A diplomatic mission or foreign mission is a group of people from one state or an organisation present in another state to represent the sending state/organisation in the receiving state. In practice, a diplomatic mission denotes the resident mission, namely the embassy, the main office of a country's diplomatic representatives to another country but not the receiving state's capital city. Consulates, on the other hand, are smaller diplomatic missions which are located outside the capital of the receiving state; as well as being a diplomatic mission to the country in which it is situated, it may be a non-resident permanent mission to one or more other countries. There are thus non-resident embassies. A permanent diplomatic mission is known as an embassy, the head of the mission is known as an ambassador or high commissioner; the term "embassy" is used as a section of a building in which the work of the diplomatic mission is carried out, but speaking, it is the diplomatic delegation itself, the embassy, while the office space and the diplomatic work done is called the chancery.
Therefore, the embassy operates in the chancery. The members of a diplomatic mission can reside within or outside the building that holds the mission's chancery, their private residences enjoy the same rights as the premises of the mission as regards inviolability and protection. All missions to the United Nations are known as permanent missions, while EU member states' missions to the European Union are known as permanent representations, the head of such a mission is both a permanent representative and an ambassador. European Union missions abroad are known as EU delegations; some countries have more particular naming for their missions and staff: a Vatican mission is headed by a nuncio and known as an apostolic nunciature. Under the rule of Muammar Gaddafi, Libya's missions used the name "people's bureau", headed by a secretary. Missions between Commonwealth countries are known as high commissions, their heads are high commissioners. Speaking and high commissioners are regarded as equivalent in status and function and embassies and high commissions are both deemed to be diplomatic missions.
In the past a diplomatic mission headed by a lower-ranking official was known as a legation. Since the ranks of envoy and minister resident are obsolete, the designation of legation is no longer used today. A consulate is similar to, but not the same as a diplomatic office, but with focus on dealing with individual persons and businesses, as defined by the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations. A consulate or consulate general is a representative of the embassy in locales outside of the capital city. For instance, the United Kingdom has its Embassy of the United Kingdom in Washington, D. C. but maintains seven consulates-general and four consulates elsewhere in the US. The person in charge of a consulate or consulate-general is known as a consul or consul-general, respectively. Similar services may be provided at the embassy in what is called a consular section. In cases of dispute, it is common for a country to recall its head of mission as a sign of its displeasure; this is less drastic than cutting diplomatic relations and the mission will still continue operating more or less but it will now be headed by a chargé d'affaires who may have limited powers.
A chargé d'affaires ad interim heads the mission during the interim between the end of one chief of mission's term and the beginning of another. Contrary to popular belief, most diplomatic missions do not enjoy full extraterritorial status and – in those cases – are not sovereign territory of the represented state. Rather, the premises of diplomatic missions remain under the jurisdiction of the host state while being afforded special privileges by the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations. Diplomats themselves still retain full diplomatic immunity, the host country may not enter the premises of the mission without permission of the represented country to put out a fire. International rules designate an attack on an embassy as an attack on the country it represents; the term "extraterritoriality" is applied to diplomatic missions, but only in this broader sense. As the host country may not enter the representing country's embassy without permission, embassies are sometimes used by refugees escaping from either the host country or a third country.
For example, North Korean nationals, who would be arrested and deported from China upon discovery, have sought sanctuary at various third-country embassies in China. Once inside the embassy, diplomatic channels can be used to solve the issue and send the refugees to another country. See the list of people who took refuge in a diplomatic mission for a list of some notable cases. Notable violations of embassy extraterritoriality include repeated invasions of the British Embassy, the Iran hostage crisis, the Japanese embassy hostage crisis at the ambassador's residence in Lima, Peru; the Vienna Convention states:The functions of a diplomatic mission consist, inter alia, in representing the sending State in the receiving State.
