A roadster is an open two-seat car with emphasis on sporting appearance or character. An American term for a two-seat car with no weather protection, usage has spread internationally and has evolved to include two-seat convertibles; the roadster was a style of racing car driven in United States Auto Club Championship Racing, including the Indianapolis 500, in the 1950s and 1960s. This type of racing car was superseded by mid-engined cars; the term "roadster" originates in the United States, where it was used in the nineteenth century to describe a horse suitable for travelling. By the end of the century the definition had expanded to include tricycles. In 1916, the United States Society of Automobile Engineers defined a roadster as: "an open car seating two or three, it may have additional seats on running boards or in rear deck." Due to it having a single row of seats, the main seat for the driver and passenger was further back in the chassis than it would have been in a touring car. Roadsters had a hooded dashboard.
In the United Kingdom the preferred terms were "open two-seater" and "two-seat tourer". Since the 1950s, the term "roadster" has been used in the United Kingdom, it is noted that the optional 4-seat variant of the Morgan Roadster would not be technically considered a roadster. The earliest roadster automobiles had only basic bodies without doors, windshields, or other weather protection. By the 1920s they were appointed to touring cars, with doors, simple folding tops, side curtains. Roadster bodies were offered on automobiles of all sizes and classes, from mass-produced cars like the Ford Model T and the Austin 7 to expensive cars like the Cadillac V-16, the Duesenberg Model J and Bugatti Royale. 1920s to 1950s roadsters By the 1970s "roadster" could be applied to any two-seater car of sporting appearance or character. In response to market demand they were manufactured as well-equipped as convertibles with side windows that retracted into the doors. Popular models through the 1960s and 1970s were the Alfa Romeo Spider, MGB and Triumph TR4.
1950s to 1980s roadsters The highest selling roadster is the Mazda MX-5, introduced in 1989. The early style of roadster with minimal weather protection is still in production by several low-volume manufacturers and fabricators, including the windowless Morgan Roadster, the doorless Caterham 7 and the bodyless Ariel Atom. 1990s to present day roadsters The term roadster was used to describe a style of racing cars competing in the AAA/USAC Championship Cars series from 1952 to 1969. The roadster engine and drive shaft are offset from the centerline of the car; this allows the driver to sit lower in the chassis and facilitates a weight offset, beneficial on oval tracks. One story of why this type of racing car is referred to as a "roadster" is that a team was preparing a new car for the Indianapolis 500, they had it covered in a corner of their shop. If they were asked about their car they would try and obscure its importance by saying that it was just their "roadster". After the Indianapolis racer was made public, the "roadster" name was still attached to it.
Frank Kurtis built the first roadster to race and entered it in the 1952 Indianapolis 500. It was driven by Bill Vukovich; the Howard Keck owned team with Vukovich driving went on to win the 1953 and 1954 contests with the same car. Bob Sweikert won the 1955 500 in a Kurtis. A. J. Watson, George Salih and Quinn Epperly were other notable roadster constructors. Watson-built roadsters won in 1956, 1959 - 1964 though the 1961 and 1963 winners were close copies built from Watson designs; the 1957 and 1958 winner was the same car built by Salih with help by Epperly built with a unique placement of the engine in a'lay down' mounting so the cylinders were nearly horizontal instead of vertical as traditional design dictated. This gave a lower center of gravity and a lower profile. Roadsters had disappeared from competition by the end of the 1960s, after the introduction, subsequent domination, of rear-engined machines. In 1965 Gordon Johncock brought the Wienberger Homes Watson to the finish in fifth place, the last top-ten roadster finish and the final time that a roadster finished the full distance of the race.
