The mile is an English unit of length of linear measure equal to 5,280 feet, or 1,760 yards, standardised as 1,609.344 metres by international agreement in 1959. With qualifiers, "mile" is used to describe or translate a wide range of units derived from or equivalent to the Roman mile, such as the nautical mile, the Italian mile, the Chinese mile; the Romans divided their mile into 5,000 roman feet but the greater importance of furlongs in pre-modern England meant that the statute mile was made equivalent to 8 furlongs or 5,280 feet in 1593. This form of the mile spread to the British-colonized nations some of which continue to employ the mile; the US Geological Survey now employs the metre for official purposes but legacy data from its 1927 geodetic datum has meant that a separate US survey mile continues to see some use. While most countries replaced the mile with the kilometre when switching to the International System of Units, the international mile continues to be used in some countries, such as Liberia, the United Kingdom, the United States, a number of countries with fewer than one million inhabitants, most of which are UK or US territories, or have close historical ties with the UK or US.
The mile was abbreviated m. in the past but is now sometimes written as mi to avoid confusion with the SI metre. However, derived units, such as miles per hour or miles per gallon, continue to be universally abbreviated as mph and mpg, respectively; the modern English word mile derives from Middle English myl and Old English mīl, cognate with all other Germanic terms for "miles". These derived from apocopated forms of the Latin mīlia or mīllia, the plural of mīle or mīlle "thousand" but used as a clipped form of mīlle passus or passuum, the Roman mile of one thousand paces; the present international mile is what is understood by the unqualified term "mile". When this distance needs to be distinguished from the nautical mile, the international mile may be described as a "land mile" or "statute mile". In British English, the "statute mile" may refer to the present international miles or to any other form of English mile since the 1593 Act of Parliament, which set it as a distance of 1,760 yards.
Under American law, the "statute mile" refers to the US survey mile. Foreign and historical units translated into English as miles employ a qualifier to describe the kind of mile being used but this may be omitted if it is obvious from the context, such as a discussion of the 2nd-century Antonine Itinerary describing its distances in terms of "miles" rather than "Roman miles"; the mile has been variously abbreviated—with and without a trailing period—as m, M, ml, mi. The American National Institute of Standards and Technology now uses and recommends mi in order to avoid confusion with the SI metre and millilitre. However, derived units such as miles per hour or miles per gallon continue to be abbreviated as mph and mpg rather than mi/h and mi/gal. In the United Kingdom road signs use m as the abbreviation for mile though height and width restrictions use m as the abbreviation for the metre, which may be displayed alongside feet and inches; the BBC style holds that "There is no acceptable abbreviation for'miles'" and so it should be spelt out when used in describing areas.
The Roman mile consisted of a thousand paces as measured by every other step—as in the total distance of the left foot hitting the ground 1,000 times. The ancient Romans, marching their armies through uncharted territory, would push a carved stick in the ground after each 1,000 paces. Well-fed and harshly driven Roman legionaries in good weather thus created longer miles; the distance was indirectly standardised by Agrippa's establishment of a standard Roman foot in 29 BC, the definition of a pace as 5 feet. An Imperial Roman mile thus denoted 5,000 Roman feet. Surveyors and specialized equipment such as the decempeda and dioptra spread its use. In modern times, Agrippa's Imperial Roman mile was empirically estimated to have been about 1,617 yards in length. In Hellenic areas of the Empire, the Roman mile was used beside the native Greek units as equivalent to 8 stadia of 600 Greek feet; the mílion continued to be used as a Byzantine unit and was used as the name of the zero mile marker for the Byzantine Empire, the Milion, located at the head of the Mese near Hagia Sophia.