Duarte de Menezes
Dom Duarte de Menezes, was a 16th-century Portuguese nobleman and colonial officer, governor of Tangier from 1508 to 1521 and 1536 to 1539 and governor of Portuguese India from 1522 to 1524. D. Duarte de Menezes was the eldest son of the powerful noble D. João de Meneses, 1st Count of Tarouca and Prior of Crato, his wife D. Joana de Vilhena, he was named after his renowned grandfather, Duarte de Menezes, 3rd Count of Viana, captain of Alcácer-Ceguer. In 1508, Duarte de Menezes succeeded his father as Portuguese captain of Tangier, a function he had been performing in his father's name since 1507, he carved out a reputation as a military leader in numerous engagements around Tangier. In 1521, D. Duarte de Menezes was named by King Manuel I of Portugal as the next governor of Portuguese India, succeeding Diogo Lopes de Sequeira. Duarte de Menezes left Lisbon in 1521, with an armada of 11 carracks destined for India, he was accompanied by his brother D. Luís de Menezes. On the outgoing leg, Menezes's armada was joined by a squadron of four ships, commanded by Martim Afonso de Mello, destined for China.
Menezes's armada arrived in Goa at the end of August, 1521. He assumed office upon the departure of his predecessor. D. Duarte de Menezes tenure as governor was considered disastrous. Accused of corruption, he was arrested by his successor, Vasco da Gama, in 1524, sent back to Portugal in chains, he was imprisoned for nearly seven years in the castle of Torres Vedras, before being released by the intercession of powerful friends. The rehabilitation of Duarte de Menezes was sufficiently complete that in October 1536, he managed to be appointed to his old post as governor of Tangier, he held that post until January, 1539, when he handed over the government to his son, D. João de Meneses. Duarte de Menezes lived out the remainder of his days in Portugal; the Rise of Portuguese Power in India, p. 199 História de Tânger durante la dominacion portuguesa, by D. Fernando de Menezes, conde de la Ericeira, etc. traduccion del R. P. Buanaventura Diaz, O. F. M. Misionero del Vicariato apostólico de Marruecos.
Lisboa Occidental. Imprenta Ferreiriana. 1732. Ignacio da Costa Quintella Annaes da Marinha Portugueza, Vol. 1, Lisbon: Academia Real das Sciencias. Genealogy of D. Duarte de Menezes at geneall.com
Portuguese people are a Romance ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese. Their predominant religion is Christianity Roman Catholicism, though vast segments of the population the younger generations, have no religious affiliation; the Portuguese people's heritage includes the pre-Celts and Celts. A number of Portuguese descend from converted Jewish and North Africans as a result of the Moorish occupation of the Iberian Peninsula; the Romans, Scandinavians, migratory Germanic tribes like the Suebi, Vandals and Buri who settled in what is today's Portugal The Roman Republic conquered the Iberian Peninsula during the 2nd and 1st centuries B. C. from the extensive maritime empire of Carthage during the series of Punic Wars. As a result of Roman colonization, the majority of local languages stem from the Vulgar Latin. Due to the large historical extent from the 16th century of the Portuguese Empire and the subsequent colonization of territories in Asia and the Americas, as well as historical and recent emigration, Portuguese communities can be found in many diverse regions around the globe, a large Portuguese diaspora exists.
Portuguese people began and led the Age of Exploration which started in 1415 with the conquest of Ceuta and culminated in an empire with territories that are now part of over 50 countries. The Portuguese Empire lasted nearly 600 years, seeing its end when Macau was returned to China in 1999; the discovery of several lands unknown to the Europeans in the Americas, Africa and Oceania, helped pave the way for modern globalization and domination of Western civilization. The Portuguese are a Southwestern European population, with origins predominantly from Southern and Western Europe; the earliest modern humans inhabiting Portugal are believed to have been Paleolithic peoples that may have arrived in the Iberian Peninsula as early as 35,000 to 40,000 years ago. Current interpretation of Y-chromosome and mtDNA data suggests that modern-day Portuguese trace a significant amount of these lineages to the paleolithic peoples who began settling the European continent between the end of the last glaciation around 45,000 years ago.
