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Dio Chrysostom

Dio Chrysostom, Dion of Prusa or Dio Cocceianus, was a Greek orator, writer and historian of the Roman Empire in the 1st century AD. Eighty of his Discourses are extant, as well as a few Letters and a funny mock essay "In Praise of Hair", as well as a few other fragments, his surname Chrysostom comes from the Greek chrysostomos, which means "golden-mouthed". He was born at Prusa in the Roman province of Bithynia, his father, seems to have bestowed great care on his son Dio's education and the early training of his mind. At first he occupied himself in his native place, where he held important offices, with the composition of speeches and other rhetorical and sophistical essays, but he devoted himself with great zeal to the study of philosophy, he did not, confine himself to any particular sect or school, nor did he give himself up to any profound speculations, his object being rather to apply the doctrines of philosophy to the purposes of practical life, more to the administration of public affairs, thus to bring about a better state of things.

The Stoic and Platonist philosophies, appear to have had the greatest charms for him. He went to Rome during Vespasian's reign, by which time he seems to have got married and had a child, he became a critic of the Emperor Domitian, who banished him from Rome and Bithynia in 82 for advising one of the Emperor's conspiring relatives. On the advice of the Delphic oracle, he put on the clothes of a beggar, with nothing in his pocket but a copy of Plato's Phaedo and Demosthenes's oration on the Embassy, he lived the life of a Cynic philosopher, undertaking a journey to the countries in the north and east of the Roman empire, he thus visited Thrace, Mysia and the country of the Getae, owing to the power and wisdom of his orations, he met everywhere with a kindly reception, did much good. He was a friend of Nerva, when Domitian was murdered in 96 AD, Dio used his influence with the army stationed on the frontier in favour of Nerva. Under Emperor Nerva's reign, his exile was ended, he was able to return home to Prusa.

He adopted the surname Cocceianus in life to honour the support given to him by the emperor, whose full name was Marcus Cocceius Nerva. Nerva's successor, entertained the highest esteem for Dio, showed him the most marked favour, his kindly disposition gained him many eminent friends, such as Apollonius of Tyana and Euphrates of Tyre, his oratory the admiration of all. In his life Dio had considerable status in Prusa, there are records of him being involved in an urban renewal lawsuit about 111, he died a few years later. Dio Chrysostom was part of the Second Sophistic school of Greek philosophers which reached its peak in the early 2nd century, he was considered as one of the most eminent of the Greek rhetoricians and sophists by the ancients who wrote about him, such as Philostratus and Photius. This is confirmed by the eighty orations of his which are still extant, which were the only ones known in the time of Photius; these orations appear to be written versions of his oral teaching, are like essays on political and philosophical subjects.

They include four orations on Kingship addressed to Trajan on the virtues of a sovereign. He argued against permitting prostitution, he claimed that the epics of Homer had been translated and were sung in India. Two orations of his are now assigned to Favorinus. Besides the eighty orations we have fragments of fifteen others, there are extant five letters under Dio's name. Dio believed; some modern researchers agree with this. For example, A. Belyakov and O. Matveychev in their book adhere to this point of view referring to a number of modern sources, he wrote many other historical works, none of which survive. One of these works, was on the Getae, which the Suda incorrectly attributes to Dio Cassius. Hans von Arnim, Dionis Prusaensis quem uocant Chrysostomum quae exstant omnia. C. Bost-Pouderon, Dion Chrysostome. Trois discours aux villes. C. Bost-Pouderon, Dion de Pruse dit Dion Chrysostome. Oeuvres (Or. XXXIII-XXXVI. Trans. J. W. Cohoon, Dio Chrysostom, I, Discourses 1-11, 1932. Harvard University Press, Loeb Classical Library: Trans.

J. W. Cohoon, Dio Chrysostom, II, Discourses 12-30, 1939. Trans. J. W. Cohoon & H. Lamar Crosby, Dio Chrysostom, III, Discourses 31-36, 1940. Trans. H. Lamar Crosby, Dio Chrysostom, IV, Discourses 37-60, 1946. Trans. H. Lamar Crosby, Dio Chrysostom, V, Discourses 61-80. Fragments. Letters, 1951. H.-G. Nesselrath, Dio von Prusa. Der Philosoph und sein Bild, critical edition, commentary and essays by E. Amato et al. Tübingen 2009. Eugenio Amato, Xenophontis imitator fidelissimus

Diane Nash

Diane Judith Nash is an American civil rights activist, a leader and strategist of the student wing of the Civil Rights Movement. Nash's campaigns were among the most successful of the era, her efforts included the first successful civil rights campaign to integrate lunch counters. This helped gain Congressional passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which authorized the federal government to oversee and enforce state practices to ensure that African Americans and other minorities were not prevented from registering and voting. Nash was born in 1938 and raised in Chicago by her father Leon Nash and her mother Dorothy Bolton Nash in a middle-class Catholic area, her father was a veteran of World War II. Her mother worked as a keypunch operator during the war, leaving Nash in the care of her grandmother, Carrie Bolton, until age 7. Bolton was a cultured woman, known for her refinement and manners. After the war, Nash's parents' marriage ended. Dorothy married again to John Baker, a waiter on the railroad dining cars owned by the Pullman Company.