The last roadster to make the race was built and driven by Jim Hurtubise in the 1968 race and dropped out early. Hurtubise attempted to run the same car in 1969 but, while making his qualifying run at a good speed, the engine failed on the last of the four laps. Other classes of racing cars were built with the offset drive train and were referred to as roadsters; some pavement midgets roadsters raced into the early 1970s but never were dominant. Barchetta, a related two-seater body style designed for racing Convertible, the general term to describe vehicles with retractable roofs and retractable side windows Roadster utility Tonneau cover, a protective cover for the seats in an open car Media related to Roadsters at Wikimedia Commons
A brand is an overall experience of a customer that distinguishes an organization or product from its rivals in the eyes of the customer. Brands are used in business and advertising. Name brands are sometimes distinguished from generic or store brands; the practice of branding is thought to have begun with the ancient Egyptians, who were known to have engaged in livestock branding as early as 2,700 BCE. Branding was used to differentiate one person’s cattle from another's by means of a distinctive symbol burned into the animal’s skin with a hot branding iron. If a person stole any of the cattle, anyone else who saw the symbol could deduce the actual owner. However, the term has been extended to mean a strategic personality for a product or company, so that ‘brand’ now suggests the values and promises that a consumer may perceive and buy into. Over time, the practice of branding objects extended to a broader range of packaging and goods offered for sale including oil, wine and fish sauce. Branding in terms of painting a cow with symbols or colors at flea markets was considered to be one of the oldest forms of the practice.
Branding is a set of marketing and communication methods that help to distinguish a company or products from competitors, aiming to create a lasting impression in the minds of customers. The key components that form a brand's toolbox include a brand’s identity, brand communication, brand awareness, brand loyalty, various branding strategies. Many companies believe that there is little to differentiate between several types of products in the 21st century, therefore branding is one of a few remaining forms of product differentiation. Brand equity is the measurable totality of a brand's worth and is validated by assessing the effectiveness of these branding components; as markets become dynamic and fluctuating, brand equity is a marketing technique to increase customer satisfaction and customer loyalty, with side effects like reduced price sensitivity. A brand is, in essence, a promise to its customers of what they can expect from products and may include emotional as well as functional benefits.
When a customer is familiar with a brand, or favours it incomparably to its competitors, this is when a corporation has reached a high level of brand equity. Special accounting standards have been devised to assess brand equity. In accounting, a brand defined as an intangible asset, is the most valuable asset on a corporation’s balance sheet. Brand owners manage their brands to create shareholder value, brand valuation is an important management technique that ascribes a monetary value to a brand, allows marketing investment to be managed to maximize shareholder value. Although only acquired brands appear on a company's balance sheet, the notion of putting a value on a brand forces marketing leaders to be focused on long term stewardship of the brand and managing for value; the word ‘brand’ is used as a metonym referring to the company, identified with a brand. Marque or make are used to denote a brand of motor vehicle, which may be distinguished from a car model. A concept brand is a brand, associated with an abstract concept, like breast cancer awareness or environmentalism, rather than a specific product, service, or business.
A commodity brand is a brand associated with a commodity. The word, derives from its original and current meaning as a firebrand, a burning piece of wood; that word comes from the Old High German and Old English byrnan and brinnan via Middle English as birnan and brond. Torches were used to indelibly mark items such as furniture and pottery, to permanently burn identifying marks into the skin of slaves and livestock; the firebrands were replaced with branding irons. The marks themselves took on the term and came to be associated with craftsmen's products. Through that association, the term acquired its current meaning. Branding and labelling have an ancient history. Branding began with the practice of branding livestock in order to deter theft. Images of the branding of cattle occur in ancient Egyptian tombs dating to around 2,700 BCE. Over time, purchasers realised that the brand provided information about origin as well as about ownership, could serve as a guide to quality. Branding was adapted by farmers and traders for use on other types of goods such as pottery and ceramics.
