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Dionysius Exiguus

Dionysius Exiguus was a 6th-century monk born in Scythia Minor. He was a member of a community of Scythian monks concentrated in Tomis, the major city of Scythia Minor. Dionysius is best known as the inventor of the Anno Domini era, used to number the years of both the Gregorian calendar and the Julian calendar. All churches adopted his computus for the dates of Easter. From about 500, he lived in Rome, where, as a learned member of the Roman Curia, he translated from Greek into Latin 401 ecclesiastical canons, including the apostolical canons; these Collectiones canonum Dionysianae had great authority in the West, continue to guide church administrations. Dionysius wrote a treatise on elementary mathematics; the author of a continuation of Dionysius's Computus, writing in 616, described Dionysius as a "most learned abbot of the city of Rome", the Venerable Bede accorded him the honorific abbas, which could be applied to any monk a senior and respected monk, does not imply that Dionysius headed a monastery.

According to his friend and fellow-student, Dionysius although by birth a "Scythian", was in character a true Roman, most learned in both tongues. He was a thorough Catholic Christian and an accomplished Scripturist; the use of such an ambiguous, dated term as "Scythian" raises the suspicion that his contemporaries had difficulties classifying him, either from lack of knowledge about him or about his native land, Scythia Minor. By the 6th century, the term "Scythian" could mean an inhabitant of Scythia Minor, or someone from the north-east of the Greco-Roman world, centred on the Mediterranean; the term had a encompassing meaning, devoid of clear ethnic attributes. For the "Scythian monk" Joannes Maxentius and companion of Dionysius, the two monks are "Scythian" by virtue of their geographical origin relative to Rome, just like Faustus of Riez is a "Gaul"; the dubious assertion, based on a single Syriac source, that the Eastern-Roman rebel general Vitalian, to whom Dionysius seems to have been related, was of Gothic extraction was the basis for labelling, without any further evidence, all of the Scythian monks, Dionysius included, as "Goths".

In Greek and Latin sources, Vitalian is sometimes labelled with the same ambiguous term "Scytha". Furthermore, since none of the Scythian monks expressed any kinship, by blood or spiritual, with the Arian Goths who at that time ruled Italy, a Gothic origin for Dionysius is questionable. Vitalian seems to have been of local Latinised Thracian stock, born in Moesia. By the time of the flourishing of the Scythian monks, the provinces from the Lower Danube, long since Latinised, were a centre for the production of Latin-speaking theologians. Most Dionysius was of local Thraco-Roman origin, like Vitalian's family to whom he was related, the rest of the Scythian monks and other Thraco-Roman personalities of the era. Dionysius translated standard works from Greek into Latin, principally the "Life of St. Pachomius", the "Instruction of St. Proclus of Constantinople" for the Armenians, the "De opificio hominis" of St. Gregory of Nyssa, the history of the discovery of the head of St. John the Baptist.

The translation of St. Cyril of Alexandria's synodical letter against Nestorius, some other works long attributed to Dionysius are now acknowledged to be earlier and are assigned to Marius Mercator. Of great importance were the contributions of Dionysius to the tradition of canon law, his several collections embrace: 1. A collection of synodal decrees, of which he has left two editions: a. Codex canonum Ecclesiæ Universæ; this contains canons of Oriental synods and councils only in Greek and Latin, including those of the four œcumenical councils from Nicæa to Chalcedon. B. Codex canonum ecclesiasticarum; this is in Latin only. C. Another bilingual version of Greek canons, undertaken at the instance of Pope Hormisdas, only the preface has been preserved.2. A collection of papal Constitutions from Siricius to Anastasius II. Dionysius is best known as the inventor of the Anno Domini era, used to number the years of both the Gregorian calendar and the Julian calendar, he used it to identify the several Easters in his Easter table, but did not use it to date any historical event.

