Genre art is the pictorial representation in any of various media of scenes or events from everyday life, such as markets, domestic settings, parties, inn scenes, street scenes. Such representations imagined, or romanticized by the artist; some variations of the term genre art specify the medium or type of visual work, as in genre painting, genre prints, genre photographs, so on. Rather confusingly, the normal meaning of genre, covering any particular combination of an artistic medium and a type of subject matter, is used in the visual arts. Thus, genre works when referring to the painting of the Dutch Golden Age and Flemish Baroque painting—the great periods of genre works—may be used as an umbrella term for painting in various specialized categories such as still-life, marine painting, architectural painting and animal painting, as well as genre scenes proper where the emphasis is on human figures. Painting was divided into a hierarchy of genres, with history painting at the top, as the most difficult and therefore prestigious, still life and architectural painting at the bottom.
But history paintings are a genre in painting, not genre works. The following concentrates on painting, but genre motifs were extremely popular in many forms of the decorative arts from the Rococo of the early 18th century onwards. Single figures or small groups decorated a huge variety of objects such as porcelain, furniture and textiles. Genre painting called genre scene or petit genre, depicts aspects of everyday life by portraying ordinary people engaged in common activities. One common definition of a genre scene is that it shows figures to whom no identity can be attached either individually or collectively—thus distinguishing petit genre from history paintings and portraits. A work would be considered as a genre work if it could be shown that the artist had used a known person—a member of his family, say—as a model. In this case it would depend on whether the work was to have been intended by the artist to be perceived as a portrait—sometimes a subjective question; the depictions imagined, or romanticized by the artist.
Because of their familiar and sentimental subject matter, genre paintings have proven popular with the bourgeoisie, or middle class. Genre themes appear in nearly all art traditions. Painted decorations in ancient Egyptian tombs depict banquets and agrarian scenes, Peiraikos is mentioned by Pliny the Elder as a Hellenistic panel painter of "low" subjects, such as survive in mosaic versions and provincial wall-paintings at Pompeii: "barbers' shops, cobblers' stalls, asses and similar subjects". Medieval illuminated manuscripts illustrated scenes of everyday peasant life in the Labours of the Months in the calendar section of books of hours, most famously Les Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry; the Low Countries dominated the field until the 18th century, in the 17th century both Flemish Baroque painting and Dutch Golden Age painting produced numerous specialists who painted genre scenes. In the previous century, the Flemish Renaissance painter Jan Sanders van Hemessen painted innovative large-scale genre scenes, sometimes including a moral theme or a religious scene in the background in the first half of the 16th century.
These were part of a pattern of "Mannerist inversion" in Antwerp painting, giving "low" elements in the decorative background of images prominent emphasis. Joachim Patinir expanded his landscapes, making the figures a small element, Pieter Aertsen painted works dominated by spreads of still life food and genre figures of cooks or market-sellers, with small religious scenes in spaces in the background. Pieter Brueghel the Elder made peasants and their activities naturalistically treated, the subject of many of his paintings, genre painting was to flourish in Northern Europe in Brueghel's wake. Adriaen and Isaac van Ostade, Jan Steen, Adriaan Brouwer, David Teniers, Aelbert Cuyp, Johannes Vermeer and Pieter de Hooch were among the many painters specializing in genre subjects in the Low Countries during the 17th century; the small scale of these artists' paintings was appropriate for their display in the homes of middle class purchasers. The subject of a genre painting was based on a popular emblem from an emblem book.
This can give the painting a double meaning, such as in Gabriel Metsu's The Poultry seller, 1662, showing an old man offering a rooster in a symbolic pose, based on a lewd engraving by Gillis van Breen, with the same scene. The merry company showed a group of figures at a party, whether making music at home or just drinking in a tavern. Other common types of scenes showed village festivities, or soldiers in camp. In Italy, a "school" of genre painting was stimulated by the arrival in Rome of the Dutch painter Pieter van Laer in 1625, he acquired the nickname "Il Bamboccio" and his followers were called the Bamboccianti, whose works would inspire Giacomo Ceruti, Antonio Cifrondi, Giuseppe Maria Crespi among many others. Louis le Nain was an important exponent of genre painting in 17th-century France, painting groups of peasants at home, where the 18th century would bring a heightened interest in the depiction of everyday life, whether through the romanticized paintings of Watteau and Fragonard, or the careful realism of Chardin.
