd respectively, the film revolves around Lingaa, a thief who enters a village called Solaiyur to save the dam and temple built by his grandfather. Principal photography commenced during the last week of May 2014 in Mysore, the majority of the filming took place in Ramoji Film City. The climax portions were filmed in Shimoga, the film was released on 12 December 2014, coinciding with Rajinikanths birthday. The film was dubbed and released in Telugu and Hindi with same name, though an above average grosser at the box office, the film failed to recover its high distribution cost. A dam in the village of Solaiyur, which is the lifeline of that village is under assessment for structural integrity by the Public Works Department, the dam inspector assesses that the dam is still strong 75 years after it was built.
Later that evening, he is hacked to death by the corrupt local MP Nagabhushan and the villagers are of the opinion that the temple can only be opened by the descendant of Raja Lingeswaran, who built the dam as well as the Shiva temple. Lakshmi, the granddaughter of Karunakara and a television journalist, goes on a search to find the Rajas descendant and she soon manages to find the descendant, whose name is Lingeswaran aka Lingaa. Lingaa is the grandson of Raja Lingeswaran, but is a petty thief with his family having now fallen on hard times. He holds a grudge against his grandfather, feeling that he had brought down his family into poverty by squandering all his wealth, Lakshmi implicates Lingaa in a robbery, as a result of which the police pursue Lingaa. Lingaa is forced to accept Lakshmis invitation to avoid getting caught, aware of the villagers presence, Lingaa pretends to perform pooja to the Lingam. Karunakara tells everyone present, including Lingaa, the story of Raja Lingeswaran, there the people tell him that they have no water for 9 months per year, and the other 3 months they have heavy rainfall and floods.
They are unable to water and the resulting famines cause hundreds of deaths every year. Though the collector applies to construct a dam, his plan is rejected in the annual collectors meeting and he refuses to do so and is blackmailed that he will be fired. He immediately resigns his job and exits and he invites the provincial governor to his birthday dinner and cunningly gets approval from him, on condition that the dam will be built using his own finance. Though he faces multiple difficulties, the dam is nearly constructed, the doors are being held in custody by the new collector as stolen goods and the floods are soon to occur
Tiruchirappalli, called Tiruchi or Trichy, is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the administrative headquarters of Tiruchirappalli District. It is the fourth largest municipal corporation and the fourth largest urban agglomeration in the state, located 322 kilometres south of Chennai and 379 kilometres north of Kanyakumari, Tiruchirappalli sits almost at the geographic centre of the state. Occupying 167.23 square kilometres, the city was home to 916,857 people in 2011, tiruchirappallis recorded history begins in the 3rd century BC, when it was under the rule of the Cholas. The city has ruled by the Pandyas, Vijayanagar Empire, Nayak Dynasty, the Carnatic state. The most prominent historical monuments in Tiruchirappalli include the Rockfort, the Ranganathaswamy temple at Srirangam, the archaeologically important town of Uraiyur, capital of the Early Cholas, is now a suburb of Tiruchirappalli. The city played a role in the Carnatic Wars between the British and the French East India companies.
Industrial units such as Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Golden Rock Railway Workshop, the presence of a large number of energy equipment manufacturing units in and around the city has earned it the title of Energy Equipment and Fabrication Capital of India. Tiruchirappalli is internationally known for a brand of cheroot known as the Trichinopoly cigar, a major road and railway hub in the state, the city is served by an international airport which operates flights to Southeast Asia and the Middle East. According to the National Urban Sanitation Policy, Tiruchirappalli was listed as the third-cleanest city in India in 2016. According to Hindu Mythology, the word Tiruchirappalli is derived from Tiru which is to address someone with respect, Chirapalli is a compound of siram - head, palli - to sleep. It is a reference to the deity Sriranganathaswamy who is depicted at rest with his head in an elevated position in the Srirangam Temple. Telugu scholar C. P. Brown has proposed that Tiruchirappalli might be a derivative of the word Chiruta-palli meaning little town, other scholars have suggested that the name Tiruchirappalli is a rewording of Tiru-chinna-palli, meaning holy little town.