Northern Iberia is believed to have been a major Ice-age refuge from which Paleolithic humans colonized Europe. Migrations from what is now Northern Iberia during the Paleolithic and Mesolithic, links modern Iberians to the populations of much of Western Europe and the British Isles and Atlantic Europe. Recent books published by geneticists Bryan Sykes, Stephen Oppenheimer and Spencer Wells have emphasized the large Paleolithic and Mesolithic Iberian influence in the modern day Irish and Scottish gene-pool as well as parts of the English. Indeed, Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b is the most common haplogroup in all of the Iberian peninsula and western Europe. Within the R1b haplogroup there are modal haplotypes. One of the best-characterized of these haplotypes is the Atlantic Modal Haplotype; this haplotype reaches the highest frequencies in the British Isles. In Portugal it reckons 65% in the South summing 87% northwards, in some regions 96%; the Neolithic colonization of Europe from Western Asia and the Middle East beginning around 10,000 years ago reached Iberia, as most of the rest of the continent although, according to the demic diffusion model, its impact was most in the southern and eastern regions of the European continent.
Starting in the 3rd millennium BC as well as in the Bronze Age, the first wave of migrations into Iberia of speakers of Indo-European languages occurred. These were followed by others that can be identified as Celts. Urban cultures developed in southeastern Iberia, such as Tartessos, influenced by the Phoenician colonization of coastal Mediterranean Iberia, which shifted to Greek colonization. There is little or no evidence of settlements in Portugal by either Greeks or Phoenicians despite some statements to the contrary; these two processes defined Iberia's, Portugal's, cultural landscape—Continental in the northwest and Mediterranean towards the southeast, as historian José Mattoso describes it. Given the origins from Paleolithic and Neolithic settlers as well as Indo-European migrations, one can say that the Portuguese ethnic origin is a mixture of pre-Roman, pre-Indo-Europeans, pre-Celtics or para-Celts such as the Lusitanians of Lusitania, Celtic peoples such as Calaicians or Gallaeci of Gallaecia, the Celtici and the Cynetes of the Alentejo and the Algarve.
The Romans were an important influence on Portuguese culture. Other minor influences included the Phoenicians/Carthaginians, the Vandals and the Sarmatian Alans, the Visigoths and Suebi; the ruled from 711 until the Reconquista of the Algarve in 1249. In the 9th and 10th centuries small Viking settlements were established in the North coastal regions of Douro and Minho. For the Y-chromosome and MtDNA lineages of the Portuguese and other peoples see this map and this one. Portuguese have maintained a certain degree of ethnic and cultural specific characteristics-ratio with the Basques, since ancient times; the results of the present HLA stu
John III of Portugal
John III nicknamed The Colonizer was the King of Portugal and the Algarves from 13 December 1521 to 11 June 1557. He was the son of King Manuel I and Maria of Aragon, the third daughter of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile. John succeeded his father at the age of nineteen. During his rule, Portuguese possessions were extended in Asia and in the New World through the Portuguese colonization of Brazil. John III's policy of reinforcing Portugal's bases in India secured Portugal's monopoly over the spice trade of cloves and nutmeg from the Maluku Islands, as a result of which John III has been called the "Grocer King". On the eve of his death in 1557, the Portuguese empire had a global dimension and spanned 1 billion acres. During his reign, the Portuguese became the first Europeans to make contact with both China, under the Ming Dynasty, Japan, during the Muromachi period, he abandoned Muslim territories in North Africa in favor of trade with India and investment in Brazil.
In Europe, he improved relations with the Baltic region and the Rhineland, hoping that this would bolster Portuguese trade. John, the eldest son of King Manuel I to his second wife Maria of Aragon, was born in Lisbon on 7 June 1502; the event was marked by the presentation of Gil Vicente's Visitation Play or the Monologue of the Cowherd in the queen's chamber. The young prince was sworn heir to the throne in 1503, the year his youngest sister, Isabella of Portugal, Empress Consort of the Holy Roman Empire between 1527 and 1538, was born. John was educated by notable scholars of the time, including the astrologer Tomás de Torres, Diogo de Ortiz, Bishop of Viseu, Luís Teixeira Lobo, one of the first Portuguese Renaissance humanists, rector of the University of Siena and Professor of Law at Ferrara. John's chronicler António de Castilho said that, "Dom João III faced problems complementing his lack of culture with a practice formation that he always showed during his reign". In 1514, he was given his own house, a few years began to help his father in administrative duties.
