SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Dinosaur

Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria. They first appeared during the Triassic period, between 243 and 233.23 million years ago, although the exact origin and timing of the evolution of dinosaurs is the subject of active research. They became the dominant terrestrial vertebrates after the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event 201.3 million years ago. The fossil record demonstrates that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs, having evolved from earlier theropods during the Late Jurassic epoch; as such, birds were the only dinosaur lineage to survive the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event 66 million years ago. Dinosaurs can therefore be divided into birds. Dinosaurs are a varied group of animals from taxonomic and ecological standpoints. Birds, at over 10,000 living species, are the most diverse group of vertebrates besides perciform fish. Using fossil evidence, paleontologists have identified over 500 distinct genera and more than 1,000 different species of non-avian dinosaurs.

Dinosaurs are represented on every continent by fossil remains. Through the first half of the 20th century, before birds were recognized to be dinosaurs, most of the scientific community believed dinosaurs to have been sluggish and cold-blooded. Most research conducted since the 1970s, has indicated that all dinosaurs were active animals with elevated metabolisms and numerous adaptations for social interaction; some were herbivorous, others carnivorous. Evidence suggests. While dinosaurs were ancestrally bipedal, many extinct groups included quadrupedal species, some were able to shift between these stances. Elaborate display structures such as horns or crests are common to all dinosaur groups, some extinct groups developed skeletal modifications such as bony armor and spines. While the dinosaurs' modern-day surviving avian lineage are small due to the constraints of flight, many prehistoric dinosaurs were large-bodied—the largest sauropod dinosaurs are estimated to have reached lengths of 39.7 meters and heights of 18 meters and were the largest land animals of all time.

Still, the idea that non-avian dinosaurs were uniformly gigantic is a misconception based in part on preservation bias, as large, sturdy bones are more to last until they are fossilized. Many dinosaurs were quite small: Xixianykus, for example, was only about 50 cm long. Since the first dinosaur fossils were recognized in the early 19th century, mounted fossil dinosaur skeletons have been major attractions at museums around the world, dinosaurs have become an enduring part of world culture; the large sizes of some dinosaur groups, as well as their monstrous and fantastic nature, have ensured dinosaurs' regular appearance in best-selling books and films, such as Jurassic Park. Persistent public enthusiasm for the animals has resulted in significant funding for dinosaur science, new discoveries are covered by the media; the taxon'Dinosauria' was formally named in 1842 by paleontologist Sir Richard Owen, who used it to refer to the "distinct tribe or sub-order of Saurian Reptiles" that were being recognized in England and around the world.

The term is derived from Ancient Greek δεινός, meaning'terrible, potent or fearfully great', σαῦρος, meaning'lizard or reptile'. Though the taxonomic name has been interpreted as a reference to dinosaurs' teeth and other fearsome characteristics, Owen intended it to evoke their size and majesty. Other prehistoric animals, including pterosaurs, ichthyosaurs and Dimetrodon, while popularly conceived of as dinosaurs, are not taxonomically classified as dinosaurs. Pterosaurs are distantly related to dinosaurs; the other groups mentioned are, like dinosaurs and pterosaurs, members of Sauropsida, except Dimetrodon. Under phylogenetic nomenclature, dinosaurs are defined as the group consisting of the most recent common ancestor of Triceratops and modern birds, all its descendants, it has been suggested that Dinosauria be defined with respect to the MRCA of Megalosaurus and Iguanodon, because these were two of the three genera cited by Richard Owen when he recognized the Dinosauria. Both definitions result in the same set of animals being defined as dinosaurs: "Dinosauria = Ornithischia + Saurischia", encompassing ankylosaurians, ceratopsians, ornithopods and sauropodomorphs.

Birds are now recognized as being the sole surviving lineage of theropod dinosaurs. In traditional taxonomy, birds were considered a separate class that had evolved from dinosaurs, a distinct superorder. However, a majority of contemporary paleontologists concerned with dinosaurs reject the traditional style of classification in favor of phylogenetic taxonomy. Birds are thus considered to be dinosaurs and dinosaurs are, not extinct. Birds are classified as belonging to the subgroup Maniraptora, which are coelurosaurs, which are