The Madras Glossary gives the root as Tiruććināppalli or the village of the shina plant. Historically, Tiruchirappalli was commonly referred to in English as Trichinopoly, Tiruchirappalli is one of the oldest inhabited cities in Tamil Nadu, its earliest settlements date back to the second millennium BC. Uraiyur, the capital of the Early Cholas for 600 years from the 3rd century BC onwards, is a suburb of present-day Tiruchirappalli, the city is referred to as Orthoura by the historian Ptolemy in his 2nd-century work Geography. The worlds oldest surviving dam, the Kallanai about 18 kilometres from Uraiyur, was built across the Kaveri River by Karikala Chola in the 2nd century AD. Following the downfall of the Pallavas in the 8th century, the city was conquered by the Medieval Cholas, who ruled until the 13th century. After the decline of the Cholas, Tiruchirappalli was conquered by the Pandyas, who ruled from 1216 until their defeat in 1311 by Malik Kafur, the victorious armies of the Delhi Sultanate are believed to have plundered and ravaged the region
The components of rapping include content and delivery. Rap differs from spoken-word poetry in that rap is performed in time to a beat. Rapping is often associated with and an ingredient of hip-hop music. Rapping is used in Kwaito music, a genre originated in Johannesburg, South Africa. Another form of rap that predates hip hop was boxer Muhammad Alis rhythmic poetry used to taunt his opponents in the 1960s and 1970s, rapping can be delivered over a beat, typically provided by a DJ, turntablist or Beatboxer, or without accompaniment. Stylistically, rap occupies an area between speech, prose and singing. The word, as used to describe quick speech or repartee, the word had been used in British English since the 16th century. It was part of the African American dialect of English in the 1960s meaning to converse, the terms rap and rapping are so closely associated with hip-hop music that many writers use the terms interchangeably. The English verb rap has various meanings, such as to strike, especially with a quick, smart, or light blow, as well to utter sharply or vigorously, to rap out a command.
The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary gives a date of 1541 for the first recorded use of the word with the meaning to utter sharply, vigorously and it is these meanings from which the musical form of rapping derives, and this definition may be from a shortening of repartee. A rapper refers to a performer who raps, by the late 1960s, when Hubert G. Brown changed his name to H. Rap was used to describe talking on records as early as 1971, on Isaac Hayes album Black Moses with track names such as Ikes Rap, Ikes Rap II, Ikes Rap III, Hayes husky-voiced sexy spoken raps became key components in his signature sound. Del the Funky Homosapien similarly states that rap was used to refer to talking in a manner in the early 1970s. Back what rapping meant, was you trying to convey something—youre trying to convince somebody, thats what rapping is, its in the way you talk. Rapping can be traced back to its African roots, centuries before hip-hop music existed, the griots of West Africa were delivering stories rhythmically, over drums and sparse instrumentation.
Such connections have been acknowledged by modern artists, modern day griots, spoken word artists, mainstream news sources. Grammy-winning blues musician/historian Elijah Wald and others have argued that the blues were being rapped as early as the 1920s, Wald went so far as to call hip hop the living blues. A notable recorded example of rapping in blues music was the 1950 song Gotta Let You Go by Joe Hill Louis, not just jazz music and lyrics but jazz poetry
National University of Malaysia
Its teaching hospital, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia is located in Cheras and has a branch campus in Kuala Lumpur. There are 17,500 undergraduate students enrolled, and 5,105 postgraduate students of which 1,368 are foreign students from 35 countries, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia is one of five research universities in the country. It was ranked number 259th in the world by QS World University Rankings in 2014 and it is ranked 98th place in the 100 best new universities established within the last 50 years in the world. It is the university from Malaysia that made it in the 2012 Quacquarelli Symonds Top 50 Universities Under 50 Years Old list ranked in the 31st place. It placed 56th and 56th in the QS Top 500 Asian University Rankings in 2014 and 2015 respectively, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, the national university of Malaysia was born from the aspirations of the nationalists to uphold the Malay Language as a language of knowledge.
The quest for a university was suggested in 1923 by the writer Abdul Kadir Adabi as a move against British colonisation. This nationalist tide galvanised Malay intellectuals of the time but met British suppression, the nationalists never wavered and in 1969 the movement again blossomed. A Sponsoring Committee chaired by Syed Nasir Ismail, a Malay intellectual, was set up to prepare a report recommending the establishment of UKM, in October 1977, UKM moved to its present premises which form the main campus in Bangi. The UKM Bangi Campus is 45 km from KLIA,30 km from Kuala Lumpur and 20 km from Putrajaya, UKM has two health campuses, the Kuala Lumpur campus in Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, and the UKM Medical Centre in Cheras. The Kuala Lumpur campus consists of the Faculties of Health Sciences, Dentistry, with a size of 20 hectares, the Kuala Lumpur campus was established in 1974. The campus in Cheras consists of the Medical Faculty, the UKM Teaching Hospital, the Cheras campus was opened in 1997.