At the age of sixteen, John was chosen to marry his first cousin, the 20-year-old Eleanor of Austria, eldest daughter of Philip the Handsome of Austria-Burgundy and Queen Joanna of Castile, but instead she married his widowed father Manuel. John took deep offence at this: his chroniclers say he became melancholic and was never quite the same; some historians claim this was one of the main reasons that John became fervently religious, giving him name the Pious. On 19 December 1521, John was crowned king in the Church of São Domingos in Lisbon, beginning a thirty-six-year reign characterized by intense activity in internal and overseas politics in relations with other major European states. John III continued to centralize the absolutist politics of his ancestors, he called the Portuguese Cortes only three times and at great intervals: 1525 in Torres Novas, 1535 in Évora and 1544 in Almeirim. He tried to restructure administrative and judicial life in his realm; the marriage of John's sister Isabella of Portugal to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, enabled the Portuguese king to forge a stronger alliance with Spain and the Holy Roman Empire.
To strengthen his ties with Austria, he married his maternal first cousin Catherine of Austria, younger sister of Charles V and his erstwhile fiancée Eleanor, in the town of Crato. John III had nine children from that marriage. By the time of John's death, only his grandson Sebastian was alive to inherit the crown; the large and far-flung Portuguese Empire was difficult and expensive to administer and was burdened with huge external debt and trade deficits. Portugal's Indian and Far Eastern interests grew chaotic under the poor administration of ambitious governors. John III responded with new appointments that proved troubled and short-lived: in some cases, the new governors had to fight their predecessors to take up their appointments; the resulting failures in administration brought on a gradual decline of the Portuguese trade monopoly. In consideration of the challenging military situation faced by Portuguese forces worldwide, John III declared every male subject between 20 and 65 years old recruitable for military service on 7 August 1549.
Among John III's many colonial governors in Asia were Vasco da Gama, Pedro Mascarenhas, Lopo Vaz de Sampaio, Nuno da Cunha, Estêvão da Gama, Martim Afonso de Sousa, João de Castro and Henrique de Meneses. Overseas, the Empire was threatened by the Ottoman Empire in both the Indian Ocean and North Africa, causing Portugal to increase spending on defense and fortifications. Meanwhile, in the Atlantic, where Portuguese ships had to withstand constant attacks of Privateers, an initial settlement of French colonists in Brazil created yet another "front"; the French made alliances with native South Americans against the Portuguese and military and political interventions were used. They were forced out, but not until 1565. In the first years of John III's reign, explorations in the Far East continued, the Portuguese reached China and Japan; the expense of defending Indian interests was huge. To pay for it, John III abandoned a number of strongholds in North Africa: Safim, Alcácer Ceguer and Arzila.
John III achieved an important political vic
Manuel de Faria e Sousa
Manuel de Faria e Sousa was a Portuguese historian and poet. He wrote in Spanish, he was born of an ancient Portuguese noble family at Pombeiro, studied in Braga for some years, when about fourteen entered the service of the Bishop of Porto. With the exception of about four years, from 1631 to 1634, during which he was a member of the Portuguese embassy in Rome, the greater part of his life was spent at Madrid, there he died in June 1649, he was married to Catarina Machado, the "Albania" of his poems, enabled him to lead a studious domestic life, dividing his cares and affections between his children and his books. His first important work, an Epitome de las historias Portuguezas, was favorably received. In spite of the enthusiasm, said to have prescribed to him the daily task of twelve folio pages, death overtook him before he had completed his greatest enterprise, a history of the Portuguese in all parts of the world. Several portions of the work appeared at Lisbon after his death, under the editorship of Captain Faria e Sousa: Europa Portugueza.