When he devised his table, Julian calendar years were identified by naming the consuls who held office that year. How he arrived at that number is unknown, he invented a new system of numbering years to r


The Kraienkopp, Dutch:'Twents Hoen', is a breed of chicken originating on the border region between Germany and the Netherlands. The latter of the two names is the Dutch language version; the Kraienkopp appears in two color varieties: Silver. Males weigh 2.75 kilos, females weigh 1.8 kilos. They have a small walnut-type comb; the Kraienkopp breed was developed in the late nineteenth century from crosses of local types with Malays, with Silver Duckwing Leghorns. It was first shown in the Netherlands in 1920, was shown in Germany in 1925, it is rare today, is best known as a layer and a show bird. Hens lay a fair number of off-white eggs, will go broody; the Kraienkopp is an active bird with excellent foraging abilities. Ekarius, Carol. Storey's Illustrated Guide to Poultry Breeds. 210 MAS MoCA Way, North Adams MA 01247: Storey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-58017-667-5. CS1 maint: location Graham, Chris. Choosing and Keeping Chickens. 2-4 Heron Quays London E14 4JP: Octopus Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7938-0601-0. CS1 maint: location List of chicken breeds

Guadalupe Island

Guadalupe Island or Isla Guadalupe is a volcanic island 250 km² and located 241 kilometres off the west coast of Mexico's Baja California Peninsula and some 400 kilometres southwest of the city of Ensenada in the state of Baja California, in the Pacific Ocean. The two other Mexican island groups in the Pacific Ocean that are not on the continental shelf are Revillagigedo Islands and Rocas Alijos. Guadalupe Island and its islets are the westernmost region of Mexico; the 2010 census recorded a population of 213 people on the island. It has fewer than 150 permanent residents. Guadalupe is part of Ensenada delegación, one of the 24 delegaciones or subdivisions of Ensenada Municipality of the Mexican state of Baja California. Ensenada delegación and Chapultepec delegación together form the city of Ensenada, the municipal seat of the namesake municipality; the postal code of Guadalupe Island is 22997. Campo Oeste is a small community of abalone and lobster fishermen, located on the western coast on the north side of West Anchorage, a bay that provides protection from the strong winds and swells that whip the islands during winter.

Generators provide electricity, a military vessel brings 30,000 liters of fresh water. The number of fishermen varies annually depending on the fishing season. Ten months of the year the 30 families of the fishing cooperative "Abuloneros and Langosteros of Guadalupe Island" are present. Additional temporary fishing camps are Campo Lima and Arroyitos. An abandoned fishing community, Campo Este, is located near a cove on the eastern shore. At the southern tip, on Melpómene Cove, there is a weather station staffed by a detachment from the Mexican Ministry of the Navy; the site is called Campamento Sur. Campo Bosque was established as a temporary camp in 1999 in the cypress forest in the north; the camp houses members of the Cooperative Farming Society "Francisco Javier Maytorena, S. C. of R. L." and removes goats from the island and sells them in the State of Sonora, with permission of Secretariat of the Environment and Natural Resources and the support of the Secretariat of the Navy. Campo Pista is located near the center of the island.

Airport Isla Guadalupe has a 1,200-metre-long runway. At the end of the runway near threshold 5 is the wreckage of a Lockheed Model 18 Lodestar, which overshot the runway during landing. A North American B-25J-30/32 Mitchell, BMM-3501, bomber wrecked on the opposite end of the runway, after suffering serious damage in trying to take-off overloaded. Based on historical Google Earth imagery, this B-25 wreckage appears to have been removed from the location between October 2005 and June 2006; because Guadalupe Island is located within a biosphere reserve, anyone visiting the island must obtain a permit from the Mexican government. Guadalupe has a rugged landscape, it consists of two ancient overlapping shield volcanoes, of which the northern and higher volcano is the younger. The island measures 35 kilometres north-south and up to 9.5 kilometres east-west, with a total area of 243.988 km2. It features a chain of high volcanic mountain ridges which rises to a height of 1,298 metres at its northern end.

Its smaller counterpart on the southern end is the 975 metres El Picacho. The southern part of the island is barren, but there are fertile valleys and trees in the northern part; the coast consists of rocky bluffs with detached rocks fronting some of them. Two high and prominent islets are within three kilometres of the southwestern end of the island, separated from one another by a gap called Tuna Alley: Islote Afuera, 28°51′53″N 118°17′41″W, 1.5 ha, the most distant, steep with vertical walls above and below water Islote Adentro, 28°52′18″N 118°17′34″W, 0.393 km2, with two smaller islets nearby: Church Rock Roca del SkipElsewhere, the other islets are small and close to the shore, all less than one kilometre away: Islote Negro, 28°54′23″N 118°17′18″W, 8.8 ha, to the southwest Roca Hundida, 28°55′00″N 118°18′00″W, 0.3 ha, to the southwest Islote Bernal, 28°56′04″N 118°17′53″W, 1.1 ha, to the southwest Palto Muerto, 28°56′49″N 118°17′42″W, 0.5 ha, 2 km north of Islote Bernal unnamed islet, 28°56′59″N 118°17′48″W, 0.2 ha, 4 km north of Islote Bernal Steamboat Rock, 0.3 ha, to the west Roca Elefante, 0.1 ha, to the northwest Roca Elefante is the westernmost point in Mexico.

The island has two major climate zones: a arid, semi-hot climate between 0 and 800 metres elevation, with mean annual temperature between 18 and 22 °C and a arid, temperate climate above 800 metres elevation with temperatures over 22 °C in the hottest month of the year. Most precipitation occurs over the winter months with strong influence of northwestern winds and cyclones. Rainfall averages 133 millimetres near sea level at the south end but appears to be much more at the high north end. An estimate for the rainfall in the northern highlands is possible by way of taking Pinus radiata as an indicator, native to that area of the island. Other places where Pinus radiata is native

Terry Clawson

Terence "Terry" A. Clawson was an English World Cup winning professional rugby league footballer who played from the 1950s through to the 1980s, he played at representative level for Great Britain between 1962 and 1974, was part of the 1972 Rugby League World Cup winning squad. He played for Yorkshire, at club level for Featherstone Rovers, Bradford Northern, Hull Kingston Rovers, York, Wakefield Trinity, Hull FC and South Newcastle, as a goal-kicking prop or second-row, i.e. number 8 or 10, or, 11 or 12. He coached at club level for Featherstone Rovers. Clawson as born in Normanton, West Riding of Yorkshire, England, he worked as a coal miner both during, after, his playing career, in 2000, he released an autobiography, entitled All the Wrong Moves, he died aged 73 in Pontefract, West Yorkshire, England. Clawson started his career at Featherstone Rovers, making his début aged 17 against Bramley on Saturday 28 December 1957, he won his first club trophy in 1959, Terry Clawson played loose forward in Featherstone Rovers' 15-14 victory over Hull F.

C. in the 1959–60 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1959–60 season at Headingley Rugby Stadium, Leeds on Saturday 31 October 1959. In 1963, it was discovered that Clawson had contracted tuberculosis, threatening to bring his rugby league career to an end, he made a full recovery however. Clawson won caps for Yorkshire while at Featherstone Rovers. In January 1965, Clawson was transferred to Bradford Northern for a fee believed to be just over £3,000, he appeared in over 130 games for Bradford, scoring more than 500 points. Terry Clawson played right-second-row, i.e. number 12, scored 4-goals in Bradford Northern's 17–8 victory over Hunslet in the 1965–66 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1965–66 season at Headingley Rugby Stadium, Leeds on Saturday 16 October 1965. In October 1968, Hull Kingston Rovers signed Clawson in an exchange deal which saw Geoff Wriglesworth and Frank Foster join Bradford Northern, he went to make 111 appearances for the club before joining Leeds in 1971. Clawson played for Leeds in the 1971–72 Challenge Cup Final during the 1971–72 season at Wembley Stadium, but ended up on the losing side in a 13–16 defeat by St. Helens.

A week he played and scored three conversions in Leeds 9–5 victory over St Helens in the Championship Final during the 1971–72 season at Station Road, Swinton on Saturday 20 May 1972, was awarded the Harry Sunderland Trophy for his man of the match performance. Clawson played left-prop, i.e. number 8, scored 5-goals in Leeds' 36–9 victory over Dewsbury in the 1972–73 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1972–73 season at Odsal Stadium, Bradford on Saturday 7 October 1972, played right-prop, i.e. number 10, in the 7–2 victory over Wakefield Trinity in the 1973–74 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1973–74 season at Headingley Rugby Stadium, Leeds on Saturday 20 October 1973. Clawson played left-prop, i.e. number 8, scored 2-goals in Leeds' 12–7 victory over Salford in the 1972–73 Player's No.6 Trophy Final during the 1972–73 season at Fartown Ground, Huddersfield on Saturday 24 March 1973. Clawson joined Oldham. Clawson spent 12 months at Oldham before moving on to York, he went to have second spells at Bradford Northern and Featherstone Rovers, played for Wakefield Trinity and Hull FC, where he played his last match in 1980, aged 40.

During the 1970s Clawson captained-coached in Australia's Newcastle Rugby League with the Souths club. He was named in a South Newcastle team of the century in 2010. Terry Clawson won caps for Great Britain while at Featherstone Rovers in 1962 against France, while at Leeds in the 1972 Rugby League World Cup against Australia and Australia, while at Oldham in 1973 against Australia, in 1974 against France and New Zealand. Terry Clawson is the father of the rugby league footballer who played in the 1980s for Bradford Northern, is a strength and conditioning coach. Great Britain Statistics at Statistics at Photograph "Terry Clawson - Terry Clawson tries to break through the Hull KR defence. - 07/03/1976" at Photograph "Debutant Clawson - New signing Terry Clawson back at Odsal for the second time, at Number 8. - 18/01/1976" at Photograph "Clawson held - Terry Clawson is held by two Featherstone defenders in the snow at Odsal. - 27/02/1977" at Photograph "Father and son - Terry Clawson measures son Martin up for his shirt on signing for the club."

At Kangaroos beat Lions at Wilderspool RFL leads tributes to Clawson Former Bradford Northern player Terry Clawson dies Terry Clawson at Leeds mourn death of one of RL’s ‘great characters’ Death of former Rovers star Clawson Rugby League mourns World Cup winner Clawson Obituary at

Victor Ling

Victor Ling, is a Canadian researcher in the field of medicine. Ling's research focuses on drug resistance in cancer, he is best known for his discovery of P-glycoprotein, one of the proteins responsible for multidrug resistance. Ling was born in Shanghai, China in 1943, is of Teochew ancestry, he moved to Hong Kong with his family in 1949 and lived there until 1952, when they emigrated to Canada. He graduated from North Toronto Collegiate in 1962, he received his bachelor's degree in 1966 from the University of Toronto and his PhD in 1969 from the University of British Columbia. Ling undertook post-doctoral training with Nobel laureate Fred Sanger at Cambridge University before returning to Toronto, he is Assistant Dean of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of British Columbia and former Vice-President, Discovery at the BC Cancer Agency in Vancouver, British Columbia, as well as the President and Scientific Director of the Terry Fox Research Institute. 1990, awarded the Gairdner Award from the Gairdner Foundation for outstanding contributions to medical science 1991, awarded the Charles F. Kettering Prize 1991, awarded the Steiner Award, the highest honour in cancer research 1994, awarded the Robert L. Noble Prize by the National Cancer Institute of Canada 2000, appointed to the Order of British Columbia 2006, awarded an honorary doctorate from Trinity Western University 2008, made an Officer of the Order of Canada Webpage at the BC Cancer Research Centre Webpage at the University of British Columbia Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Jinjiang, Fujian

Jinjiang is a county-level city of Quanzhou City, Fujian Province, China. It is located in the southeastern part of the province, on the right or south bank of the Jin River, across from Quanzhou's urban district of Fengze. Jinjiang borders the Taiwan Strait of the East China Sea to the south, Quanzhou's other county-cities of Shishi and Nan'an to the east and west, respectively, it has an area of 721.7 square kilometres and a population of 1,986,447 as of 2010. Jinjiang has the only extant Manichean temple in China and is near the eastern end of the world's longest estimated straight-line path over land, at 11,241 km, ending near Sagres, Portugal. Jinjiang has six subdistricts and 13 towns: SubdistrictsLingyuan Luoshan Meiling Qingyang Xintang Xiyuan TownsAnhai Chendai Chidian Cizao Dongshi Jinjing Longhu Neikeng Shenhu Xibin Yinglin Yonghe Zimao Jinjiang is known for the large number of factories which operate there in the clothing and name-brand footwear industry. Many migrant laborers come from elsewhere in Fujian and from outside the province to commit themselves to year-long contracts.

Jinjiang is famous as home to many Chinese in diaspora in Taiwan, Malaysia, Myanmar, etc. Once poor and overpopulated in early 19th century, Many locals moved to Southeast Asia for better lives, as what they called "xia nan yang, 下南洋" as "to sail down to the south sea" in English. Many of them have been integrated into local societies and achieved great success. For example, according to Forbes, 6 out of 10 richest business tycoons in Philippines can trace their ancestry back to Jinjiang. Therefore, from 80s to 90s, Jinjiang received much donation and investment from overseas Chinese communities. Jinjiang people speak the Jinjiang dialect, a variant of the Quanzhou dialect of Hokkien), intelligible to speakers of Xiamen and Taiwanese dialects, with many Chinese communities overseas, specially in southeast Asia, like Penang and Philippines; as in many parts of China, most Jinjiang people can use Putonghua to communicate with non-local people in commercial and other daily interactions. Jinjiang hosts the Quanzhou Jinjiang International Airport, IATA code JJN.

The facility is of international 4D standard, capable of handling mid-size jets, such as Boeing 737 series and Airbus 320 series. Most flights from JJN are domestic flights, with some international/regional flights to/from Hong Kong, Taipei, Bangkok, etc. Another way to get into the city is flying into Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport in the nearby city Xiamen, which has more international routes, including intercontinental flights to/from Amsterdam and Vancouver. From there, passengers can catch limousine buses to downtown Jinjiang in 1.5 hours. Jinjiang Station of the new high-speed Fuzhou-Xiamen Railway is located 14 kilometres away from the center of the city. Passengers are able to travel to bullet train hubs like Shanghai or Shenzhen in 2 to 3 hours, further transfer to other destinations national wide; the Jinjiang Railway Station is served by local buses and taxi. Thriving with economics in private sectors, Jinjiang has been ranked as No.1 county with the highest GDP in Fujian for over 15 consecutive years.

It's been ranked as top 10 richest county-level city in the whole country, as published by the National Bureau of Census. There are other garment and shoe manufacturers in Jinjiang. In 2013 the mayor of Jinjiang called for more focus on innovative design by shoe manufacturers plagued by surplus inventory. Manufacturers were encouraged by local official to engage in IPOs and seek listings on stock exchanges such as the Frankfurt Stock Exchange to raise global capital for expansion. Raising capital in this way bypasses the difficulty medium-sized firms have with obtaining loans from Chinese banks. About 30 firms have achieved listing on global stock exchanges but many have listings on stock exchanges in Shanghai or Hong Kong; as of 2012 many additional local firms include IPOs in their business planning. In some instances over-capacity and declining profit margins have resulted from suboptimal investment of capital. Due to the prevalence of copying in the industry investing capital in research and development seems futile.

Another problem is that many of the firms are in fact family-owned business which have taken on corporate form but not best corporate management practices. In an effort to achieve listings on exchanges with strict requirements there is a temptation to engage in creative accounting. Zhang Gaoli, a former Vice Premier of the People's Republic of China Gong Beibi, internationally awarded actress Yao Chen and celebrity Henry Sy, Chinese Filipino businessman, the richest man in the Philippines Shi Lang, admiral who served under the Ming and Qing dynasties Lai Changxing, smuggler Dee C. Chuan, Chinese Filipino businessman and philanthropist Official website Arroyo lays wreath at Rizal Shrine in Jinjiang