In church governance, a diocese or bishopric is the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. In the organization of the Roman Empire, the subdivided provinces were administratively associated in a larger unit, the diocese. After Christianity was given legal status in 313, the Churches began to organize themselves into dioceses based on provinces, not on the larger regional imperial districts; the dioceses were smaller than the provinces since there were more bishops than governors. Christianity was declared the Empire's official religion by Theodosius I in 380. Constantine I in 318 gave litigants the right to have court cases transferred from the civil courts to the bishops; this situation must have hardly survived Julian, 361–363. Episcopal courts are not heard of again in the East until 398 and in the West in 408; the quality of these courts were low, not above suspicion as the bishop of Alexandria Troas found out that clergy were making a corrupt profit. Nonetheless, these courts were popular.

Bishops had no part in the civil administration until the town councils, in decline, lost much authority to a group of'notables' made up of the richest councilors and rich persons exempted from serving on the councils, retired military, bishops post-450 AD. As the Western Empire collapsed in the 5th century, bishops in Western Europe assumed a larger part of the role of the former Roman governors. A similar, though less pronounced, development occurred in the East, where the Roman administrative apparatus was retained by the Byzantine Empire. In modern times, many dioceses, though subdivided, have preserved the boundaries of a long-vanished Roman administrative division. For Gaul, Bruce Eagles has observed that "it has long been an academic commonplace in France that the medieval dioceses, their constituent pagi, were the direct territorial successors of the Roman civitates."Modern usage of'diocese' tends to refer to the sphere of a bishop's jurisdiction. This became commonplace during the self-conscious "classicizing" structural evolution of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century, but this usage had itself been evolving from the much earlier parochia, dating from the formalized Christian authority structure in the 4th century.

Dioceses ruled by an archbishop are referred to as archdioceses. A few are suffragans of a metropolitan are directly subject to the Holy See; the term'archdiocese' is not found in Canon Law, with the terms "diocese" and "episcopal see" being applicable to the area under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of any bishop. If the title of archbishop is granted on personal grounds to a diocesan bishop, his diocese does not thereby become an archdiocese; as of January 2019, in the Catholic Church there are 2,886 regular dioceses: 1 papal see, 645 archdioceses and 2,240 dioceses in the world. In the Eastern rites in communion with the Pope, the equivalent unit is called an eparchy; the Eastern Orthodox Church calls dioceses episkopies in the Greek tradition and eparchies in the Slavic tradition. After the English Reformation, the Church of England retained the existing diocesan structure which remains throughout the Anglican Communion; the one change is that the areas administered under the Archbishop of Canterbury and Archbishop of York are properly referred to as dioceses, not archdioceses: they are the metropolitan bishops of their respective provinces and bishops of their own diocese and have the position of archbishop.

Due to its unique three-tikanga system, New Zealand church's constitution uses the specific term "Episcopal Unit" for both dioceses and pīhopatanga. Pīhopatanga are the tribal-based jurisdictions of Māori pīhopa which overlap with the "New Zealand dioceses". Certain Lutheran denominations such as the Church of Sweden do have individual dioceses similar to Roman Catholics; these dioceses and archdioceses are under the government of a bishop. Other Lutheran bodies and synods that have dioceses and bishops include the Church of Denmark, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the Evangelical Church in Germany, the Church of Norway. From about the 13th century until the German mediatization of 1803, the majority of the bishops of the Holy Roman Empire were prince-bishops, as such exercised political authority over a principality, their so-called Hochstift, distinct, considerably smaller than their diocese, over which they only exercised the usual authority of a bishop; some American Lutheran church bodies such as the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America have a bishop acting as the head of the synod, but the synod does not have dioceses and archdioceses as the churches listed above.

Rather, it is divided into a middle judicatory. The Lutheran Church - International, based in Springfield, presently uses a traditional diocesan structure, with four dioceses in North America, its current president is Archbishop Robert W. Hotes; the Church of God in Christ has dioceses throughout the United States. In the COGIC, most states are divided into at least three or more dioceses that are each led by a bishop; these dioceses are called "jurisdictions" within COGIC. In the Latter Day


Gothminister is a gothic/industrial metal band from Norway. Formed in 1999, they have released five albums and have had success in Germany, playing many German music festivals, including Wave-Gotik-Treffen, the Dark Storm Festival, the M'era Luna Festival, performing for over 10,000 people at the Schattenreich Festival. Current membersBjørn Alexander Brem - lead vocals, instruments Christian Svendsen - drums Glenn Nilsen - guitars Ketil Eggum - guitarsFormer membersAndy Moxnes — keyboards, guitars Tom Kalstad - keyboards Sandra Jensen — performanceGuest appearancesNell Sigland — vocals on "Wish", "Your Saviour", "The Allmighty" and "Emperor" Cecilia Kristensen — the "Girl" in the "Darkside" video Eastern Strix- the "Girl" in the "Freak" videoLive guest appearancesEric Burton — live vocals for "Hatred" at M'era Luna Festival 2004 Bruno Kramm - keyboards on Wave Gotik Treffen and M`Era Luna Festival 2011 Albums2003: Gothic Electronic Anthems 2005: Empire of Dark Salvation 2008: Happiness in Darkness 2011: Anima Inferna 2013: Utopia - 2017: The Other SideSingles and EPs2002: Angel 2002: Devil 2003: The Holy One 2005: Dark Salvation EP 2005: Swallowed by the Earth 2008: Dusk till Dawn 2009: Freak 2011: Liar 2013: Utopia 2017: Der Fliegende Mann 2017: The Sun 2017: Ich Will Alles 2017: We Are The Ones Who Rule The WorldVideography2008: Darkside 2009: Freak 2013: Utopia 2013: Horrorshow 2017: Der Fliegende Mann 2017: The Sun 2017: Ich Will Alles 2017: We Are The Ones Who Rule The World Profile page at Drakkar Records/e-Wave Records

Turnbull Canyon

Turnbull Canyon is a 4 mile loop trail located near Whittier, California and is part of Puente Hills Preserve. It lies in the northern-central part of the preserve, is an east-west canyon with steep drainage; the canyon has a creek at its bottom that supports a narrow strip of riparian woodland dominated by sycamore trees, while the slopes are covered in coastal sage and native and non-native grasses. The climate in Turnbull Canyon is typical of Southern California, semi-arid; because the Whittier Hills has a close proximity to the ocean, which has an equalizing effect on the climate, it is somewhat cooler here than some of the areas just south of the region. During the winter months, it is not uncommon to see frost on the ground and during summer, it gets hotter than 95 degrees. Turnbull Canyon is known for the view it provides of the Hsi Lai Temple and Rose Hills Memorial Park, it has been the source of rumors regarding paranormal activities and was the scene of the discovery a then-missing person's body.

Puente Hills San Gabriel Valley California Floristic Province California chaparral and woodlands Puente Hills topics Puente Hills Preserve Park Map Puente Hills Preserve Park - activities and homepage The Puente Hills Preserve: Puente - Chino Hills Wildlife Corridor The Puente Hills Preserve: Trails Access info. Puente Hills Landfill Native Habitat Preservation Authority Puente Hills Nature Blog