Jean-Baptiste Greuze and others painted detailed and rather sentimental groups or individual portraits of peasants that were to be influential on 19th-century painting. In England, William Hoga
San Pietro in Montorio
San Pietro in Montorio is a church in Rome, which includes in its courtyard the Tempietto, a small commemorative martyrium built by Donato Bramante. The Church of San Pietro in Montorio was built on the site of an earlier 9th-century church dedicated to Saint Peter on Rome's Janiculum hill, it serves as a shrine. In the 15th century, the ruins were given to the Amadist friars, a reform branch of the Franciscans, founded by the Blessed Amadeus of Portugal, who served as confessor to Pope Sixtus IV from 1472. Commissioned by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, it is a titular church, whose current title holder, since 1 March 2008, is Cardinal James Francis Stafford. The church is decorated with artworks by prominent 16th- and 17th-century masters; the first chapel on the right contains Transfiguration. Michelangelo, who had befriended Sebastiano in Rome, supplied figure drawings that were incorporated into the Flagellation; the second chapel has a fresco by Niccolò Circignani, some Renaissance frescoes from the school of Pinturicchio, an allegorical sibyl and virtue attributed to Baldassarre Peruzzi.
The fourth chapel has a ceiling fresco by Giorgio Vasari. Although there is no grave marker, tradition has it that Beatrice Cenci—executed in 1599 for the murder of her abusive father and made famous by Percy Bysshe Shelley, among others—is buried either in this chapel or below the high altar; the ceiling of the fifth chapel contains the Conversion of St. Paul, by Vasari; the altarpiece is attributed to Giulio Mazzoni, while the funerary monument of Pope Julius III and Roberto Nobili are by Bartolomeo Ammannati. Buried in the chapel is Julius III's scandalous'nephew', probable lover Cardinal Innocenzo Ciocchi Del Monte; until 1797, Raphael's final masterpiece, the Transfiguration graced the high altar. The altar displays a copy by Cammuccini of Guido Reni's Crucifixion of St. Peter; the last chapel on the left contains a Baptism of Christ, attributed to Daniele da Volterra, stucco-work and ceiling frescoes by Giulio Mazzoni. A pupil of Antoniazzo Romano frescoed the third chapel with the Saint Anne and Child.
Dirck van Baburen, a central figure of the Dutch Caravaggisti, painted the Entombment for the Pietà Chapel, indebted to Caravaggio's example. Baburen worked with David de Haen in this chapel; the two other paintings, The Mocking of Christ and The Agony in the Garden are variously attributed to either or both of the artists. The second chapel on the left, the Raimondi Chapel, was designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, it includes Francesco Baratta's Saint Francis in Ecstasy and sculptures by Andrea Bolgi and Niccolò Sale. At the high altar are two tombs: that of Hugh O'Neill, The O'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone and his son Hugh who predeceased him, the tomb shared by Rory O'Donnell, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell, his brother Cathbharr, both of them younger brothers of Red Hugh O'Donnell; these fled Ireland in 1607. Rory, Lord Tyrconnell, died in 1608, his brother Cathbharr and Hugh, the son of the Great Earl, died in 1609; the cause of death in all cases was fever malaria. Their tombs are covered with marble inscribed slabs with coloured borders and shields.
They are about 12 feet from the altar on the left as you face it and are covered by a carpet. Lord Tyrone himself was buried in the church with much less solemnity; the original simple tombstone was lost in about 1849, but the text of the short inscription was copied: "D. O. M. Hugonis principis ONelli ossa". In 1989, Tomás Cardinal Ó Fiaich laid a new marble plaque with the same inscription in the original place; the so-called Tempietto is a small commemorative tomb built by Donato Bramante as early as 1502, in the courtyard of San Pietro in Montorio. Commissioned by Ferdinand and Isabella, the Tempietto is considered a masterpiece of High Renaissance Italian architecture. After spending his first years in Milan, Bramante moved to Rome, where he was recognized by Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, the soon-to-be Pope Julius II. In Rome, Bramante was able to study the ancient monuments firsthand; the temple of Vesta at Tivoli was one of the precedents behind the Tempietto. Other antique precedents Bramante was able to study in Rome include the circular temple of the banks of the Tiber, Temple of Hercules Victor, believed at the time to be a temple of Vesta.
However, circular churches had been employed by early Christians for martyriums, like Santa Constanza in Rome. Bramante would have been aware of these early Christian precedents, as a result, the Tempietto is circular; the "Tempietto" is one of the most harmonious buildings of the Renaissance. The temple was constructed from bearing masonry; the circular temple supports a classical entablature, was framed in the shadowy arch of the cloister. It is the earliest example of the Tuscan order in the Renaissance; the Tuscan is a form of the Doric order, well suited for strong male gods so Tuscan was well suited for St. Peter's, it is meant to mark the traditional exact spot of St. Peter's martyrdom, is an important precursor to Bramante's rebuilding of St. Peter's. Given all the transformations of Renaissance and Baroque Rome that were to follow, it is hard now to sense the impact this building had at the beginning of the 16th century, it is a piece of sculpture, for it has little architectonic use. The building reflected Brun
Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the country's most populated comune, it is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber; the Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been defined as capital of two states. Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe; the city's early population originated from a mix of Latins and Sabines.
