The order Diplura is one of three orders within the class Entognatha. The name "diplura", or "two tails", refers to the characteristic pair of caudal appendages or filaments at the terminal end of the body. Around 800 species of diplurans have been described, of which around 170 occur in North America, 12 in Great Britain and two in Australia. Order Diplura was promoted to class Diplura. Diplurans are 2–50 millimetres long, with most falling between 7–10 millimetres. However, some species of Japyx may reach 50 mm, they have no eyes and, apart from the darkened cerci in some species, they are unpigmented. Diplurans have long antennae with 10 or more bead-like segments projecting forward from the head; the abdomens of diplurans bear eversible vesicles, which seem to absorb moisture from the environment and help with the animal's water balance. The body segments themselves may display scales and setae. Diplurans possess a characteristic pair of cerci projecting backwards from the last of the 11 abdominal somites.
These cerci may be long and filamentous or short and pincer-like, leading to occasional confusion with earwigs. Some diplurans have the ability to shed their cerci. Moulting occurs up to 30 times throughout the life of a dipluran, estimated to last up to one year; as entognathous insects, the mouthparts are concealed within a small pouch by the lateral margins of the head capsule. The mandibles have several apical teeth. Diplurans do not posess any wings. In males, glandular setae or disculi may be visible along the first abdominal sternite. External genital organs are present on the eighth abdominal segment. Diplurans are common in moist soil, leaf litter or humus, but are seen because of their size and subterranean lifestyles, they have biting mouthparts and feed on a variety of dead organic matter. Those species with long cerci are herbivorous. Diplurans are found except Antarctica and several oceanic islands, their role as soil-dwelling organisms may play a key role in indicating soil quality, as a measure of anthropogenic impact.
Like other non-insect hexapods, diplurans practice external fertilisation. Males lay up to 200 spermatophores a week, which are held off the ground by a short stalk and only remain viable for about two days; the female collects the spermatophore with her genital opening, lays eggs in a cavity in the ground. The hatchlings do not undergo metamorphosis, but resemble the adults, apart from their smaller size, lesser number of setae and their lack of reproductive organs. Several major lineages within Diplura are recognizable by the structure of their cerci. Japygidae: possess forceps-like cerci. Aggressive predatory diplurans, using their pincer-like cerci to capture prey, including springtails, small myriapods, insect larvae, other diplurans. Projapygidae: possess stout and rigid cerci. Campodeidae: possess elongate, flexible cerci that may be as long as the antennae and have many segments. Feed on soil fungi, mites and other small soil invertebrates, as well as detritus; the relationships among the four groups of hexapods are not resolved, but most recent studies argue against a monophyletic Entognatha.
The fossil record of the Diplura is sparse. This early dipluran, had compound eyes, mouthparts that more resembled those of true insects. Data related to Diplura at Wikispecies dipluran at the Encyclopædia Britannica
Helen MacMurchy was a Canadian doctor, author, a pioneer in the medical field, a prominent eugenicist. MacMurchy, the daughter of Archibald MacMurchy, graduated with first class honour in medicine and surgery in 1901 from the University of Toronto, she interned at the first woman to do so. She was the first woman to take postgraduate work under William Osler at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore; some of MacMurchy's most important work included surveys of the high infant death rates experienced in cities at the turn of the century, such as 230 deaths for 1000 live births in Toronto, 1909. She resolved to combat this issue because she feared the White Race was dying out. However, her extensive work in improving maternal health benefited women across Canada and worldwide through her books that talked about new techniques such as sterilization of bottles and handwashing. In 1914 MacMurchy wrote A Little Talk about the Baby, a book that mixed scholarly research with common sense; this book soon became known to all Canadian mothers.
Her "Little Blue Books" would be published in dozens of languages, including Cree, until her retirement in 1934, sold millions of copies. They encouraged good hygiene, stay-at-home mothers, the importance of breastfeeding. One of her most quoted statements is "when the mother works, the baby dies." MacMurchy was vocal in her attempts to persuade the Canadian government that eugenics was the answer to preventing degenerate babies. In 1915, she was appointed the "inspector of the feeble-minded" in Ontario, her actions led to the sterilization of many immigrants. In the 1920s MacMurchy waged a campaign against the high infant and maternal death rates, she made a special study of medical inspection of schools, child welfare and public health in England and in the United States. She would become provincial inspector and assistant inspector of hospitals and charities. In 1934 MacMurchy was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire. In 1949 she was named one of the ten leading women physicians in the western world.
Among her contributions were her campaigns against high infant and maternal death rates, pioneering the link between medicine and social needs, her writing and lecturing on maternal and child hygiene. Comacchio, Cynthia R. Nations are Built of Babies: Saving Ontario’s Mothers and Children, Nathoo and Aleck Ostry, The One Best Way? Breastfeeding History and Policy in Canada.. The Toronto Star, Oct. 13, 1953, January 26, 1949 page 2. Examination of the first all-Canadian, government-sponsored childcare advice literature, written by Helen MacMurchy "Eugenics: Keeping Canada Sane"; the Canadian Encyclopedia
Brook Richard Williams was a Welsh stage actor who made numerous film and television appearances in small roles. His father was actor Emlyn Williams, his older brother Alan was novelist. Brook attended Stowe School in Buckinghamshire. After national service in the RAF he appeared on stage in repertory theatre, in London's West End and abroad on tour, his film appearances included: The Plague of the Zombies, Where Eagles Dare, Anne of the Thousand Days, The Wild Geese and The Sea Wolves. He was a close friend and advisor to the actor Richard Burton who had known him since he was a child and he appeared in several films in which Burton starred, he died of lung cancer aged 67. The V. I. P.s - First Reporter Hot Enough for June - Leon The Heroes of Telemark - Einar The Plague of the Zombies - Dr. Peter Tompson The Jokers - Capt. Green Where Eagles Dare - Sgt. Harrod Anne of the Thousand Days - Sir William Brereton The Raging Moon - Hugh Collins Raid on Rommel - Joe Reilly Villain - Kenneth Hammersmith Is Out - Pete Rutter Battle of Sutjeska Massacre in Rome - SS Hauptsturmführer Erich Priebke Equus - Bit part The Medusa Touch - Male Nurse The Wild Geese - Samuels Absolution - Father Clarence North Sea Hijack - Helicopter Pilot The Sea Wolves - Butterworth Pascali's Island - Turkish Officer Testimony - H.
Charles William Butler played first-class cricket for Tasmania in six matches over a 26-year period from 1872-73 to 1898-99. He was born in Hobart and died there as well. In 1874, the great English cricketer W. G. Grace stayed with the Butler family while on a cricket tour of Australia and Charles Butler became a friend: Grace named his third son Charles Butler Grace after Butler. Butler went into the legal profession, like his father, called Charles Butler, at his death was reckoned as "one of the best known legal men in Tasmania". Butler played as a right-handed middle-order batsman, but had limited success in first-class cricket, being dismissed without scoring six times in his 12 first-class innings, his highest score was 31, made in the 1877-78 match against South Australia. In 1878, Butler travelled with the Australian team that went to England and after William Midwinter had left the tour to join Gloucestershire alongside Grace, Butler was invited to join the team, though in the event he was injured and played in only one non-first-class match, where he failed to score in either innings.
Earlier in the season he had played in a couple of non-first-class matches with Grace at Newcastle upon Tyne. In Tasmania, he played in the annual North v South and other important non-first-class matches in Tasmania from 1872 to 1901, his brother, Francis played first-class cricket. Butler was well known in Tasmania for his prowess at lawn tennis, being the Hobart champion nine times and runner-up 12 times, his wife, whom he married in 1882 and with whom he had six children played tennis for Tasmania against Victoria. List of Tasmanian representative cricketers
New Writing was a popular literary periodical in book format founded in 1936 by John Lehmann and committed to anti-fascism. It featured leading poets and writers of the day such as W. H. Auden, V. S. Pritchett, Christopher Isherwood, Tom Wintringham, Stephen Spender, Ahmed Ali, Jim Phelan, Rex Warner, B. L. Coombes. New Writing published articles about Mass-Observation by Tom Harrisson. After having been approached by Lehmann to contribute a piece to the periodical, George Orwell developed a "sketch" he had had in mind for some time, which appeared as "Shooting an Elephant", first published in the second number of the periodical, in Autumn 1936. A second piece by Orwell, "Marrakech", appeared in the Christmas 1939 edition. With New Writing's future uncertain, Lehmann wrote New Writing in Europe for Pelican Books, a critical summary of the writers of the 1930s. Wintringham reintroduced Lehmann to Allen Lane of Penguin Books, who secured paper for Penguin New Writing, a monthly book-magazine, this time as a paperback, which survived until 1950
James Weiers was a Republican member of the Arizona State Senate and the Arizona House of Representatives, representing various Arizona Legislative Districts. He was elected to the House in 1994, where he served as one of the two District 16 representatives from January 1995 through January 2003. In 2002, he ran and won the seat for the Arizona State Senate for District 10, similar to the prior District 16 after redistricting, he served in the Senate for one term, from January 2003 through January 2005. In 2004, he ran for the House, again in District 10, he was re-elected three more times to represent the House, serving from January 2005 through January 2013. He served twice as Speaker of the House, the first time from 2001-2002, the second time from 2005-2009