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Dioscoreales

The Dioscoreales are an order of monocotyledonous flowering plants in modern classification systems, such as the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group and the Angiosperm Phylogeny Web. Within the monocots Dioscoreales are grouped in the lilioid monocots where they are in a sister group relationship with the Pandanales. Of necessity the Dioscoreales contain the family Dioscoreaceae which includes the yam, used as an important food source in many regions around the globe. Older systems tended to place all lilioid monocots with reticulate veined leaves in Dioscoreales; as circumscribed by phylogenetic analysis using combined morphology and molecular methods, Dioscreales contains many reticulate veined vines in Dioscoraceae, it includes the myco-heterotrophic Burmanniaceae and the autotrophic Nartheciaceae. The order consists of 22 genera and about 850 species. Dioscoreales herbaceous forest floor plants, they may be saprophytic. Synapomorphies include tuberous roots, glandular hairs, seed coat characteristics and the presence of calcium oxalate crystals.

Other characteristics of the order include the presence of saponin steroids, annular vascular bundles that are found in both the stem and leaf. The leaves are unsheathed at the base, have a distinctive petiole and reticulate veined lamina. Alternatively they may be scale-like with a sheathed base; the flowers are actinomorphic, may be bisexual or dioecious, while the flowers or inflorescence bear glandular hairs. The perianth may be conspicuous or reduced and the style is short with well developed style branches; the tepals persist in the development of the fruit, a dry capsule or berry. In the seed, the endotegmen is tanniferous and the embryo short. All of the species except the genera placed in Nartheciaceae express simultaneous microsporogenesis. Plants in Nartheciaceae show successive microsporogenesis, one of the traits indicating that the family is sister to all the other members included in the order. For the early history from Lindley onwards, see Caddick et al. Table 1, Caddick et al. Table 1 and Table 2 in Bouman.

The taxonomic classification of Dioscoreales has been complicated by the presence of a number of morphological features reminiscent of the dicotyledons, leading some authors to place the order as intermediate between the monocotyledons and the dicotyledons. While Lindley did not use the term "Dioscoreales", he placed the family Dioscoraceae together with four other families in what he referred to as an Alliance called Dictyogens, he reflected the uncertainty as to the place of this Alliance by placing it as a class of its own between Endogens and Exogens The botanical authority is given to von Martius by APG for his description of the Dioscoreae family or Ordo, while other sources cite Hooker for his use of the term "Dioscorales" in 1873 with a single family, Dioscoreae. However, in his more definitive work, the Genera plantara, he placed Dioscoraceae in the Epigynae "Series". Although Charles Darwin's Origin of Species preceded Bentham and Hooker's publication, the latter project was commenced much earlier and George Bentham was sceptical of Darwinism.

The new phyletic approach changed the way that taxonomists considered plant classification, incorporating evolutionary information into their schemata, but this did little to further define the circumscription of Dioscoreaceae. The major works in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century employing this approach were in the German literature. Authors such as Eichler and Wettstein placed this family in the Liliiflorae, a major subdivision of monocotyledons, it remained to Hutchinson to resurrect the Dioscoreales to group Dioscoreaceae and related families together. Hutchinson's circumscription of Dioscoreales included three other families in addition to Dioscoreaceae, Stenomeridaceae and Roxburghiaceae. Of these only Trichopodaceae was included in the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification, but was subsumed into Dioscoraceae. Stenomeridaceae, as Stenomeris was included in Dioscoreaceae as subfamily Stenomeridoideae, the remaining genera being grouped in subfamily Dioscoreoideae. Roxburghiaceae on the other hand was segregated in the sister order Pandanales as Stemonaceae.

Most taxonomists in the twentieth century recognised Dioscoreales as a distinct order, but demonstrated wide variations in its composition. Dahlgren, in the second version of his taxonomic classification raised the Liliiflorae to a superorder and placed Dioscoreales as an order within it. In his system, Dioscoreales contained only three families, Dioscoreaceae and Trilliaceae; the latter two families had been treated as a separate order such as Huber. The APG would assign these to Pandanales and Liliales respectively. Dahlgren's construction of Dioscoreaceae included the Stenomeridaceae and Trichopodaceae, doubting these were distinct, Croomiaceae in Stemonaceae. Furthermore, he expressed doubts about the order's homogeneity Trilliaceae; the Dioscoreales at that time were marginally distinguishable from the Asparagales. In his examination of Huber's Stemonales, he found that the two constituent families had as close an affinity to Dioscoreaceae as to each other, hence included them, he considered rela

Agnes Joaquim

Ashkhen Hovakimian was a Singaporean Armenian who bred Singapore's first hybridised orchid hybrid, Vanda'Miss Joaquim'. Joaquim was inducted into the Singapore Women's Hall of Fame in 2015. Hovakimian was the eldest daughter and second child of Parsick Joaquim, an Armenian merchant and commercial agent, Urelia Joaquim. Agnes was an avid gardener. Besides her interest in gardening, Agnes was an active member of the Armenian Church and a skilled embroiderer. Agnes Joaquim won prizes at annual flower shows and famously won the prize for the rarest orchid at the 1899 annual flower show; the first prize was for a hybrid, named after her, Vanda'Miss Joaquim'. Suffering from cancer at the time, she died three months after receiving this prize. In 1947, Vanda'Miss Joaquim' was chosen as the most fitting emblem for the nascent Progressive Party. In 1957 it was chosen as the crest for the Malayan Orchid Society, but in April 1981, came the ultimate accolade. From a field of forty contenders, Vanda Miss Joaquim was selected as the national flower of Singapore.