Forms of branding or proto-branding emerged spontaneously and independently throughout Africa and Europe at different times, depending on local conditions. Seals, which acted as quasi-brands, have been found on early Chinese products of the Qin Dynasty. Identity marks, such as stamps on ceramics, were used in ancient Egypt. Diana Twede has argued that the "consumer packaging functions of protection and communication have been necessary whenever packages were the object of transactions", she has shown that amphorae used in Mediterranean trade between 1,500 and 500 BCE exhibited a wide variety of shapes and markings, which consumers used to glean information about the type of goods and the quality. Systematic use of stamped labels dates from around the fourth century BCE. In a pre-literate society, the shape of the amphora and its pictorial markings conveyed information about the contents, region of o
Ferrari 308 GTB/GTS
The Ferrari 308 GTB berlinetta and targa topped 308 GTS are V8 mid-engined, two-seater sports cars manufactured by the Italian company Ferrari from 1975 to 1985. The 308 replaced the Dino 246 GT and GTS in 1975 and was updated as the 328 in 1985; the similar 208 GTB and GTS were equipped with a smaller naturally aspirated turbocharged two-litre engine, sold in Italy. The 308 had a tube frame with separate body; the 308 GTB/GTS and GT4 were mechanically similar, shared much with the original Dino. Both 308s sit on the same tube platform, however the GT4—being a 2+2—has a longer wheelbase; the engine was a V8 of a 90 degree configuration, with two belt-driven overhead camshafts per cylinder bank. It was transversely mounted in unit with the transaxle transmission assembly, below and to the rear of the engine's sump. All models used a synchromesh 5-speed "dog-leg" manual gearbox and a clutch-type limited slip differential. Suspension was all-independent, comprising double wishbones, coaxial coil springs and hydraulic dampers, anti-roll bars on both axles.
Steering was unassisted pinion. The 308's body was designed by Pininfarina's Leonardo Fioravanti, responsible for some of Ferrari's most celebrated shapes to date such as the Daytona, the Dino and the Berlinetta Boxer; the 308 used elements of these shapes to create something much in contrast with the angular Bertone-designed GT4. GTS models featured a removable roof panel with grained satin black finish, which could be stowed in a vinyl cover behind the seats when not in use; the Pininfarina-styled Ferrari 308 GTB was introduced at the Paris Motor Show in 1975 as a supplement to the Bertone-shaped 2+2 Dino 308 GT4 and a direct replacement for the 2-seater Dino 246. Its F106 AB V8 engine was equipped with four twin-choke Weber 40DCNF carburettors and single coil ignition. European versions produced 255 PS at 6600 rpm, but American versions were down to 240 PS at 6,600 rpm due to emissions control devices. European specification cars used dry sump lubrication. Cars destined to the Australian, Japanese and US market were fitted with a conventional wet sump engine from the GT4.
A notable aspect of the early 308 GTB was that, although still built by Carrozzeria Scaglietti, its bodywork was made of glass-reinforced plastic, allowing a light weight of 1,050 kg. This lasted until June 1977, when the 308 was switched to steel bodies, resulting in an overall weight increase of 150 kg. Five-spoke 14-inch alloy wheels were standard, while 16-inch wheels were made available as an option on the 328, together with sports exhaust system, high compression pistons, high lift camshaft. At the 1977 Frankfurt Motor Show, the targa topped. All GTSes were steel-bodied. European GTB models retained the dry sump lubrication until 1981. There were 3219 GTSes and 2897 GTBs made from 1975 to 1980. Only 808 of the fibreglass version were made. In 1980 Bosch K-Jetronic mechanical fuel injection was offered, leading to GTSi; the fuel injection was coupled to a Marelli MED 803A Digiplex electronic ignition, incorporating a coil and ignition module for each bank of cylinders. Outside, the car was identical to the 308 GTB/GTS, save for metric sized wheels of a different design, fitted with Michelin TRX radial tyres—Michelin XWX on 16-inch wheels were optional.
Inside, the clock and oil temperature gauge were moved to the centre console. 494 GTBis and 1743 GTSis were produced before the model was succeeded by the 308 Quattrovalvole in 1982. Two years at the 1982 Paris Motor Show, Ferrari launched the 308 quattrovalvole, in GTB and GTS form; the main change from the 308 GTBi/GTSi it succeeded were the four valves per cylinder—hence its name, quattrovalvole "four valves" in Italian—which pushed output back up to 240 hp restoring some of the performance lost to the emission control equipment. The new model could be recognized by the addition of a slim louvred panel in the front lid to aid radiator exhaust air exit, power operated mirrors carrying a small enamel Ferrari badge, a redesigned radiator grille with rectangular driving lights on each side, rectangular side repeaters; the interior received some minor updates, such as a satin black three spoke steering wheel with triangular centre. Available options included metallic paint, a deep front spoiler, air conditioning, wider wheels, 16-inch Speedline wheels with Pirelli P7 tyres, a satin black roof aerofoil.