The city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, is regarded by some as the first metropolis. It was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the "Caput Mundi". After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome fell under the political control of the Papacy, in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance all the popes since Nicholas V pursued over four hundred years a coherent architectural and urban programme aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world. In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city.
In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. In 2016, Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy, its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The famous Vatican Museums are among the world's most visited museums while the Colosseum was the most popular tourist attraction in world with 7.4 million visitors in 2018. Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is the seat of several specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development; the city hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p. A. and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL.
Its business district, called EUR, is the base of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, financial services. Rome is an important fashion and design centre thanks to renowned international brands centered in the city. Rome's Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies. According to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king, Romulus. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was derived from Rome itself; as early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain: from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the same root as the Greek verb ῥέω and the Latin verb ruo, which both mean "flow". There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from 14,000 years ago, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.
Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the bronze age and the beginning of the Iron age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village. However, none of them had yet an urban quality. Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine; this aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. These in turn boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy; these developments, which according to archaeological ev
The Städel Museum the Städelsches Kunstinstitut und Städtische Galerie, is an art museum in Frankfurt, with one of the most important collections in Germany. The Städel Museum owns 2,700 paintings and a collection of 100,000 drawings and prints as well as 600 sculptures, it has a library of 100,000 books and 400 periodicals. The Städel was honoured as “Museum of the Year 2012” by the German art critics association AICA in 2012. In the same year the museum recorded the highest attendance figures in its history, of 447,395 visitors; the Städel Museum was founded in 1817, is one of the oldest museums in Frankfurt's Museumfer, or museum embankment. The founding followed a bequest by the Frankfurt banker and art patron Johann Friedrich Städel, who left his house, art collection and fortune with the request in his will that the institute be set up. In 1878, a new building, in the Gründerzeit style, was erected on Schaumainkai street, presently the major museum district. By the start of the 20th century, the gallery was among the most prominent German collections of classic Pan-European art.
In 1937, 77 paintings and 700 prints were confiscated from the museum when the National Socialists declared them "degenerate art". In 1939, the collection was moved out of Frankfurt to protect it from damage in World War II; the collection of the Städel Museum was removed from the museum to avoid destruction from the Allied bombings, the collection was stored in the Schloss Rossbach, a castle owned by the Baron Thüngen near Bad Brückenau in Bavaria. There, the museum’s paintings and library were discovered by Lt. Thomas Carr Howe, USN, of the American Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives program. Although the Baron von Thüngen and his wife were uncooperative with the Americans, Frau Dr. Holzinger, a licensed physician and the Swiss wife of the Städel Museum director, was present at the site and assisted with the cataloging and the removal of the items to the Munich Central Collecting Point. Lt. Howe said, “The first room to be inspected was a library adjoining the sitting room in which we had been waiting.
Here we found a quantity of excellent French Impressionist paintings, all from the permanent collection of the Städel Museum, a considerable number of fine Old Master drawings. Most of these were the property of the museum, but a few – I remember one superb Rembrandt sketch – appeared to have come from Switzerland; those would, of course, have to be looked into to determine their exact origin and how they came to be on loan to the museum. But for the moment we were concerned with storage conditions and the problem of security. In another room we found an enormous collection of books, the library of one of the Frankfurt museums. In a third we encountered an array of medieval sculpture – saints all sizes and description, some of carved wood, others of stone, plain or polychromed; these too, were of museum origin. The last storage room was below a vast, cavernous chamber beneath the house. Here was row upon row of pictures, stacked in two tiers down the center of the room and along two sides. From what we could make of them in the poor light, they were not of high quality.
During the summer months they would be alright in the underground room, but we thought the place would be damp in the winter. Frau Holzinger assured us that this was so and that the pictures should be removed before the bad weather set in.” The gallery was damaged by air raids in World War II and it was rebuilt by 1966 following a design by the Frankfurt architect Johannes Krahn. An expansion building for the display of 20th-century work and special exhibits was erected in 1990, designed by the Austrian architect Gustav Peichl. Small structural changes and renovations took place from 1997 to 1999; the largest extension in the history of the museum intended for the presentation of contemporary art was designed by the Frankfurt architectural firm Schneider+Schumacher and opened in February 2012. The Städel Museum is significantly enlarging its activities and outreach through a major digital expansion on the occasion of its 200-year anniversary in 2015. Available to visitors is an exhibition'digitorial' and free access to WiFi throughout the museum and its grounds.