Agnes Joaquim's siblings were well known in Singapore. Narcis Street was named after her eldest brother Nerses, her brothers, Joe and John were well-known barristers. Joe was a founder of Braddell and Joaquim, a legal company, before founding his own firm of Joaquim Brothers. Two brothers, followed by Simon, served as Deputy Registrar of the Hackney Carriages Department. Josephine, Agnes Joaquim's grandniece has an orchid named after her, Vanda'Josephine'. Hovakimian's maternal grandfather, Isaiah Zachariah, was one of the members of Singapore's first Chamber of Commerce which met in 1837, her great great great great Grandson, Tom Rapson, has been known for his roles at British Airways and Samsung

Painted Churches in the Troödos Region

The Painted Churches in the Troödos Region is a UNESCO World Heritage Site in the Troödos Mountains of central Cyprus. The complex comprises ten Byzantine churches and monasteries richly decorated with Byzantine and post-Byzantine murals: Church of Agios Nikolaos tis Stegis in Kakopetria Agios Ioannis Lampadistis Monastery in Kalopanagiotis Church of Panagia Phorviotissa in Nikitari Church of Panagia tou Arakou in Lagoudhera Church of Panagia in Moutoullas Church of Archangelos Michael in Pedoulas Church of Timios Stavros in Pelendri Church of Panagia Podithou in Galata Church of Stavros Agiasmati in Platanistasa Church of Agia Sotira tou Soteros in Palaichori OreinisInitially nine of these churches were designated by UNESCO in 1985 with the church in Palaichori added to the list in 2001; the Church of Panagia Chrysokourdaliotissa in Kourdali, was submitted as a potential further extension in 2002 and resides on the Tentative List. List of painted churches in Cyprus

Ken Eurell

Kenneth Eurell is a former New York City Police Department police officer and associate of the Diaz organization was arrested for running a drug ring out of Suffolk County, Long Island. The charges were upgraded to RICO in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. Eurell cooperated with federal authorities in the arrests of his former partner Michael Dowd and drug associates, he is a subject of the 2014 documentary film The Seven Five directed by Tiller Russell and produced by Eli Holzman. Eurell was born in Ozone Park, New York, he moved to Rosedale in Queens, New York with his parents at the age of 3. He attended St. Clare's Catholic school grades 1 through 8. Grades 9 through 12 he attended St. Agnes in the town of Rockville Centre, located in Nassau County, New York. Eurell appears as himself in the documentary The Seven Five, purchased by Sony Pictures and produced by John Lesher and Megan Ellison. Eurell, Frank Girardot and Burl Barer co-authored the true crime novel Betrayal In Blue: The Shocking Memoir Of The Scandal That Rocked The NYPD published by Wild Blue Press.

Eurell has been featured on many podcasts, periodicals and television programs. Interview on the Mike Calta show from 102.5 Tampa Bay The Bone Interview on The Artie Lange Show w/ Ken Eurell Interview Wrong Reel w/ Ken Eurell Interview Death, Sex & Money w/ Ken Eurell Spectrum Culture article on Eurell DeadLine article on Eurell Review by vulture.com NY Daily News interview w/ Dowd & Eurell Variety article on Eurell Eyeforfilm.com article on Eurell

Ahmet Muhip Dıranas

Ahmet Muhip Dıranas was a leading Turkish poet and author. He was born in Sinop, Ottoman Empire in 1909. Having completed his primary education in Sinop, he moved to Ankara and graduated from Ankara High School, he went to Istanbul for a university degree and studied philosophy at Istanbul University. He returned to Ankara in 1938, worked as a director in the CHP headquarters. Having completed his military service, he continued his career as a publication director in the Society for the Protection of Children in Ankara. Poetry "Şiirler" "Kırık Saz" Plays "Gölgeler" "O Böyle İstemezdi" Translated plays "Aptal" Research "Fransa'da Müstakil Resim" List of contemporary Turkish poets Culture and Tourism Ministry of Turkey - Biography of Ahmet Muhip Dıranas Ykykultur.com.tr - Biography and bibliography of Ahmet Muhip Dıranas Ahmet Muhip Dıranas - On his life and poetry

John Thomas Caine

John Thomas Caine was a delegate to the United States House of Representatives from the Territory of Utah. Born in the parish of Patrick, Isle of Man, Caine attended the common schools in Douglas, Isle of Man. Caine immigrated to the United States in 1846 and lived in New York City until 1848, when he went to St. Louis, he converted to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in New York City in March 1847. On the 22nd of October, he married Margaret Nightingale. Caine taught school, he served as secretary of the territorial council during the sessions of 1856, 1857, 1859, 1860. He was one of the founders of the Salt Lake Herald in 1870, serving as managing editor and president, he served as delegate to the Utah constitutional conventions in 1872 and 1882. He served as member of the territorial council in 1874, 1876, 1880, 1882. Caine served as City Recorder of Salt Lake City in 1876, 1878, 1880, 1882. Caine was elected as a Democrat to the Forty-seventh Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the action of the House declaring the Delegate-elect ineligible.

The election had been won by George Quayle Cannon, but the other contestant Allen G. Campbell contested the outcome; the House of Representatives refused to seat either man, instead allowed Caine to fill the position in the 47th Congress. He was reelected as a Democrat to the Forty-eighth, Forty-ninth and Fiftieth Congresses and on the People's Party ticket to the Fifty-first and Fifty-second Congresses and served from November 7, 1882, to March 3, 1893, he was not a candidate for renomination in 1892. Caine was an unsuccessful Democratic candidate for the position of first governor of the newly formed State of Utah in 1895. Caine served as member of the Utah State Senate in 1896, after which he resumed the management of the Salt Lake Herald. Caine died of cystitis in Utah, he was interred in the Salt Lake City Cemetery. Caine is the namesake of Utah. United States Congress Delegates from Utah Territory United States Congress. "John Thomas Caine". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.

Media related to John Thomas Caine at Wikimedia Commons This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov