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A diploma is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as college or university, that testifies that the recipient has completed a particular course of study. The word diploma refers to an academic award, given after the completion of study in different courses such as diploma in higher education, diploma in graduation or diploma in post graduation etc, it can refer to a charter or official document, thus diplomatic and diplomacy via the Codex Juris Gentium Diplomaticus. The diploma may be called a testamur, Latin for "we testify" or "certify", so called from the word with which the certificate begins. Alternatively, this document can be referred to as a degree certificate or graduation certificate, or as a parchment; the certificate that a Nobel laureate receives is called a diploma. The term diploma is used in some historical contexts, to refer to documents signed by a King affirming a grant or tenure of specified land and its conditions. In Australia, there are three varieties of Diploma recognized by the Australian Qualifications Framework: a "Diploma", a qualification granted by vocational education and training sector or university.

It is completed with 12 to 18 months of full-time study. When accepted for credit as part of a bachelor's degree, it is deemed to be equivalent to the first year of the degree. An "Advanced Diploma", equivalent to an Australian "Associate Degree". A "Graduate Diploma", undertaken after completing a bachelor's degree; this can be in a field other than that covered by said degree. It can be a coursework-only qualification undertaken as additional study in a specialisation within one's degree area; the "Vocational Graduate Diploma" was a short lived AQF qualification equivalent to the "Graduate Diploma", intended to be delivered in the VET sector. On January 1, 2015, all such qualifications being offered lost the word "Vocational" from their title. In Ontario, diplomas are two and three year academic post-secondary programs taught by colleges and institutes of applied studies and technology. Two year programs are referred to as college diplomas, while three year programs are called Ontario College Advanced Diplomas.

Baccalaureate degrees in Ontario are a year longer than an Advanced Diploma and are offered by both colleges and universities. In Germany, Serbia, Croatia and other countries that adopted the German academic education system, diploma is the standard academic degree, needing at least 3.5 years to complete it, being comparable with a Bachelor's and Master's degree in one. In Greece, diplomas can be awarded by educational institutes as a proof of a certain educational level; the diploma in engineering is a degree provided by Greek technical universities and universities after the successful completion of a five-year integrated study program and it is equivalent to the Master of Engineering degree, awarded by the European universities. In Greece there are the Vocational Training Diploma provided by the National Qualifications and Vocational Guidance Organization to the Vocational Training Institutes IEK, following certification exams carried out by the E. O. P. P. E. P. In Hong Kong, Diploma or Advanced Diploma/Certificate, Professional Diploma/Certificate, Higher Diploma, Associate Degree are below the level of the Bachelor Degree.

Certificate Qualifications Frameworks Level 3 or below. Postgraduate Certificates and Postgraduate Diplomas are granted after the bachelor's degree. It's more vocational oriented than a master's degree. In India, a diploma is a specific academic award earned in professional/vocational courses, e.g. Diploma in Engineering, Diploma in Nursing, Diploma in Pharmacy etc. Engineering diploma is concentrated for the area of study, e.g. diploma in Electronics Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Civil Engineering, computer engineering etc. Postgraduate Diploma or PGD are ranked higher than the Bachelor's degree as they are completed after graduation; these are a year's worth of coursework after a university degree. There are two types of diplomas/certificate issuance which are issued in formal education sector & non formal education sector. Formal education sector diploma/certificates are issued by govt. approved/recognized institution and universities etc. and non formal education sector diploma/certificates are issued by NGOs, companies and societies etc. outside formal education sector.

In the Republic of Ireland, a National Diploma was awarded before 2004. It was at the same level as the ordinary bachelor's degree and below the honours Bachelor's degree, whilst the Higher Diploma is taken after the bachelor's degree. There is BTEC Extended Diploma after which one gets progression to a Degree. In Mexico and other Latin American countries, a diploma may be awarded for short courses of vocational training; the university-issued diplomas finalizing higher education are most called título or certificado. A "Diplomado" can be a short, specialized executive edu

Sultan Mohammad Khan

Sultan Mohammad Khan known as "Sultan Muhammad Khan Telai" was an Afghan Aristocrat, Chief Minister and regent, who resigned in favor of his younger brother Amir Dost Muhammad Khan. His other brother was Fateh Khan died 1818. During the reign of his brother he was chief minister and gouvanor of various regions of the Emirate, he was the first Musahiban, an ethnic Pashtun, the 15th son of Sardar Payendah Khan, killed in 1799 by Zaman Shah Durrani. Sultan Muhammad Khan's grandfather was Hajji Jamal Khan, his immense love for materialism, like clothes and golden cutlery led to his family giving him his nickname "Telai", meaning golden. The result was amongst other things social injustice; this cases of power abuses were well known in the afghan monarchy in the regency of Sultan Muhammad Khan's descendants of the Musahiban branch. Sultan Mohammad Khan was born to an influential family in Kandahar, Durrani Empire in the year 1795, his father, Payinda Khan, was chief of the Barakzai tribe and an aristocrat with the title "Sarfraz Khan" in the Durrani dynasty.