Apart from the DOHC 32-valve cylinder heads, the V8 engine was of the same design as that used in the 308 GTSi model. Total displacement was 2,927 cc, with a bore x stroke of 81 mm × 71 mm. Output on European specification cars was 240 PS at 7000 rpm and 260 N⋅m at 5000 rpm of torque, while for US specification variants were 233 PS at 6800 rpm and 255 N⋅m at 5500 rpm of torque; the gear and final drive ratios were altered to suit the revised characteristics of the 4 multivalves per cylinder engine. One other significant benefit of the QV four valve heads was the replacement of the non-QV models sodium valves which have bee
Automotive design is the process of developing the appearance, to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles, including automobiles, trucks, buses and vans. The functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering, design roles are not associated with requirements for Professional or Chartered-Engineer qualifications. Automotive design in this context is concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle, though it is involved in the creation of the product concept. Automotive design as a professional vocation is practiced by designers who may have an art background and a degree in industrial design or transportation design. Terminology used in the field is found in the glossary of automotive design; the task of the design team is split into three main aspects: exterior design, interior design, color and trim design. Graphic design is an aspect of automotive design.
Design focuses not only on the isolated outer shape of automobile parts, but concentrates on the combination of form and function, starting from the vehicle package. The aesthetic value will need to correspond to ergonomic utility features as well. In particular, vehicular electronic components and parts will give more challenges to automotive designers who are required to update on the latest information and knowledge associated with emerging vehicular gadgetry dashtop mobile devices, like GPS navigation, satellite radio, HD radio, mobile TV, MP3 players, video playback, smartphone interfaces. Though not all the new vehicular gadgets are to be designated as factory standard items, some of them may be integral to determining the future course of any specific vehicular models; the designer responsible for the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions and surfaces of the vehicle. Exterior design is first done by a series of manual drawings. Progressively, drawings that are more detailed are executed and approved by appropriate layers of management.
Industrial plasticine and or digital models are developed from, along with the drawings. The data from these models are used to create a full-sized mock-up of the final design. With three- and five-axis CNC milling machines, the clay model is first designed in a computer program and "carved" using the machine and large amounts of clay. In times of high-class 3d software and virtual models on power walls, the clay model is still the most important tool to evaluate the design of a car and, therefore, is used throughout the industry; the designer responsible for the vehicles' interior develops the proportions, shape and surfaces for the instrument panel, door trim panels, pillar trims, etc. Here the emphasis is on the comfort of the passengers; the procedure here is the same as with exterior design. The color and trim designer is responsible for the research and development of all interior and exterior colors and materials used on a vehicle; these include paints, fabric designs, grains, headliner, wood trim, so on.
Color, contrast and pattern must be combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment experience. Designers work with the exterior and interior designers. Designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as: industrial design, home furnishing and sometimes product design. Specific research is done into global trends to design for projects two to three model years in the future. Trend boards are created from this research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry; the designer uses this information to develop themes and concepts that are further refined and tested on the vehicle models. The design team develops graphics for items such as: badges, dials, kick or tread strips, liveries; the sketches and rendering are transformed into 3D Digital surface modelling and rendering for real-time evaluation with Math data in initial stages. During the development process succeeding phases will require the 3D model developed to meet the aesthetic requirements of a designer and well as all engineering and manufacturing requirements.
The developed CAS digital model will be re-developed for manufacturing meeting the Class-A surface standards that involves both technical as well as aesthetics. This data will be further developed by Product Engineering team; these modelers have a background in Industrial design or sometimes tooling engineering in case of some Class-A modelers. Autodesk Alias and ICEM Surf are the two most used software tools for Class-A development. Several manufacturers have varied development cycles for designing an Automobile, but in practice these are the following. Design and User Research Concept Development sketching CAS Clay modeling Interior Buck Model Vehicle ergonomics Class-A Surface Development Colour and Trim Vehicle GraphicsThe design process occurs concurrently with other product Engineers who will be engineering the styling data for meeting performance and safety regulations. From mid-phase and forth interactions between the designers and product engineers culminates into a finished product be manufacturing ready.
Apart from this the Engineering team parallelly works in the following areas. Product Engineering, NVH Development team, Prototype
Carrozzeria Scaglietti was an Italian automobile design and coachbuilding company active in the 1950s. It was founded by Sergio Scaglietti in 1951 as an automobile repair concern, but was located across the road from Ferrari in Maranello outside Modena, Italy. Scaglietti gained Enzo Ferrari's trust and respect both through his bodywork and design skills and for providing a retreat for young Dino Ferrari, their professional relationship began when Ferrari asked Scaglietti to repair and modify race car bodywork in the late 1940s, soon followed by orders for full car bodies in the early 1950s. Scaglietti and Dino Ferrari designed a 166MM, Prototipo 0050M, the first Ferrari to have a "headrest" bump; this feature was subsequently used on most racing Ferraris of the 1960s. The idea was despised by Enzo but championed by Dino, 0050M's design became an overall success. In the mid-1950s, Scaglietti became the Carrozzeria of choice for Ferrari's racing efforts. Many sports racing prototypes were manufactured at their facility.
All those designed by Scaglietti carried the Scaglietti & C. badge while cars built to outside designs did not. The company's 1958 250 Testa Rossa, with its Formula One-inspired pontoon fenders, is one of the most famous Scaglietti designs. Several of Ferrari's most coveted models such as the 250 California Spyder, 250 GTO and 250 Tour de France were built by Scaglietti to a Pinin Farina design. Today, the former Scaglietti works is owned by Ferrari and used to produce Ferrari's current line of aluminium bodied cars, including the 488 and F12, using both modern and traditional techniques. In 2002, a special edition of the 456, the 456M GT Scaglietti was named in honor of Scaglietti; this was followed by the 2004 introduction of the 612 Scaglietti, a 2+2 GT car produced until 2010. Despite names honoring Scaglietti, both the 456 and 612 were designed by Pininfarina. Sergio Scaglietti died at his Modena home on 20 November 2011 at the age of 91. Original Scaglietti designs include: 1953 Ferrari 166 MM 1958 250 Testa Rossa 1955 Ferrari 410 Sport 1955 Ferrari 500 Mondial Series II 1954 Ferrari 250 Monza 1956 Ferrari 290 MM 1956 Ferrari 860 Monza 1958–9 Chevrolet Corvette Scaglietti CoupeBodies executed to a third party design: 1957 250 California Spider 1962 250 GTO 1955 Ferrari 250 GT Tour de France 1968–74 Ferrari Dino 206 & 246 Anselmi, Angelo.
Making a Difference. Le Edizioni Dell Opificio. Coachbuild.com Encyclopedia: Scaglietti
A V6 engine is a V engine with six cylinders mounted on the crankshaft in two banks of three cylinders set at a 60 or 90 degree angle to each other. The V6 is one of the most compact engine configurations ranging from 2.0 L to 4.3 L displacement, it is shorter than the inline 4. Because of its short length, the V6 fits well in the used transverse engine front-wheel drive layout; the V6 is commercially successful in contemporary mid-size cars because it is less expensive to build and is smoother in large sizes than the inline 4, which develops serious vibration problems in larger engines. The wider 90° V6 will fit in an engine compartment designed for a V8, providing a low-cost alternative to the V8 in an expensive car, while the narrower 60° V6 will fit in most engine compartments designed for an I4, proving a more powerful and smoother alternative engine to the four. Buyers of luxury and/or performance cars might prefer an inline 6, which has better smoothness, or a flat 6 which has a lower center of gravity.