As a poet Faria e Sousa was nearly as prolific. They were for the most part collected in the Noches claras, the Fuente de Aganipe, of which four volumes were published at Madrid in 1644-1646, he wrote, from information supplied by P. A. Semmedo, Imperio de China i cultura evangelica en ~l. There are English translations by J. Stevens of the History of Portugal, of Portuguese Asia. Muerte de Jesus y llanto de Maria. Madrid, 1623 Fabula de Narciso e Echo. Lisboa, 1623. In Portuguese Divinas e humanas flores. Madrid, por Diego Flameco 1624 Noches claras. Madrid, por Diego Flameco 1624 Fuente de Aganipe y Rimas varias. Madrid, por Sanchez 1644, 1646. In Portuguese and Spanish. In seven parts:1a: 600 sonetos 2a: 12 "poemas em outava rythma, silvas e sextinas" 3a: canções, odes, 200 madrigals, sextinas e tercetos 4a: 20 eclogas 5a: redondilhas, cantilenas, romances e epigramas 6a: "Musa nueva" com sonetos, tercetos, canções, etc. reduzidos a versos octosilabos 7a: "Engenho" de acrostichos, esdrúxulos, etc.
Epithalamio de los casamientos de los señores Marqueses de Molina. Saragoça, 1624 Epitome de las historias portuguesas. Madrid, por Francisco martinez 1628Is the same work amplified with the title of Europa portuguesa. Escuriale por Jacobum Gibbes Anglum. Madrid, 1658. Tradução em castelhano duma descrição do Escurial em latim. Lusiadas de Luis de Camoens, principe de los poetas de España. Comentadas. Madrid, por Juan Sanches, 1639. Say Faria, That begins this work in 1614, using 25 years, examining more than thousand authors, between this ones 300 Italians. Informacion a favor de Manuel de faria y sousa etc. 1640 Peregrino instruido Imperio de la China e cultura evangelica en el, etc. Nenia: poema acrostico a la reyna de España D. Isabel de Bourbon. Madrid, 1644 Nobiliario del Conde de Barcellos D. Pedro, hijo delrey D. Dionis de Portugal, traducido etc. Madrid, 1646 El gran justicia de Aragon Don Martin Baptista de Lanuza. Madrid, 1650 Asia Portuguesa. 3 tomos:1° Lisboa, Henrique Valente de Oliveira, 1666: History of Índia, since it discovery until 1538.
2° Lisboa, Antonio Craesbeeck de Mello, 1674: History of Índia, from 1538 to 1581 3° Lisboa, ibidem, 1675: History of Índia, during the Spanish dominion. Europa Portuguesa. 3 tomos:1° Lisboa, Antonio Craesbeeck de Mello, 1678: From universal diluvio to Portugal with king. 2° Lisboa, Ibid, 1679: From Government of Count D. Henrique to D. João III. 3° Lisboa, Ibid, 1680: From king D. Sebastião to Filipe III of Portugal. África Portuguesa. Lisboa, Antonio Craesbeeck de Mello, 1681: History of conquest from D. João I to year 1562. Rimas varias de Luis de Camoens, etc. comentadas. Lisboa, Theotonio Damaso de Mello, 1685
Portuguese Malacca was the territory of Malacca that, for 130 years, was a Portuguese colony. According to the 16th-century Portuguese historian Emanuel Godinho de Erédia, the site of the old city of Malacca was named after the Phyllanthus emblica, fruit-bearing trees along the banks of a river called Airlele; the Airlele river was said to originate from Buquet China. Eredia cited that the city was founded by Permicuri the first King of Malacca in 1411; the news of Malacca's wealth attracted the attention of Manuel I, King of Portugal and he sent Admiral Diogo Lopes de Sequeira to find Malacca, to make a trade compact with its ruler as Portugal's representative east of India. The first European to reach Malacca and Southeast Asia, Sequeira arrived in Malacca in 1509. Although he was well received by Sultan Mahmud Shah, trouble however ensued; the general feeling of rivalry between Islam and Christianity was invoked by a group of Goa Muslims in the sultan's court after the Portuguese had captured Goa.