The Roman mile spread throughout Europe, with its local variations giving rise to the different units below. Arising from the Roman mile is the "milestone". All roads radiated out from the Roman Forum throughout the Empire – 50,000 miles of stone-paved roads. At every mile was placed a shaped stone, on, carved a Roman numeral, indicating the number of miles from the center of Rome – the Forum. Hence, one always knew; the Italian mile was traditionally considered a direct continuation of the Roman mile, equal to 1000 paces, although its actual value over time or between regions could vary greatly. It was used in international contexts from the Middle Ages into the 17th century and is thus known as the "geographical mile", although the geographical mile is now a separate standard unit; the Arabic mile was not the common Arabic unit of length. The Arabic mile was, used by medieval geographers and scientists and constituted a kind of precursor to the nautical or geographical mile, it extended the Roman mile to fit an astronomical approximatio
James VI and I
James VI and I was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625. The kingdoms of Scotland and England were individual sovereign states, with their own parliaments and laws, though both were ruled by James in personal union. James was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, a great-great-grandson of Henry VII, King of England and Lord of Ireland, positioning him to accede to all three thrones. James succeeded to the Scottish throne at the age of thirteen months, after his mother was compelled to abdicate in his favour. Four different regents governed during his minority, which ended in 1578, though he did not gain full control of his government until 1583. In 1603, he succeeded the last Tudor monarch of England and Ireland, Elizabeth I, who died childless, he continued to reign in all three kingdoms for 22 years, a period known after him as the Jacobean era, until his death in 1625 at the age of 58.
After the Union of the Crowns, he based himself in England from 1603, only returning to Scotland once in 1617, styled himself "King of Great Britain and Ireland". He was a major advocate of a single parliament for Scotland. In his reign, the Plantation of Ulster and British colonisation of the Americas began. At 57 years and 246 days, James's reign in Scotland was longer than those of any of his predecessors, he achieved most of his aims in Scotland but faced great difficulties in England, including the Gunpowder Plot in 1605 and repeated conflicts with the English Parliament. Under James, the "Golden Age" of Elizabethan literature and drama continued, with writers such as William Shakespeare, John Donne, Ben Jonson, Sir Francis Bacon contributing to a flourishing literary culture. James himself was a talented scholar, the author of works such as Daemonologie, The True Law of Free Monarchies, Basilikon Doron, he sponsored the translation of the Bible into English that would be named after him: the Authorised King James Version.
Sir Anthony Weldon claimed that James had been termed "the wisest fool in Christendom", an epithet associated with his character since. Since the latter half of the 20th century, historians have tended to revise James's reputation and treat him as a serious and thoughtful monarch, he was committed to a peace policy, tried to avoid involvement in religious wars the Thirty Years' War that devastated much of Central Europe. He tried but failed to prevent the rise of hawkish elements in the English Parliament who wanted war with Spain. James was the only son of Mary, Queen of Scots, her second husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. Both Mary and Darnley were great-grandchildren of Henry VII of England through Margaret Tudor, the older sister of Henry VIII. Mary's rule over Scotland was insecure, she and her husband, being Roman Catholics, faced a rebellion by Protestant noblemen. During Mary's and Darnley's difficult marriage, Darnley secretly allied himself with the rebels and conspired in the murder of the Queen's private secretary, David Rizzio, just three months before James's birth.
James was born on 19 June 1566 at Edinburgh Castle, as the eldest son and heir apparent of the monarch automatically became Duke of Rothesay and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. He was baptised "Charles James" or "James Charles" on 17 December 1566 in a Catholic ceremony held at Stirling Castle, his godparents were Charles IX of France, Elizabeth I of England, Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy. Mary refused to let the Archbishop of St Andrews, whom she referred to as "a pocky priest", spit in the child's mouth, as was the custom; the subsequent entertainment, devised by Frenchman Bastian Pagez, featured men dressed as satyrs and sporting tails, to which the English guests took offence, thinking the satyrs "done against them". James's father, was murdered on 10 February 1567 at Kirk o' Field, Edinburgh in revenge for the killing of Rizzio. James inherited his father's titles of Duke of Earl of Ross. Mary was unpopular, her marriage on 15 May 1567 to James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, suspected of murdering Darnley, heightened widespread bad feeling towards her.
In June 1567, Protestant rebels imprisoned her in Loch Leven Castle. She was forced to abdicate on 24 July 1567 in favour of the infant James and to appoint her illegitimate half-brother, James Stewart, Earl of Moray, as regent; the care of James was entrusted to the Earl and Countess of Mar, "to be conserved and upbrought" in the security of Stirling Castle. James was anointed King of Scots at the age of thirteen months at the Church of the Holy Rude, Stirling, by Adam Bothwell, Bishop of Orkney, on 29 July 1567; the sermon at the coronation was preached by John Knox. In accordance with the religious beliefs of most of the Scottish ruling class, James was brought up as a member of the Protestant Church of Scotland, the Kirk; the Privy Council selected George Buchanan, Peter Young, Adam Erskine, David Erskine as James's preceptors or tutors. As the young king's senior tutor, Buchanan subjected James to regular beatings but instilled in him a lifelong passion for literature and learning. Buchanan sought to turn James into a God-fearing, Protestant king who accepted the limitations of monarchy, as outlined in his treatise De Jure Regni apud Scotos.