The year 2006 saw UKM winning the Prime Ministers Quality Award and this award vindicates UKMs efforts at quality education and management, as outlined by the objectives of the UKM Strategic Plan 2000–2020. The Strategic Plan has been augmented by the newly unveiled UKM Knowledge Ecosystem Transformation Plan, social Science and Humanities Science and Technology Islamic Studies The three above make up the founding faculties. UKM Strategic Centre deputy executive director Associate Professor Dr Masturah Markom responded to the snub by saying that the rankings were unfair to the Malaysian education context, UKM Medical Centre PATMA Library Official University website Official news portal
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, sometimes referred to as the Lion City or the Little Red Dot, is a sovereign city-state in Southeast Asia. It lies one degree north of the equator, at the tip of peninsular Malaysia. Singapores territory consists of one island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its size by 23%. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan, after early years of turbulence, and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed rapidly as an Asian Tiger economy, based on external trade and its workforce. Singapore is a global commerce and transport hub, the country has been identified as a tax haven. Singapore ranks 5th internationally and first in Asia on the UN Human Development Index and it is ranked highly in education, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety, and housing, but does not fare well on the Democracy index. Although income inequality is high, 90% of homes are owner-occupied, 38% of Singapores 5.6 million residents are permanent residents and other foreign nationals.
There are four languages on the island, Mandarin, Tamil. English is its language, most Singaporeans are bilingual. Singapore is a multiparty parliamentary republic, with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government. The Peoples Action Party has won every election since self-government in 1959, however, it is unlikely that lions ever lived on the island, Sang Nila Utama, the Srivijayan prince said to have founded and named the island Singapura, perhaps saw a Malayan tiger. There are however other suggestions for the origin of the name, the central island has been called Pulau Ujong as far back as the third century CE, literally island at the end in Malay. In 1299, according to the Malay Annals, the Kingdom of Singapura was founded on the island by Sang Nila Utama and these Indianized Kingdoms, a term coined by George Cœdès were characterized by surprising resilience, political integrity and administrative stability. In 1613, Portuguese raiders burned down the settlement, which by was part of the Johor Sultanate.
The wider maritime region and much trade was under Dutch control for the following period, in 1824 the entire island, as well as the Temenggong, became a British possession after a further treaty with the Sultan. In 1826, Singapore became part of the Straits Settlements, under the jurisdiction of British India, prior to Raffles arrival, there were only about a thousand people living on the island, mostly indigenous Malays along with a handful of Chinese. By 1860 the population had swelled to over 80,000, many of these early immigrants came to work on the pepper and gambier plantations
Dubai is the largest and most populous city in the United Arab Emirates. It is located on the southeast coast of the Persian Gulf and is the capital of the Emirate of Dubai, Abu Dhabi and Dubai are the only two emirates to have veto power over critical matters of national importance in the countrys legislature. The city of Dubai is located on the northern coastline. Dubai will host World Expo 2020, Dubai has emerged as a global city and business hub of the Middle East. It is a transport hub for passengers and cargo. By the 1960s, Dubais economy was based on revenues from trade and, to an extent, oil exploration concessions. Oil revenue first started to flow in 1969, Dubais oil revenue helped accelerate the early development of the city, but its reserves are limited and production levels are low, less than 5% of the emirates revenue comes from oil. The emirates Western-style model of business drives its economy with the main revenues now coming from tourism, real estate, Dubai was recently named the best destination for Muslim travellers by Salam Standard.
Dubai has recently attracted attention through many innovative large construction projects and sports events. The city has become iconic for its skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the worlds tallest building, Dubai has been criticised for human rights violations concerning the citys largely South Asian and Filipino workforce. As of 2012, Dubai was the 22nd most expensive city in the world, in 2014, Dubais hotel rooms were rated as the second most expensive in the world, after Geneva. Dubai was rated as one of the best places to live in the Middle East by U. S. global consulting firm Mercer, Many theories have been proposed as to the origin of the word Dubai. One theory suggests the word was used to describe the souq, another theory states that the name came from a word meaning money, as people from Dubai were commonly believed to be rich due to the thriving trading centre of the location. An Arabic proverb says Daba Dubai, meaning They came with a lot of money, according to Fedel Handhal, a scholar on the UAEs history and culture, the word Dubai may have come from the word daba, referring to the slow flow of Dubai Creek inland.
The poet and scholar Ahmad Mohammad Obaid traces it to the same word, an inhabitant or native of the city is a Dubaian. Although stone tools have been found at archaeological sites, little is known about the UAEs early inhabitants as only a few settlements have been found. Many ancient towns in the area were trading centres between the Eastern and Western worlds, the remnants of an ancient mangrove swamp, dated at 7000 BC, were discovered during the construction of sewer lines near Dubai Internet City. The area was covered with sand about 5,000 years ago as the coast retreated inland, pre-Islamic ceramics have been found from the 3rd and 4th centuries
Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia near south-east India. Sri Lanka has maritime borders with India to the northwest and the Maldives to the southwest, Sri Lankas documented history spans 3,000 years, with evidence of pre-historic human settlements dating back to at least 125,000 years. Its geographic location and deep harbours made it of strategic importance from the time of the ancient Silk Road through to World War II. Sri Lanka was known from the beginning of British colonial rule until 1972 as Ceylon, Sri Lankas recent history has been marred by a thirty-year civil war which decisively ended when the Sri Lankan military defeated the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam in 2009. A diverse and multicultural country, Sri Lanka is home to many religions, ethnic groups, in addition to the majority Sinhalese, it is home to large groups of Sri Lankan and Indian Tamils, Burghers, Malays and the aboriginal Vedda. Sri Lanka has a rich Buddhist heritage, and the first known Buddhist writings of Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka is a republic and a unitary state governed by a semi-presidential system.