From March the museum will offer to visitors a new Städel app, the possibility of listening to audio guides on their own devices, a new'cabinet of digital curiosities'. Several more projects are in development including an online exhibition platform; the Städel Museum has European paintings from seven centuries, beginning with the early 14th century, moving into Late Gothic, the Renaissance and into the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries. The large collection of prints and drawings is not on permanent display and occupies the first floor of the museum. Works on paper not on display can be viewed by appointment; the gallery has a conservation department that performs conservation and restoration work on the collection. Robert Campin, Flémalle Panels, ca. 1428-1430, mixed technique, 160.2 × 68.2 cm, 151.8 × 61 cm, 148.7 × 61 cm Jan van Eyck, Lucca Madonna, ca. 1437, mixed technique, 66 x 50 cm Fra Angelico, Madonna with Child and Twelve Angels, 1430–1433, tempera on panel, 37 x 27 cm Rogier van der Weyden, Medici Madonna, c.
1460–1464, oil on panel, 61.7 x 46.1 cm Master of the Frankfurt Paradiesgärtlein, Paradiesgärtlein, between 1400 und 1420, mixed technique on oak, 26 x 33 cm Hieronymus Bosch, Ecce Homo, c. 1476, oil on panel, 75 x 61 cm Sandro Botticelli, Portrait of
Paulus Moreelse was a Dutch painter of portraits. Moreelse was lived most of his life in Utrecht, he was a pupil of the Delft portrait painter Michiel Jansz. van Mierevelt, who had himself been a pupil of Anthonie van Blocklandt. He took a study-trip to Italy. Back in Utrecht, in 1596 he became a member of the zadelaarsgilde, which embraced the painters as well. In 1611, along with Abraham Bloemaert, he was one of the founders of a new painters' guild, called "St. Lucas-gilde", became its first deken. Moreelse was a well known portrait painter who received commissions from right across the Dutch Republic, his earliest known work dates to 1606. Other than portraits, he painted a few history paintings in the Mannerist style and in the 1620s produced pastoral scenes of herders and shepherds, he belonged to the same generation as Abraham Bloemaert and Joachim Wtewael, like Wtewael he played an important role in the public life of their city. His version of Diana and Callisto was engraved by Jan Saenredam.
In 1618, when the anti-remonstrants came to power in Utrecht, he was expelled from the council. Moreelse was active as an architect, building Utrecht's Catharijnepoort and also the Vleeshuis on Voorstraat from 1637, he taught at Utrecht's tekenacademie, among his many pupils was Dirck van Baburen. On his death, he was buried in the Buurkerk in Utrecht. Among the public collections holding works by Paulus Moreelse are: Museum de Fundatie, The Netherlands Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam Paulus Moreelse Johannes Moreelse Works at WGA Works and literature on Paulus Moreelse Paulus Moreelse on Artcyclopedia
Wijk bij Duurstede
Wijk bij Duurstede is a municipality and a city in the central Netherlands. Cothen Langbroek Wijk bij Duurstede Dutch Topographic map of the municipality of Wijk bij Duurstede, 2013; the city is located on the Rhine. At Wijk bij Duurstede, the Kromme Rijn branches off, the main branch is called Lek River downstream from Wijk bij Duurstede; the name'Wijk bij Duurstede' means'Neighbourhood by Duurstede'. Duurstede is the name of the nearby castle/ruin called Dorestad, where the bishop of Utrecht used to live. Wijk bij Duurstede is located at the place where Dorestad used to be, an important Frisian trade settlement during Carolingian times, pillaged around 850 by the Vikings. Wijk bij Duurstede has the only drive-through wind mill in the world; the mill is confused with the mill, made famous by Ruisdael's 1670 painting The windmill at Wijk bij Duurstede, but that mill no longer exists. At the market place of Wijk bij Duurstede is one of the few church towers in the Netherlands with a flat roof, as built because the bishop could not afford to build a spire.
Inside the tower a picture displays the planned construction of the tower. The tower was supposed to become higher than the Domtoren in Utrecht. Wijk bij Duurstede received city rights in 1300. Dirck van Baburen, 17th century painter Dick Kooijman, footballer Media related to Wijk bij Duurstede at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Santa Maria del Popolo
The Parish Basilica of Santa Maria del Popolo is a titular church and a minor basilica in Rome run by the Augustinian order. It stands on the north side of one of the most famous squares in the city; the church is hemmed in between the Pincian Hill and Porta del Popolo, one of the gates in the Aurelian Wall as well as the starting point of Via Flaminia, the most important route from the north. Its location made the basilica the first church for the majority of travellers entering the city; the church contains works by several famous artists, such as Raphael, Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Alessandro Algardi, Andrea Bregno, Guillaume de Marcillat and Donato Bramante. The well-known foundation legend of Santa Maria del Popolo revolves around the evil memory of Emperor Nero and Pope Paschal II cleansing the area from this malicious legacy; as the story goes, after his suicide Nero was buried in the mausoleum of his paternal family, the Domitii Ahenobarbi, at the foot of the Pincian Hill. The sepulchre was buried under a landslide and on its ruins grew a huge walnut tree that ″was so tall and sublime that no other plant exceeded it in any ways.″ The tree soon became the haunt for a multitude of vicious demons harassing the inhabitants of the area and the travelers arriving in the city from the north through Porta Flaminia: ″some were being frightened, cruelly beaten and injured, others strangled, or miserably killed.″ As the demons endangered an important access road of the city and upset the entire population, the newly elected pontiff, Paschal II, was concerned.
He ″saw the flock of Christ committed to his watch, becoming prey to the infernal wolves.″ The Pope fasted and prayed for three days and at the end of that period, exhausted, he dreamt of the Blessed Virgin Mary, who gave him detailed instructions on how to free the city from the demonic scourge. On the Thursday after the Third Sunday of Lent in 1099, the Pope organised the entire clergy and populace of Rome in one, impressive procession that, with the crucifix at its head, went along the urban stretch of the Via Flaminia until it reached the infested place. There, Paschal II performed the rite of exorcism and struck the walnut tree with a determined blow to its root, causing the evil spirits to burst forth, madly screaming; when the whole tree was removed, the remains of Nero were discovered among the ruins. Liberated from the demons, that corner of Rome could be devoted to Christian worship. Paschal II, to the sound of hymns, placed the first stone of an altar at the former site of the walnut tree.
This was incorporated into a simple chapel, completed in three days. The construction was celebrated with particular solemnity: the Pope consecrated the small sanctuary in the presence of a large crowd, accompanied by ten cardinals, four archbishops, ten bishops and other prelates, he granted the chapel many relics and dedicated it to the Virgin Mary. The legend was recounted by an Augustinian friar, Giacomo Alberici in his treatise about the Church of Santa Maria del Popolo, published in Rome in 1599 and translated into Italian the next year. Another Augustinian, Ambrogio Landucci rehashed the same story in his book about the origins of the basilica in 1646; the legend has been retold several times since with slight changes in collections of Roman curiosities, scientific literature and guidebooks. An example of the variations could be found in Ottavio Panciroli's book which claimed that the demons inhabiting the tree took the form of black crows, it is not known how far the tradition goes back but in 1726 in the archive of Santa Maria del Popolo there was a catalogue of the holy relics of the church written in 1426 which contained a version of the ″miracle of the walnut tree″.
This was copied from an more ancient tabella at the main altar. In the 15th century the story was popular enough to be recounted by various German sources like Nikolaus Muffel's Description of Rome or The Pilgrimage of Arnold Von Harff; the factual basis of the legend is weak. Nero was indeed buried in the mausoleum of his paternal family, but Suetonius in his Life of Nero writes that ″the family tomb of the Domitii on the summit of the Hill of Gardens, visible from the Campus Martius.″ The location of the mausoleum was therefore somewhere on the higher north-west slopes of the Pincian Hill and not at the foot of it where the church stands. The foundation of the chapel by Paschal II was maybe part of an effort to restore the safety of the area around Porta Flaminia, outside the inhabited core of medieval Rome and infested with bandits. Another possible source of inspiration for the legend could have been the well-documented revenge of Pope Paschal II on the body of his opponent, Antipope Clement III.
The pope seized the city of Civita Castellana, had Clement’s cadaver exhumed from his tomb, ordered it thrown into the Tiber. Clement III was the protégée of the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, called "Nero" by the papal party; the name del Popolo was most derived from populus meaning large rural parish in medieval Latin. In this case the name refers to the first suburban settlement around Via Flaminia, formed after the chapel had been built in this deserted part of Campus Martius. Others think the denomination implied that the people of Rome were saved from the demonic scourge or it came from the Latin word pōpulus, meaning poplar; the demonic tree was a huge walnut but there might have been poplar trees growing on ancient tombs in the locality. The name S. Maria ad Flaminiam appeared in some 15th-cen