In 1568, Mary escaped from her i
Ogham is an Early Medieval alphabet used to write the early Irish language, the Old Irish language. There are 400 surviving orthodox inscriptions on stone monuments throughout Ireland and western Britain; the largest number outside Ireland are in Wales. The vast majority of the inscriptions consist of personal names. According to the High Medieval Bríatharogam, names of various trees can be ascribed to individual letters; the etymology of the word ogam or ogham remains unclear. One possible origin is from the Irish og-úaim'point-seam', referring to the seam made by the point of a sharp weapon, it has been argued that the earliest inscriptions in ogham date to about the 4th century AD, but James Carney believed its origin is rather within the 1st century BC. Although the use of "classical" ogham in stone inscriptions seems to have flowered in the 5th and 6th centuries around the Irish Sea, from the phonological evidence it is clear that the alphabet predates the 5th century. A period of writing on wood or other perishable material prior to the preserved monumental inscriptions needs to be assumed, sufficient for the loss of the phonemes represented by úath and straif, gétal, all of which are part of the system, but unattested in inscriptions.
It appears that the ogham alphabet arose from another script, some consider it a mere cipher of its template script. The largest number of scholars favours the Latin alphabet as this template, although the Elder Futhark and the Greek alphabet have their supporters. Runic origin would elegantly explain the presence of "H" and "Z" letters unused in Irish, as well as the presence of vocalic and consonantal variants "U" vs. "W", unknown to Latin writing and lost in Greek. The Latin alphabet is the primary contender because its influence at the required period is most established, being used in neighbouring Roman Britannia, while the runes in the 4th century were not widespread in continental Europe. In Ireland and in Wales, the language of the monumental stone inscriptions is termed Primitive Irish; the transition to Old Irish, the language of the earliest sources in the Latin alphabet, takes place in about the 6th century. Since ogham inscriptions consist exclusively of personal names and marks indicating land ownership, linguistic information that may be glimpsed from the Primitive Irish period is restricted to phonological developments.
There are two main schools of thought among scholars as to the motivation for the creation of ogham. Scholars such as Carney and MacNeill have suggested that ogham was first created as a cryptic alphabet, designed by the Irish so as not to be understood by those with a knowledge of the Latin alphabet. In this school of thought, it is asserted that "the alphabet was created by Irish scholars or druids for political, military or religious reasons to provide a secret means of communication in opposition to the authorities of Roman Britain." The Roman Empire, which ruled over neighbouring southern Britain, represented a real threat of invasion to Ireland, which may have acted as a spur to the creation of the alphabet. Alternatively, in centuries when the threat of invasion had receded and the Irish were themselves invading the western parts of Britain, the desire to keep communications secret from Romans or Romanised Britons would still have provided an incentive. With bilingual ogham and Latin inscriptions in Wales, one would suppose that the ogham could be decoded by anyone in the Post-Roman world.
The second main school of thought, put forward by scholars such as McManus, is that ogham was invented by the first Christian communities in early Ireland, out of a desire to have a unique alphabet for writing short messages and inscriptions in the Irish language. The argument is that the sounds of Primitive Irish were regarded as difficult to transcribe into the Latin alphabet, so the invention of a separate alphabet was deemed appropriate. A possible such origin, as suggested by McManus, is the early Christian community known to have existed in Ireland from around AD 400 at the latest, the existence of, attested by the mission of Palladius by Pope Celestine I in AD 431. A variation is that the alphabet was first invented, for whatever reason, in 4th-century Irish settlements in west Wales after contact and intermarriage with Romanised Britons with a knowledge of the Latin alphabet. In fact, several ogham stones in Wales are bilingual, containing both Irish and British Latin, testifying to the international contacts that led to the existence of some of these stones.