Baker was a member of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, one of the most powerful black unions in the nation. As Dorothy no longer worked outside the house, Diane saw less of her grandmother Carrie Bolton, but she continued as an important influence in Nash's life. Bolton was committed to making sure her granddaughter understood her worth and value, didn't discuss race believing that racial prejudice was something, taught to younger generations by their elders, her grandmother's words and actions instilled Diane with confidence and a strong sense of self-worth, while creating a bit of a sheltered environment that left her vulnerable to the severity of racism in the outside world as she grew older. Nash attended Catholic schools, at one point considered becoming a nun, she was the runner-up in a regional beauty pageant leading to the competition for Miss Illinois. After finishing Hyde Park High School in Chicago, Diane Nash went to Washington, D. C. to attend Howard University, a black college.

After a year, she transferred to Fisk University in Nashville, where she majored in English. Nash acknowledged that she looked forward to personal growth during her time in college and wanted to explore the challenging issues of the time. In Nashville, she was first exposed to the full force of Jim Crow laws and customs and their effect on the lives of Blacks. Nash recounted her experience at the Tennessee State Fair when she had to use the "Colored Women" restroom, signifying the first time she had seen and been impacted by segregation signage. Outraged by the realities of segregation, Nash began to show signs of leadership and soon became a full-time activist. Nash's family members were surprised, her grandmother was quoted as saying, "Diane, you've gotten in with the wrong bunch. Her family was not familiar with the idea of working for civil rights, it took her family time to recognize her position as a key player in the Civil Rights Movement, her mother fundraised for the Freedom Riders. Nash said in a PBS Tavis Smiley interview, "My mother ended up going to fundraisers in Chicago that were raising money to send to the students in the South and over years, she went to an elevated train bus station one day at 6:00 a.m. to hand out leaflets protesting the war."

Her mother was influenced by Nash's sense of empowerment. At Fisk, Nash searched for a way to challenge segregation. Nash began attending nonviolent civil disobedience workshops led by James Lawson. While in India, James Lawson had studied Mahatma Gandhi's techniques of nonviolent direct action and passive resistance used in his political movement. By the end of her first semester at Fisk, Nash had become one of Lawson's most devoted disciples. Although a reluctant participant in nonviolence, Nash emerged as a leader due to her well-spoken, composed manner when speaking to the authorities and to the press. In 1960 at age 22, she became the leader of the Nashville sit-ins, which lasted from February to May. Lawson's workshops included simulations in order to prepare the students to handle verbal and physical harassment that they would face during the sit-ins. In preparation, the students would venture out to segregated stores and restaurants, doing nothing more than speaking with the manager when they were refused service.

Lawson graded their interactions in each simulation and sit-in, reminding them to have love and compassion for their harassers. This movement was unique for the time in that it was led by and composed of college students and young people; the Nashville sit-ins spread to 69 cities across the United States. Though protests would continue in Nashville and across the South, Diane Nash and three other students were first served at the Post House Restaurant on March 17, 1960. Students continued the sit-ins at segregated lunch counters for months, accepting arrest in line with nonviolent principles. Nash, with John Lewis, led the protesters in a policy of refusing to pay bail. In February 1961, Nash served jail time in solidarity with the "Rock Hill Nine" — nine students imprisoned after a lunch counter sit-in, they were all sentenced to pay a $50 fine for sitting at a whites-only lunch counter. Chosen as spokesperson, Nash said to the judge, "We feel that if we pay these fines we would be contributing to and supporting the injustice and immor

Jesse H Turner Park

Jesse H Turner Park is a public park in Memphis, Tennessee at the corner of South Parkway and Bellevue in South Memphis. Jesse H. Turner Sr. was a major civil rights champion and former president of Tri-State Bank in Memphis, Tennessee. Jesse H. Turner, Sr. had a long and dedicated service to the NAACP, which began when he was a student at LeMoyne College. He became a longtime treasurer of the national NAACP organization, he was the first black CPA of Tennessee, the first black chairman of the Shelby County Board of Commissioners. His son, Jesse Turner Jr. was the first African-American to attend a white high school in the Memphis area, graduating co-salutatorian from Christian Brothers High School in 1967. Google map