The legislative capital, Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, is a suburb of the capital and largest city. Along with the Maldives, Sri Lanka is one of the two countries in South Asia that are rated among high human development on the Human Development Index. In antiquity, Sri Lanka was known to travellers by a variety of names, according to the Mahavamsa, the legendary Prince Vijaya named the land Tambapanni, because his followers hands were reddened by the red soil of the area. In Hindu mythology, such as the Mahabharata, the island was referred to as Lankā, in Tamil, the island is referred to as Eelam. Ancient Greek geographers called it Taprobanā or Taprobanē from the word Tambapanni, as a British crown colony, the island was known as Ceylon, it achieved independence as the Dominion of Ceylon in 1948. The country is known in Sinhalese as Śrī Laṃkā and in Tamil as Ilaṅkai, in 1972, its formal name was changed to Free and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka. Later in 1978 it was changed to the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, as the name Ceylon still appears in the names of a number of organisations, the Sri Lankan government announced in 2011 a plan to rename all those over which it has authority.
The pre-history of Sri Lanka goes back 125,000 years, the era spans the Palaeolithic and early Iron Ages. Among the Paleolithic human settlements discovered in Sri Lanka, Pahiyangala and it is said that Kubera was overthrown by his demon stepbrother Ravana, the powerful emperor who built a mythical flying machine named Dandu Monara. The modern city of Wariyapola is described as Ravanas airport, early inhabitants of Sri Lanka were probably ancestors of the Vedda people, an indigenous people numbering approximately 2,500 living in modern-day Sri Lanka. According to the Mahāvamsa, a written in Pāḷi, the original inhabitants of Sri Lanka are the Yakshas and Nagas. Ancient cemeteries that were used before 600BC and other signs of advanced civilization has discovered in Sri Lanka
Tamil cinema refers to Indian motion pictures produced in the language of Tamil. Based in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, the hub of the Tamil film industry is in the Kodambakkam neighbourhood of Chennai, kollywood is a colloquial term used to describe this industry, the word being a portmanteau of Kodambakkam and Hollywood. Tamil cinema has been described as the industry of South Indian cinema. The first Tamil silent film, Keechaka Vadham, was made by R. Nataraja Mudaliar in 1918, the first talking motion picture, was a multilingual and was released on 31 October 1931, less than seven months after Indias first talking motion picture Alam Ara. By the end of the 1930s, the legislature of the State of Madras passed the Entertainment Tax Act of 1939, the industry inspired independent filmmaking in Tamil diaspora populations in Malaysia and the Western Hemisphere. In 1897, R. Hariharan, cheyyar first screened a selection of silent short films at the Victoria Public Hall in Madras, the films all featured non-fictional subjects, they were mostly photographed records of day-to-day events.
The film scholar Stephen Hughs points out that within a few there were regular ticketed shows in a hall in Pophams Broadway, started by one Mrs. Klug. Once it was demonstrated as a proposition, a Western entrepreneur, Warwick Major, built the first cinema theatre, the Electric Theatre. It was a haunt of the British community in Madras. The theatre was shut down after a few years and this building is now part of a post office complex on Anna Salai. The Lyric Theatre was built in the Mount Road area and this venue boasted a variety of events, including plays in English, Western classical music concerts, and ballroom dances. Silent films were screened as an additional attraction. Swamikannu Vincent, a draftsman from Tiruchirapalli, became a travelling exhibitor in 1905. He showed short movies in a tent in Esplanade, near the present Parrys Corner and he bought the film projector and silent films from the Frenchman Du Pont and set up a business as film exhibitor. Soon, he tied up with Path, a well-known pioneering film-producing company and this helped new cinema houses to sprout across the presidency.
In years, he produced talkies and built a cinema in Coimbatore, to celebrate the event of King George Vs visit in 1909, a grand exhibition was organized in Madras. Its major attraction was the screening of films accompanied by sound. However, there was no synched dialogue, Raghupathy Venkiah Naidu, a successful photographer, took over the equipment after the exhibition and set up a tent cinema near the Madras High Court