Their family can be traced back to Abdal, through Hajji Jamal Khan, Yaru, Omar Khan, Khisar Khan, Nek, Daru and Barak. Abdal had four sons, Barak and Alako. Sultan Muhammad Khan Telai was Emir of Afghanistan in the time of critical power vacuum in the Emirate of Afghanistan; however he has resigned in favor of his younger brother and became Chief minister or Crown Prince under him and governor of various Regions of the Emirate. The regions, where he acted as governor, known by historians today, are Kabul from year 1824-1827, Peshawar year 1827-1828 and Kohat from year 1828-1834, he and the Muhammadzais in general were known for having a great number of wives, in order to unify the afghan tribes and ethnic groups. King Amanullah Khan through his mother, sister of Nadir Shah. H. M. Nadir Shah, King of Afghanistan H. M. Zahir Shah, King of Afghanistan H. R. H. Daoud Khan, Prime minister and first President of Afghanistan H. R. H. General Amir Muhammad Khan and General H. R. H. Prof. Dr. Sardar Abdul Khalek Khan, Prince of Afghanistan, Afghan Pioneer of Science, Afghan Ambassador to the UN, Minister of traffic of the Republic of Afghanistan


Burgos is a city of Spain located in the autonomous community of Castile and León. It is most populated municipality of the province of Burgos, it is situated in the north of the Iberian Peninsula, on the confluence of the Arlanzón river tributaries, at the edge of the central plateau. The municipality has a population of about 180,000 inhabitants, it forms part of the Camino de Santiago. Founded in 884 by Diego Rodríguez Porcelos, Burgos soon became the leading city of the embryonic County of Castile. 11th century chieftain Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar is connected to the city, as he was born near Burgos and was raised and educated there. In a long-lasting decline since the 17th century, following the start of the Spanish Civil War in 1936, Burgos became the headquarters of the Francoist proto-government. Declared in 1964 as Pole of Industrial Promotion and in 1969 as Pole of Industrial Development, the city has grown since in terms of economic activity. At the regional level, Burgos forms part of an economic axis together with the cities of Valladolid and Palencia.

In 2008, the international Burgos Airport started to offer commercial flights. The Museum of Human Evolution opened here in 2010; the museum features remains of the first hominins in Europe, which lived in this area 750,000-800,000 years ago. The Cathedral of Burgos is a World Heritage Site. Burgos was selected as the "Spanish Gastronomy Capital" of 2013. In 2015 it was named "City of Gastronomy" by UNESCO and has been part of the Creative Cities Network since then. There are several possible origins for the toponymy; when the city was founded, the inhabitants of the surrounding country moved into the fortified village, whose Visigothic name of Burgos signified consolidated walled villages. The city began to be called Caput Castellae. Early humans occupied sites around Burgos as early as 800,000 years ago; when the Romans took possession of what is now the province of Burgos, the site had been a Celtic city. In Roman times, it belonged to Hispania Citerior and to Hispania Tarraconensis. In the 5th century, the Visigoths drove back the Suebi the Berbers occupied all of Castile in the 8th century, though only for a brief period, left little if any trace of their occupation.

King Alfonso III the Great of León reconquered it about the middle of the 9th century, built several castles for the defence of Christendom, extended through the reconquest of lost territory. The region came to be known as Castile, i.e. " castles". Burgos was founded in 884 as an outpost of this expanding Christian frontier, when Diego Rodríguez "Porcelos", count of Castile, governed this territory with orders to promote the increase of the Christian population; the city began to be called Caput Castellae. The county of Castile, subject to the Kings of León, continued to be governed by counts and was extended. In the 11th century, the city became the see of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Burgos and the capital of the Kingdom of Castile. Burgos was a major stop for pilgrims on the French Way the most popular path to Santiago de Compostela and a centre of trade between the Bay of Biscay and the south, which attracted an unusually large foreign merchant population, who became part of the city oligarchy and excluded other foreigners.