A third theory put forward by the noted ogham scholar R. A. S. Macalister was influential at one time, but finds little favour with scholars today. Macalister believed that ogham was first invented in Cisalpine Gaul around 600 BC by Gaulish druids as a secret system of hand signals, was inspired by a form of the Greek alphabet current in Northern Italy at the time. According to this theory, the alphabet was transmitted in oral form or on wood only, until it was put into a written form on stone inscriptions in early Christian Ireland. Scholars are united in rejecting this theory, however because a detailed study of the letters shows that they were created for the Primitive Irish of the early centuries AD
A royal charter is a formal grant issued by a monarch under royal prerogative as letters patent. They have been used to promulgate public laws, the most famous example being the British Magna Carta of 1215, but since the 14th century have only been used in place of private acts to grant a right or power to an individual or a body corporate, they were, are still, used to establish significant organisations such as boroughs and learned societies. Charters should be distinguished from royal warrants of appointment, grants of arms and other forms of letters patent, such as those granting an organisation the right to use the word "royal" in their name or granting city status, which do not have legislative effect; the British monarchy has issued over 1,000 royal charters. Of these about 750 remain in existence; the earliest charter recorded by the UK government was granted to the University of Cambridge in England in 1231, although older charters are known to have existed including to the Worshipful Company of Weavers in England in 1150 and to the town of Tain in Scotland in 1066.
Charters continue to be issued by the British Crown, a recent example being that awarded to The Chartered Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors, in 2014. Charters have been used in Europe since medieval times to grant rights and privileges to towns and cities. During the 14th and 15th century the concept of incorporation of a municipality by royal charter evolved. Among the past and present groups formed by royal charter are the Company of Merchants of the Staple of England, the British East India Company, the Hudson's Bay Company, the Chartered Bank of India and China, the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company, the British South Africa Company, some of the former British colonies on the North American mainland, City livery companies, the Bank of England and the British Broadcasting Corporation. Between the 14th and 19th centuries, royal charters were used to create chartered companies – for-profit ventures with shareholders, used for exploration and colonisation. Early charters to such companies granted trade monopolies, but this power was restricted to parliament from the end of the 17th century.
Until the 19th century, royal charters were the only means other than an act of parliament by which a company could be incorporated. The use of royal charters to incorporate organisations gave rise to the concept of the "corporation by prescription"; this enabled corporations that had existed from time immemorial to be recognised as incorporated via the legal fiction of a "lost charter". Examples of corporations by prescription include Cambridge universities. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, of the 81 universities established in pre-Reformation Europe, 13 were established ex consuetudine without any form of charter, 33 by Papal bull alone, 20 by both Papal bull and imperial or royal charter, 15 by imperial or royal charter alone. Universities established by royal charter did not have the same international recognition – their degrees were only valid within that kingdom; the first university to be founded by charter was the University of Naples in 1224, founded by an imperial charter of Frederick II.
The first university founded by royal charter was the University of Coimbra in 1290, by King Denis of Portugal, which received Papal confirmation the same year. Other early universities founded by royal charter include the University of Perpignan and the University of Huesca, both by Peter IV of Aragon, the Jagiellonian University by Casimir III of Poland, the University of Vienna by Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria, the University of Caen by Henry VI of England, the University of Girona and the University of Barcelona, both by Alfonso V of Aragon, the University of Valence by the Dauphin Louis, the University of Palma by Ferdinand II of Aragon; the University of Cambridge was confirmed by a Papal bull in 1317 or 1318, but despite repeated attempts, the University of Oxford never received such confirmation. The three pre-Reformation Scottish universities were all established by Papal bulls. Following the reformation, establishment of universities and colleges by royal charter became the norm; the University of Edinburgh was founded under the authority of a royal charter granted to the Edinburgh town council in 1582 by James VI as the "town's college".
Trinity College Dublin was established by a royal charter of Elizabeth I in 1593. Both of these charters were given in Latin; the Edinburgh charter gave permission for the town council "to build and to repair sufficient houses and places for the reception and teaching of professors of the schools of grammar, the humanities and languages, theology and law, or whichever liberal arts which we declare detract in no way from the aforesaid mortification" and granted them the right to appoint and remove professors. But, as concluded by Edinburgh's principal, Sir Alexander Grant, in his tercentenary history of the university, "Obviously this is no charter founding a university". Instead
Bottlenose dolphins, the genus Tursiops, are the most common members of the family Delphinidae, the family of oceanic dolphin. Molecular studies show the genus contains three species: the common bottlenose dolphin, the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin, the Burrunan dolphin. Bottlenose dolphins inhabit warm and temperate seas worldwide, being found everywhere except for the Arctic and Antarctic Circle regions. Bottle-nosed dolphins live in groups, they live in tropical seas. Numerous investigations of bottlenose dolphin intelligence have been conducted, examining mimicry, use of artificial language, object categorization, self-recognition, they can use tools and transmit cultural knowledge from generation to generation, their considerable intelligence has driven interaction with humans. Bottlenose Dolphins gained popularity from aquarium shows and television programs such as Flipper, they have been trained by militaries to locate sea mines or detect and mark enemy divers. In some areas, they cooperate with local fishermen by driving fish into their nets and eating the fish that escape.
Some encounters with humans are harmful to the dolphins: people hunt them for food, dolphins are killed inadvertently as a bycatch of tuna fishing and by getting caught in crab traps. The deepest dive recorded for a bottlenose dolphin was 300 meters; this was accomplished by a dolphin trained by the US Navy. Nellie, the longest-lived Atlantic bottlenose dolphin in human care, died at age 61 on April 30, 2014. Nellie was born on Feb, 1953 at Marineland. Bottlenose dolphins have the third largest encephalization levels of any mammal on Earth, sharing close ratios with those of humans and other great apes, which more than contributes to their high intelligence and emotional intelligence. Scientists were long aware. Molecular genetics allowed much greater insight into this intractable problem; the IUCN acknowledges two species, although a third distinct species was described in 2011: the common bottlenose dolphin is found in most tropical to temperate oceans, it has a grey color, with the shade of grey varying among populations, but it can be bluish-grey, brownish-grey, or nearly black, is darker on the back from the rostrum to behind the dorsal fin.
The two ecotypes of the common bottlenose dolphin within the western North Atlantic are represented by the shallower water or coastal ecotype and the more offshore ecotype. Their ranges overlap, they are not described, however, as separate species or subspecies. In general, genetic variation between populations is significant among nearby populations; as a result of this genetic variation, other distinct species considered to be populations of common bottlenose dolphin are possible. Old scientific data do not distinguish between the two species, making it useless for determining structural differences between them; the IUCN lists both species as data deficient on their Red List of endangered species because of this issue. Some recent genetic evidence suggests the Indo-Pacific bottlenose belongs in the genus Stenella, since it is more like the Atlantic spotted dolphin than the common bottlenose. Bottlenose dolphins have been known to hybridize with other dolphin species. Hybrids with Risso's dolphin occur both in captivity.
The best known is a false killer whale-bottlenose dolphin hybrid. The wolphin is fertile, two live at the Sea Life Park in Hawaii; the first was born in 1985 to a female bottlenose. Wolphins exist in the wild. In captivity, a bottlenose dolphin and a rough-toothed dolphin hybridized. A common dolphin-bottlenose dolphin hybrid born in captivity lives at SeaWorld California. Other hybrids live in captivity around the world and in the wild, such as a bottlenose dolphin-Atlantic spotted dolphin hybrid. Bottlenose dolphins appeared during the Miocene. Known fossil species include Tursiops osennae from the Piacenzian coastal mudstone, Tursiops miocaenus from the Burdigalian marine sandstone, all in Italy; the bottle-nose dolphin weighs an average of 660 pounds. It can reach a length of just over 13 feet, its color is dark gray on the back and lighter gray on the flanks. Older dolphins sometimes have a few spots. Bottlenose dolphins can live for more than 40 years. Females live 5–10 years longer than males, with some females exceeding 60 years.
This extreme age is rare and less than 2% of all Bottlenose dolphins will live longer than 60 years. Bottlenose dolphins can jump at a height of 6 metres up in the air, their elongated upper and lower jaws form what
Lowestoft is an English town and civil parish in the county of Suffolk. The town, on the North Sea coast, is the most easterly settlement of the United Kingdom, it is 110 miles north-east of London, 38 miles north-east of Ipswich and 22 miles south-east of Norwich. It lies on the edge of The Broads system and is the major settlement in the district of East Suffolk, with a population of 71,010 in 2011; some of the earliest evidence of settlement in Britain has been found here. As a port town it developed out as a traditional seaside resort, it has two piers and other attractions. While its fisheries have declined and gas exploitation in the southern North Sea in the 1960s added to its development, as a base for the industry alongside nearby Great Yarmouth; this role has declined, but the town has begun to develop as an Eastern England centre of the renewable energy industry. Following the discovery of flint tools in the cliffs at Pakefield in south Lowestoft in 2005, the human habitation of the Lowestoft area can be traced back 700,000 years.
This establishes Lowestoft as one of the earliest known sites for human habitation in Britain. The area was settled during the Neolithic and Iron Ages and during the Roman and Saxon periods, with a Saxon cemetery producing a number of finds at Bloodmoor Hill in south Lowestoft; the settlement's name is derived from the Viking personal name Hlothver and toft, a Viking word for homestead. The town's name has been spelled variously: Lothnwistoft, Laistoe and Laystoft. In the 1086 Domesday Book the village was known as Lothuwistoft and was small, with a population of about 16 households, comprising three families, ten smallholders and three slaves; the manor formed part of the king's holding within the Hundred of Lothingland and was worth about four geld in tax income. Roger Bigod was the tenant in chief of the village; the village of Akethorpe may have been located close to Lowestoft. In the Middle Ages Lowestoft became an important fishing town; the industry grew and the town grew to challenge its neighbour Great Yarmouth.
The trade fishing for herring, continued to act as the town's main identity into the 20th century. In June 1665 the Battle of Lowestoft, the first battle of the Second Anglo-Dutch War, took place 40 miles off the coast of the town; the battle resulted in a significant victory for the English fleet over the Dutch. The Lowestoft Porcelain Factory, active from 1757 to 1802, was in production for longer than any English soft-paste porcelain manufacturer other than Royal Worcester and Royal Crown Derby, producing domestic wares such as pots and jugs; the factory, built on the site of an existing pottery or brick kiln, was used as a brewery and malt kiln. Most of its remaining buildings were demolished in 1955. In the 19th century, Sir Samuel Morton Peto's arrival to Lowestoft, brought about a change in the town's fortunes that included improving the fishing industry; as a railway contractor, Peto was given the task of building a railway line by the Lowestoft Railway & Harbour Company, connecting the town with Reedham and the city of Norwich, to help stimulate further development in the fishing industry, which had begun to take advantage of the Port of Lowestoft since its construction in the 1830s.
Its completion had a profound impact on the town's industrial development – not only could its fishing fleets sell its product to markets further inland, it helped to assist in the development of other industries such as engineering, allowed others to take advantage of the port's boosted trade with the continent. Peto's railway was key in establishing Lowestoft as a flourishing seaside holiday resort. During World War I, Lowestoft was bombarded by the German Navy on 24 April 1916 in conjunction with the Easter Rising; the port was a significant naval base during the war, including for armed trawlers such as Ethel & Millie and Nelson which were used to combat German U-boat actions in the North Sea such as the action of 15 August 1917. In World War II, the town was targeted for bombing by the Luftwaffe due to its engineering industry and role as a naval base, it is sometimes claimed that it became one of the most bombed towns per head of population in the UK. The Royal Naval Patrol Service, formed from trawlermen and fishermen from the Royal Naval Reserve, was mobilised at Lowestoft in August 1939.
The service had its central depot HMS Europa known as Sparrow's Nest, in the town. Lowestoft is the major settlement in the East Suffolk district, it is a former municipal borough, having lost this status in 1974, although it retains a ceremonial mayor elected by its councillors annually. Suffolk County Council is the county authority. A civil parish was created on 1 April 2017; the town is part of the Waveney parliamentary constituency, represented at Westminster by Conservative Peter Aldous. Former MPs include Bob Blizzard, David Porter and Jim Prior, a cabinet minister and Secretary of State for Northern Ireland in the Thatcher governments, who represented the former constituency of Lowestoft. For European Union elections Lowestoft forms part of the East of England constituency. Prior to 1 April 2019, as part of Waveney District Council, Lowestoft was divided into ten electoral wards, with Carlton Colville treated as a separate electoral area. Harbour, Normanston, Pakefield, St Margarets and Whitton wards elected three councillors each, Carlton and Corton, Oulton and Oulton Broad wards each two.
Of the 48 council seats in the district, 26 represented wards within Lowestoft, three more represented Carlton Colville. In 2010 the council changed to a Whole Council process, with all seats on the council electe
Herring are forage fish belonging to the family Clupeidae. Herring move in large schools around fishing banks and near the coast; the most abundant and commercially important species belong to the genus Clupea, found in shallow, temperate waters of the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans, including the Baltic Sea, as well as off the west coast of South America. Three species of Clupea are recognised, provide about 90% of all herrings captured in fisheries. Most abundant of all is the Atlantic herring. Fishes called herring are found in the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal. Herring played a pivotal role in the history of marine fisheries in Europe, early in the 20th century, their study was fundamental to the evolution of fisheries science; these oily fish have a long history as an important food fish, are salted, smoked, or pickled. A number of different species, most belonging to the family Clupeidae, are referred to as herrings; the origins of the term "herring" is somewhat unclear, though it may derive from the Old High German heri meaning a "host, multitude", in reference to the large schools they form.
The type genus of the herring family Clupeidae is Clupea. Clupea contains three species: the Atlantic herring found in the north Atlantic, the Pacific herring found in the north Pacific, the Araucanian herring found off the coast of Chile. Subspecific divisions have been suggested for both the Atlantic and Pacific herrings, but their biological basis remains unclear. In addition, a number of related species, all in the Clupeidae, are referred to as herrings; the table below includes those members of the family Clupeidae referred to by FishBase as herrings which have been assessed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. A number of other species are called herrings, which may be related to clupeids or just share some characteristics of herrings. Just which of these species are called herrings can vary with locality, so what might be called a herring in one locality might be called something else in another locality; some examples: The species of Clupea belong to the larger family Clupeidae, which comprises some 200 species that share similar features.
These silvery-coloured fish have a single dorsal fin, soft, without spines. They have a protruding lower jaw, their size varies between subspecies: the Baltic herring is small, 14 to 18 cm. At least one stock of Atlantic herring spawns in every month of the year; each spawns at place. Greenland populations spawn in 0–5 m of water, while North Sea herrings spawn at down to 200 m in autumn. Eggs are laid on the sea bed, on rock, gravel, sand or beds of algae. Females may deposit from 20,000 to 40,000 eggs, according to age and size, averaging about 30,000. In sexually mature herring, the genital organs grow before spawning, reaching about one-fifth of its total weight; the eggs sink to the bottom, where they stick in layers or clumps to gravel, seaweed, or stones, by means of their mucous coating, or to any other objects on which they chance to settle. If the egg layers are too thick they suffer from oxygen depletion and die, entangled in a maze of mucus, they need substantial water microturbulence provided by wave action or coastal currents.
Survival is highest in crevices and behind solid structures, because predators feast on exposed eggs. The individual eggs are 1 to 1.4 mm in diameter, depending on the size of the parent fish and on the local race. Incubation time is about 40 days at 3 °C, 15 days at 7 °C, or 11 days at 10 °C. Eggs die at temperatures above 19 °C; the larvae are 5 to 6 mm long at hatching, with a small yolk sac, absorbed by the time the larvae reach 10 mm. Only the eyes are well pigmented; the rest of the body is nearly transparent invisible under water and in natural lighting conditions. The dorsal fin forms at 15 to 17 mm, the anal fin at about 30 mm —the ventral fins are visible and the tail becomes well forked at 30 to 35 mm — at about 40 mm, the larva begins to look like a herring; the larvae are slender and can be distinguished from all other young fish of their range by the location of the vent, which lies close to the base of the tail, but distinguishing clupeoids one from another in their early stages requires critical examination telling herring from sprats.
At one year, they are about 10 cm long, they first spawn at three years. Herrings consume copepods, arrow worms, pelagic amphipods and krill in the pelagic zone. Conversely, they are a central prey forage fish for higher trophic levels; the reasons for this success is still enigmatic. Herring feed on phytoplankton, as they mature, they start to consume larger organisms, they feed on zooplankton, tiny animals found in oceanic surface waters, small fish and fish larvae. Copepods and other tiny crustaceans are the most common zooplankton eaten by herring. During daylight, herring stay in the safety of deep water, feeding at the surface only at night when the chance of being seen by predators is less, they swim along with their mouths open, fi