The international Muslim trading community convinced Mahmud. Mahmud subsequently captured several of his men, killed others and attempted to attack the four Portuguese ships, although they escaped; as the Portuguese had found in India, conquest would be the only way they could establish themselves in Malacca. In April 1511, Afonso de Albuquerque set sail from Goa to Malacca with a force of some 1200 men and seventeen or eighteen ships; the Viceroy made a number of demands—one of, for permission to build a fortress as a Portuguese trading post near the city. The Sultan refused all the demands. Conflict was unavoidable, after 40 days of fighting, Malacca fell to the Portuguese on 24 August. A bitter dispute between Sultan Mahmud and his son Sultan Ahmad weighed down the Malaccan side. Following the defeat of the Malacca Sultanate on 15 August 1511 in the capture of Malacca, Afonso de Albuquerque sought to erect a permanent form of fortification in anticipation of the counterattacks by Sultan Mahmud.
A fortress was designed and constructed encompassing a hill, lining the edge of the sea shore, on the south east of the river mouth, on the former site of the Sultan's palace. Albuquerque remained in Malacca until November 1511 preparing its defences against any Malay counterattack. Sultan Mahmud Shah was forced to flee Malacca; as the first base of European Christian trading kingdom in Southeast Asia, it was surrounded by numerous emerging native Muslim states. With hostile initial contact with the local Malay policy, Portuguese Malacca faced severe hostility, they endured years of battles started by Malay sultans who wanted to get rid of the Portuguese and reclaim their land. The Sultan made several attempts to retake the capital, he rallied the support from his ally the Sultanate of Demak in Java who, in 1511, agreed to send naval forces to assist. Led by Pati Unus, the Sultan of Demak, the combined Malay–Java efforts failed and were fruitless; the Portuguese forced the sultan to flee to Pahang.
The sultan sailed to Bintan Island and established a new capital there. With a base established, the sultan rallied the disarrayed Malay forces and organized several attacks and blockades against the Portuguese's position. Frequent raids on Malacca caused the Portuguese severe hardship. In 1521 the second Demak campaign to assist the Malay Sultan to retake Malacca was launched, however once again failed with the cost of the Demak Sultan's life, he was remembered as Pangeran Sabrang Lor or the Prince who crossed to North. The raids helped convince the Portuguese. A number of attempts were made to suppress the Malay forces, but it wasn't until 1526 that the Portuguese razed Bintan to the ground; the sultan retreated to Kampar in Riau, Sumatra where he died two years later. He left behind two sons named Muzaffar Shah and Alauddin Riayat Shah II. Muzaffar Shah was invited by the people in the north of the peninsula to become their ruler, establishing the Sultanate of Perak. Meanwhile, Mahmud's other son, Alauddin made a new capital in the south.
His realm was the successor of Malacca. Several attempts to remove Malacca from Portuguese rule were made by the Sultan of Johor. A request sent to Java in 1550 resulted in Queen Kalinyamat, the regent of Jepara, sending 4,000 soldiers aboard 40 ships to meet the Johor sultan's request to take Malacca; the Jepara troops joined forces with the Malay alliance and managed to assemble around 200 warships for the upcoming assault. The combined forces attacked from the north and captured most of Malacca, but the Portuguese managed to retaliate and force back the invading forces; the Malay alliance troops were thrown back to the sea. Only after their leaders were slain did the Jepara troops withdraw; the battle continued on the beach and in the sea resulting in more than 2,000 Jepara soldiers being killed. A storm stranded two Jepara ships on the shore of Malacca, they fell prey to the Portuguese. Fewer than half of the Jepara soldiers managed to leave Malacca. In 1567, Prince Husain Ali I Riayat Syah from the Sultanate of Aceh launched a naval attack to oust the Portuguese from Malacca, but this once again ended in failure.
In 1574 a combined attack from Aceh Sultanate and Javanese Jepara tried again to capture Malacca from the Portuguese, but ended in failure due to poor coordination. Competition from other ports such as Johor saw Asian traders bypass Malacca and the city began to decline as a trading port. Rather than achieving their ambition of dominating it, the Portuguese h