Throughout the 13th and 14th centuries, Burgos was a favourite seat of the kings of León and Castile and a favoured burial site. The consejo or urban commune of Burgos was in the hands of an oligarchic class of caballeros villanos, the "peasant knights" of Burgos, who provided the monarchs with a mounted contingent: in 1255 and 1266 royal charters granted relief from taxes to those citizens of Burgos who owned horses and could arm themselves, provided that they continue to live within the city walls; the merchant oligarchy succeeded the cathedral chapter as the major purchasers of land after 1250. A few families within the hermandades or confraternities like the Sarracín and Bonifaz succeeded in monopolising the post of alcalde, or mayor. By the reign of Alfonso X, the exemption of the non-noble knights and religious corporations, combined with exorbitant gifts and grants to monasteries and private individuals, placed great stress on the economic well-being of the realm. In the century following the conquest of Seville on the Moors, Burgos became a testing ground for royal policies of increasing power against the consejo, in part by encouraging the right to appeal from the consejo to the king.

In 1285, Sancho IV added a new body to the consejo which came to dominate it: the jurado in charge of collecting taxes and overseeing public works. The city perceived that danger to its autonomy came rather from an uncontrolled aristocracy during royal minorities: Burgos joined the hermandades of cities that leagued together for mutual protection in 1295 and 1315. In the 14th century, official royal intrusion in city affairs was perceived as a palliative against outbreaks of violence by the large excluded class of smaller merchants and artisans, on whom the tax burden fell; the alguacil was the royal official instituted to judge disagreements. On 9 June 1345, sweeping aside the city gov

The Comedians (novel)

The Comedians is a novel by Graham Greene. Set in Haiti under the rule of François "Papa Doc" Duvalier and his secret police, the Tonton Macoute, the novel explores the political suppression and terrorism through the figure of an English hotel owner, Brown; the story begins as three men, Smith, an "innocent" American, Major H. O. Jones, a confidence man, meet on a ship bound for Haiti. Brown and Jones, their names suggesting a curious facelessness, are the "comedians" of Greene's title. Complications include Brown's friendship with a rebel leader, politically charged hotel guests, the manipulations of a British arms dealer, an affair with Martha Pineda, the wife of a South American ambassador; the setting for much of the novel, the Hotel Trianon, was inspired by the Hotel Oloffson in central Port-au-Prince. The novel was adapted as a feature film of the same name, released in 1967 and starring Richard Burton, Elizabeth Taylor, Alec Guinness, Peter Ustinov, James Earl Jones, Cicely Tyson, Paul Ford and Lillian Gish.

The main characters travel to Haiti on the Medea, a Dutch ship serving the capital Port-au-Prince and the Dominican Republic. The narrator is Mr. Brown, returning from an unsuccessful trip to the United States to sell his hotel, located in the capital. Other figures are Mr. Smith, a US Presidential candidate who ran on the vegetarian ticket in the American election of 1948. "Major" Jones, an Anglo-Indian businessman, is personable and has many war stories that are not quite believable. Brown returns to his hotel, where he finds that government minister Philipot has committed suicide in his pool, he had become on the outs with the government. Brown has to dispose of the body to avoid being implicated. Meanwhile, Jones is arrested as soon. Brown convinces Mr. Smith to use his'political weight' to help Jones get out of prison. With only the help of a pen and some paper, Jones is able to forge his way into the Haitian government; the body of Secretary Philipot is found and his family tries to hold a funeral.

The president's paramilitary force, the Tontons Macoutes, steal the body. Philipot's nephew decides to join the rebel forces, first is required to take part in a voodoo initiation ceremony. Brown reunites with Martha Pineda, wife of the Uruguayan ambassador, she is still unwilling to leave her child. Realizing they can't pursue their dream in Haiti, Mr. and Mrs. Smith leave for the neighbouring Dominican Republic. Jones has become an enemy of the state, Brown tries to get him out of the country. Believing Jones is a threat to his relationship with the Lady Pineda, he persuades him to join the rebels in the north. Jones' lack of military sense is soon revealed and he is killed in action, while the rebellion fails. Duvalier consolidates his power and Brown, unable to return to his hotel, goes to Santo Domingo. There he works as a mortician. Mr. Brown, the protagonist and narrator. Owns a hotel in Haiti. Major Jones, arrives on the Medea with Brown and the Smiths. Mr. and Mrs. Smith, arrive on the Medea.

Martha Pineda, Brown's lover and the wife of the Uruguayan ambassador. The New York Times noted that Greene writes about dark places, this novel explores Haiti under Duvalier and his paramilitary, known as the Tontons Macoutes. Greene explores "despair at evil triumphant, sustained by dollar-aid from the U. S. A." He portrays "despair at the death of the good Communist doctor and the would-be-good confidence trickster, Major Jones." The reviewer recognised Greene's studies of persons who were failures, as "grey" was uppermost in his literary world. But, "Nevertheless he is the novel's hero, he can die- he can succeed in that- and he dies heroically, covering the retreat of the rest, since his flat feet would only delay the whole party if he were to try to escape with his men." He praised Greene's writing with "much liveliness and skill, with such a will and ability to please and carry us along" that we want to visit his lands. In The New York Review of Books, Sybille Bedford described this tenth novel by Greene as "a work of strength and freshness, in its core there lies the steel coil of compulsion."