Recent forced induction V6 engines have delivered horsepower and torque output comparable to contemporary larger displacement aspirated V8 engines, while reducing fuel consumption and emissions, such as the Volkswagen Group's 3.0 TFSI, supercharged and directly injected, Ford Motor Company's turbocharged and directly injected EcoBoost V6, both of which have been compared to Volkswagen's 4.2 V8 engine. Modern V6 engines range in displacement from 2.0 to 4.3 L, though larger and smaller examples have been produced, such as the 1991 Mazda MX3, the Rover KV6 engine. Some of the first V6-powered automobiles were built in 1905 by Marmon; this firm became something of a V-engine specialist producing, in the 1930s, a V16 engine, as one of the few automakers in the world. From 1908 to 1913, the Deutz Gasmotoren Fabrik produced gasoline-electric train sets which used a V6 as generator engine. In 1918 Leo Goosen designed a V6-powered car for Buick Chief Engineer Walter L. Marr. Only one prototype Buick V6 car was built in 1918.
The first series-production V6 was introduced by Lancia in 1950 with the Lancia Aurelia model. Lancia sought a more powerful engine that would fit into an existing narrow engine bay. Lancia engineer Francesco De Virgilio began analyzing the vibration of alternative V-angles for a V6 engine in 1943, he found that a V6 with its cylinders positioned at a 60° V-angle could be made uniquely smooth-running in comparison with other possible V-angles. There was resistance to his conclusion because the V6 was a unknown engine type in the 1950s, his design featured four main bearings and six crankpins, resulting in evenly spaced firing intervals and low vibrations. Other manufacturers took note and soon other V6 engines were designed. In 1959, General Motors' GMC Truck division introduced a new 60-degree heavy-duty 305 in3 gasoline-fueled 60° V6 for use in their pickup trucks and Suburbans; the use of the sweet spot of 60 degrees' V-angle maximized power while minimizing vibration and exterior dimensions of the engine.
In short, GMC introduced a compact V6 design at a time when the straight-six engine was considered the pinnacle of 6-cylinder design.1962 saw the introduction of the Buick Special, which offered a new 90° V6 with uneven firing intervals, derived from—and shared some parts with—a small Buick V8 engine of the period. To save design time and expense, it was built much like a V8; the combination of a 90° V-angle with only three crank pins—set at 120° apart, with opposing cylinders sharing a crank pin as most V8 engines do—the cylinders fired alternatively at 90 and 150° of crankshaft rotation. This uneven firing caused harmonic vibrations in the drive train that were perceived as a rough-running engine by the buyers. GM sold the engine tooling to Kaiser-Jeep in 1967. In 1977, Buick introduced a split pin crankshaft to implement an even-fire version of this engine in which cylinders fired every 120°; the V6 does not have the inherent freedom from vibration that the inline-six and flat-six have, but it can be modeled as two separate straight-3 engines sharing a crankshaft.
Counterweights on the crankshaft and a counter-rotating balance shaft are required to compensate for the first order rocking motions. Straight engines with an odd number of cylinders are inherently unbalanced because there is always an odd number of pistons moving in one direction while a different number move the opposite direction; this causes an end-to-end rocking motion at crankshaft speed in a straight-three engine. V6 designs will behave like two unbalanced three-cylinder engines running on the same crankshaft unless steps are taken to mitigate it, for instance by using offset journals or flying arms on the crankshaft or a counter-rotating balance shaft. In the V6 with 120° between banks, pairs of connecting rods can share a single crank pin, but the two cylinder banks run like two inline 3s, both having an end-to-end rocking couple. Unlike in a V8 engine with a crossplane crankshaft, the vibrations from one bank do not cancel the vibrations from the other, so a rotating balancing shaft is required to compensate for the primary vibrations.
Because the 120° V6 is nearly as wide as a 180° flat-6 but is not nearly as smooth, can be more expensive if a balancing shaft is added, this configuration is seen in production engines. In the V6 with 90° between cylinders, split crank pins are required to offset the connecting rods by 30° to achieve an 120° between firing intervals, crankshaft counterw
Dino was a marque for mid-engined, rear-drive sports cars produced by Ferrari from 1968 to 1976. Used for models with engines with fewer than 12 cylinders, it was an attempt by the company to offer a low-cost sports car; the Ferrari name remained reserved for its premium V-12 and flat 12 models until 1976, when "Dino" was retired in favour of full Ferrari branding. Named to honour Ferrari founder Enzo Ferrari's son and heir Dino Ferrari, the Dino models used Ferrari racing naming designation of displacement and cylinder count with two digits for the size of the engine in deciliters and the third digit to represent the number of cylinders, i.e. 246 being a 2.4-litre 6-cylinder and 308 being a 3.0-litre 8-cylinder. Ferrari street models of the time used a three-digit representation of the displacement in cubic centimeters of one of the 12 cylinders, which would have been meaningless in a brand with differing numbers of cylinders; the "Dino" marque was created to market a lower priced, "affordable" sports car capable of taking on the Porsche 911.
Ferrari's expensive V12s well exceeded the 911 in both price. Enzo Ferrari did not want to diminish his exclusive brand with a cheaper car, so the "Dino" was created; the name "Dino" honors the founder's late son, Alfredo "Dino" Ferrari, credited with designing the V6 engine used in the car. Along with engineer Vittorio Jano, Dino persuaded his father to produce a line of racing cars in the 1950s with V6 and V8 engines. Ferrari wished to race in the new Formula Two category in 1967 with the Dino V6 engine. However, the company could not meet the homologation rules, which called for 500 production vehicles using the engine to be produced. Enzo Ferrari therefore asked Fiat to co-produce a sports car using the V6, the front-engined, rear-drive Fiat Dino was born, it used a 1,987 cc version of the Dino V6. Although a mid-engine layout was common in the world of sports car racing at the time, adapting it to a production car was quite daring; such a design placed more of the car's weight over the driven wheels, allowed for a streamlined nose, but led to a cramped passenger compartment and more challenging handling.
Lamborghini created a stir in 1966 with its mid-engined Miura, but Enzo Ferrari felt a mid-engine Ferrari would be unsafe in the hands of his customers. He relented, allowed designer Sergio Pininfarina to build a mid-engined concept car for the 1965 Paris Motor Show under the Dino badge alone; the 206S, shown at Turin in 1966, bore an closer resemblance to the production version. Response to the radically styled car was positive, so Ferrari allowed it to go into production, rationalizing the lower power of the V6 engine would result in a more manageable car; the first road-going Dino as well as the first Ferrari-built road car was the 1968 Dino 206 GT, designed by Leonardo Fioravanti at Pininfarina. The 206 GT used a transverse-mounted 2.0 L all-aluminium 65-degree V6 engine, with 180 PS at 8,000 rpm, the same used in the Fiat Dino. The 206 GT frame featured an aluminium body, full independent suspension, all round disc brakes. 152 were built in total in left hand drive only. In 1969 the 206 GT was superseded by the more powerful Dino 246 GT.
The 246 GT was powered by an enlarged 2418 cc V6 engine, producing with 195 PS at 7,600 rpm in European specification. Available as a fixed-top GT coupé, a targa topped GTS was offered after 1971. Other notable changes from the 206 were the body, now made of steel instead of aluminium, a 60 mm longer wheelbase than the 206. Three series of the Dino 246 GT were built, with differences in wheels, windshield wiper coverage, engine ventilation. Dino 246 production numbered 2,295 GTs and 1,274 GTSs, for a total production run of 3,569; the 308 GT4 was produced from 1973 to April 1980. Branded "Dino", the 308 GT4 was Ferrari's first V-8 production automobile; the 308 was a 2+2 with a wheelbase of 100.4 inches. The 308 was designed by Bertone; the 308 GT4 V-8 had a 90-degree, dual-overhead-camshaft, 2927 cc motor with 4 Weber carburetors which produced 250 hp. The V-8 block and heads were made of an aluminum alloy; the compression ratio was 8.8:1. The American version had an air-pump; the GT4 weighed 2535 pounds.
The 308 GT4 wore the Dino badge until May 1976, when it got the Ferrari "Prancing Horse" badge on the hood and the steering wheel. Buckley, Martin. World Encyclopedia of Cars. London: Anness Publishing. ISBN 1-84038-083-7. Gabriel, Jean-Pierre. Les Ferrari de Turin. Nîmes: Editions du Palmier. ISBN 2-914920-25-3. Dino Register Club Dino Italia Ferrari, Lancia Stratos Dino UK Ferrari, Lancia Stratos