List of Statutory Instruments of Scotland, 2003

This is an incomplete list of Scottish Statutory Instruments in 2003. Cairngorms National Park Designation and Consequential Provisions Order 2003 Cairngorms National Park Elections Order 2003 Plastic Materials and Articles in Contact with Food Regulations 2003 Education Amendment Regulations 2003 National Health Service Amendment Regulations 2003 Food Protection Order 2002 Revocation Order 2003 Food Protection Order 2002 Revocation Order 2003 Intercountry Adoption Regulations 2003 Police and Police Amendment Regulations 2003 Food Protection Order 2002 Partial Revocation Order 2003 Food Protection Order 2002 Revocation Order 2003 Food Protection Order 2002 Revocation Order 2003 Act of Sederunt Amendment 2003 Act of Sederunt Amendment 2003 Act of Sederunt Amendment 2003 Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Regulations 2003 Local Government Finance Order 2003 Act of Sederunt Amendment 2003 Extended Sentences for Violent Offenders Order 2003 Civil Legal Aid Amendment Regulations 2003 Regulation of Investigatory Powers Amendment Order 2003 Action Programme for Nitrate Vulnerable Zones Regulations 2003 Nitrate Vulnerable Zones Scheme 2003 Animal By-Products Amendment Regulations 2003 Housing Revenue Account General Fund Contribution Limits Order 2003 National Health Service Superannuation Scheme Amendment Regulations 2003 Sea Fishing Order 2003 Community Care and Health Act 2002 Order 2003 Community Care and Health Act 2002 Order 2003 National Health Service Regulations 2003 Domestic Water and Sewerage Charges Regulations 2003 Sea Fishing Amendment Order 2003 Registration of Foreign Adoptions Regulations 2003 National Assistance Amendment Regulations 2003 Road Traffic Designation Order 2003 Road Traffic Regulations 2003 Parking Attendants Regulations 2003 Taxi Drivers' Licences Regulations 2003 Ethical Standards in Public Life etc.

Act 2000 Order 2003 The Schools Code Amendment Regulations 2003 Representation of the People Order 2003 76) Sea Fish Order 2003 The Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act 2002 Order 2003 Food Protection Order 2002 Revocation Order 2003 Standards in Scotland's Schools etc. Act 2000 Order 2003 Surface Waters Amendment Regulations 2003 National Assistance Regulations 2003 Fishing Vessels Scheme 2003 Sea Fishing Order 2003 Births, Deaths and Divorces Amendment Regulations 2003 Food Protection Order 2002 Partial Revocation Order 2003 Bluetongue Order 2003 Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 Order 2003 Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 Order 2003 Child Support Appeals Order 2003 Sheriff Court Fees Amendmen

Southern Scenic Route

The Southern Scenic Route is a tourist highway in New Zealand linking Queenstown, Fiordland, Te Anau and the iconic Milford Road to Dunedin via, Riverton and The Catlins. An Australian travel magazine labelled it "one of the world's great undiscovered drives" in 2008; the Southern Scenic Route concept and name were conceived at an informal gathering in Tuatapere in November 1985 and confirmed at a public meeting in January 1986. The promoters negotiated with road and tourism authorities and local government; the project was a first for New Zealand and approval was a slow process. At one stage, traffic signs were installed in a clandestine operation; the Route opened on 6 November 1988 running between Te Anau in the west and Balclutha in the east. It was extended from Balclutha to Dunedin in 1998 and from Te Anau to Queenstown in 2010; the Route runs in a U shape from Queenstown to Dunedin. Skirting the eastern boundary of Fiordland National Park, it passes Tuatapere. At Te Waewae Bay the coast is reached and the route swings eastward towards Orepuki, Colac Bay and Riverton.

At Lorneville the New Zealand state highway network is joined, the Southern Scenic Route runs on State Highway 6 for just eight kilometres south into Invercargill. From Invercargill it heads east through Fortrose into the Catlins through Owaka to Balclutha; this part was State Highway 92. The next section of rugged coastline with poor roading through Kaitangata is avoided, as the Southern Scenic Route follows State Highway 1 to Milton and Lake Waihola; the Route leaves the highway at Waihola and climbs through Otago Coast Forest rejoining the coastline at Taieri Mouth. From here it follows secondary roads through Brighton and Green Island, ending where it meets SH 1 again at Caversham. In early 2007 a proposal arose to extend the route northward beyond Dunedin through Waitati. In November 2007, the Dunedin City Council confirmed that it planned to talk with the Waitaki District Council about extending the route to Oamaru, an idea, not adopted. Southern Scenic Route