She describes the novel as a "very good story, as we have come to expect." In describing the characters, she notes that Brown goes to Haiti as "the only place on earth where he might be said to have a stake, a love affair, a piece of property." In his Ways of Escape, Greene wrote that the book "touched him on the raw." Duvalier attacked The Comedians in the press. His Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued a brochure entitled, "Graham Greene Demasqué", it described Greene as "A liar, a cretin, a stool-pigeon... unbalanced, perverted... a perfect ignoramus... lying to his heart's content... the shame of proud and noble England... a spy... a drug addict... a torturer." The novel was adapted as a 1967 feature film of the same name, with the screenplay written by Graham Greene. It was directed and produced by Peter Glenville, starred Richard Burton, Elizabeth Taylor, Alec Guinness, Peter Ustinov; the Comedians on IMDb Bernard Diederich: Seeds of Fiction: Graham Greene's Adventures in Haiti and Central America 1954–1983, 2012, Peter Owen, ISBN 978-0-7206-1488-6 Duncan Campbell on Graham Greene's Haiti in The Guardian

Charles Hall (vice-chancellor)

Sir Charles Hall was an English barrister and judge, who became Vice-Chancellor of England. The fourth son of John Hall of Manchester and Mary, daughter of John Dobson of Durham, he was born on 14 April 1814, his father, after financial losses by a bank failure, articled him to a solicitor in Manchester. In 1835 he entered the Middle Temple, read for the bar successively with William Taprell the special pleader, James Russell of the chancery bar, Lewis Duval the conveyancer. At the expiration of his year as a pupil he became Duval's principal assistant. In time Hall succeeded to the bulk of Duval's practice, through his wife inherited much of his fortune. During the next twenty years he became the recognised leader of the junior chancery bar, the first authority of his day on real property law. Having been called to the bar in Michaelmas term 1838, he built up a large court practice, his pupils were prominent in the following generation of equity lawyers. Hall's best known cases were the Bridgewater peerage case in the House of Lords in 1853, the Shrewsbury peerage case, Allgood v. Blake in the exchequer chamber in 1872.

He drew up several bills for Lord Westbury, including his Registration of Titles Act, assisted Lord Selborne in drafting the Judicature Act of 1873. Hall twice refused to take silk. In 1862 he became under-conveyancer and in 1864 conveyancer to the court of chancery, in 1872 a bencher of his inn, he was raised to the bench in succession to Vice-chancellor John Wickens in November 1873 and knighted. While walking home from his court, Hall was attacked by a stroke of paralysis, in June 1882, he resigned his judgeship before the ensuing Michaelmas sittings, died on 12 December 1883. He never played any part in politics. In 1837 Hall married Sarah, daughter of Francis Duval of Exeter and Lewis Duval's niece, he had four sons, two of whom survived him, the younger being Charles Hall the lawyer and politician, four daughters. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Stephen, Leslie. "Hall, Charles". Dictionary of National Biography. 24. London: Smith, Elder & Co

Kunzea acicularis

Kunzea acicularis is a flowering plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is a shrub with a few erect stems and groups of three to five, pink to mauve flowers, it is a rare described species only known from a small area near Ravensthorpe. Kunzea acicularis is a shrub which grows to a height of up to 2 m, with a few erect, irregularly-branched stems which are covered with fine hairs when young; the leaves are egg-shaped with the narrower end towards the base, densely hairy, 3.5–6 mm long, about 2 mm wide, with a stalk less than 1 mm long. Three to five pink to mauve flowers are arranged in groups on the ends of branches; the flowers are surrounded by hairy, narrow triangular bracts and bracteoles about 3 mm long and 1 mm wide. The sepals are about 2 mm long and hairy and the five petals are 3–4 mm long and round. There are about 26 stamens which are longer than the petals and a style 6–7 mm long. Flowering occurs in October and November and is followed by fruit which are hairy urn-shaped capsules with the sepals attached.

This species was first formally described in 2007 by Hellmut Toelken and Gil Craig and the description was published in Nuytsia. The specific epithet is a Latin word meaning "like a needle" referring to the needle-like bracts; this kunzea grows in mallee and heath on hills and slopes north-east of Ravensthorpe in the Esperance Plains biogeographic region. Kunzea acicularis is classified as "Threatened Flora" by the Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife and an interim recovery plan has been prepared