The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation is the head of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the United States' primary federal law enforcement agency, is responsible for its day-to-day operations. The FBI Director is appointed for a single 10-year term by the President of the United States and confirmed by the Senate; the FBI is an agency within the Department of Justice, thus the Director reports to the Attorney General of the United States. The Director briefed the President on any issues that arose from within the FBI until the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 was enacted following the September 11 attacks. Since the Director reports in an additional capacity to the Director of National Intelligence, as the FBI is part of the United States Intelligence Community; the current Director is Christopher A. Wray, who assumed the role on August 2, 2017, after being confirmed by the United States Senate, taking over from Acting Director Andrew McCabe after the dismissal of former Director James Comey by President Donald Trump.
The FBI Director is appointed by the President and, since 1972, subject to confirmation by the Senate. J. Edgar Hoover, appointed by President Calvin Coolidge to the predecessor office of Director of the Bureau of Investigation in 1924, was by far the longest-serving Director, holding the position from its establishment under the current title in 1935 until his death in 1972. In 1976, in response to Hoover's lengthy tenure and during the Watergate era, by an amendment to the 1968 Omnibus Crime Control Act, Congress limited the term of future FBI directors to ten years, "an unusually long tenure that Congress established to insulate the director from political pressure." This rule was waived by the Senate for Robert Mueller on July 27, 2011, due to serious security concerns at that time. Since 1976, Directors serve a ten-year term unless they resign, die, or are removed, but in practice, since Hoover, none have served a full ten years, except Mueller who served twelve years with the leave of Congress.
The Director of the FBI can be removed from office by the President of the United States. After removal until a replacement is confirmed by the U. S. Senate, the Deputy Director automatically acts in the role; the appointment of the Deputy Director is not a presidential appointment and does not require Senate confirmation. The President can appoint an Interim Director pending Senate confirmation or nomination of permanent Director. Along with the Deputy Director, the Director is responsible for ensuring that cases and operations are handled correctly; the Director is in charge of staffing the leadership in any one of the FBI field offices with qualified agents. When the Bureau of Investigation was established in 1908, its head was called Chief of the Bureau of Investigation, it was changed to the Director of the Bureau of Investigation in the term of William J. Flynn and to its current name when the BOI was renamed FBI in 1935; the FBI became an independent service within the Department of Justice in 1935.
In the same year, its name was changed to the present-day Federal Bureau of Investigation, with J. Edgar Hoover receiving the current title of Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Starting in 1972, the United States Senate has to confirm the nomination of a permanent officeholder; the line of succession for the Director of the FBI is as follows: Deputy Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation Associate Deputy Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation Executive Assistant Director of the National Security Branch Executive Assistant Director for Criminal, Cyber and Services Assistant Director of Counterterrorism Division Assistant Director of Criminal Investigative Division Assistant Director of Counterintelligence Division Assistant Director, Washington Field Office Assistant Director, New York Field Office Assistant Director, Los Angeles Field Office Since the office's inception, only two Directors have been dismissed: William S. Sessions by President Bill Clinton in 1993, James Comey by President Donald Trump in 2017.
It is accepted. Just before Bill Clinton was inaugurated as the 42nd President of the United States on January 20, 1993, allegations of ethical improprieties were made against Sessions. A report by outgoing Attorney General William P. Barr presented to the Justice Department that month by the Office of Professional Responsibility included criticisms that he had used an FBI plane to travel to visit his daughter on several occasions, had a security system installed in his home at government expense. Janet Reno, the 78th Attorney General of the United States, announced that Sessions had exhibited "serious deficiencies in judgment."Although Sessions denied that he had acted improperly, he was pressured to resign in early July, with some suggesting that President Clinton was giving Sessions the chance to step down in a dignified manner. Sessions refused, saying that he had done nothing wrong, insisted on staying in office until his successor was confirmed; as a result, President Clinton dismissed Sessions on July 19, 1993, five and a half years into a ten-year term.
Clinton's public explanation was that there had been a loss of confidence in Sessions’ leadership, then-Attorney General Reno recommended the dismissal. Ronald Kessler's book, The FBI: Inside the World's Most Powerful Law Enforcement Agency, led to the dismissal by President Clinton of Sessions as FBI director over his abuses. According to The Washington Post, "A Justice Department official...noted that the original charges against Sessions came not from FBI agents but from a journalist, Ronald Kessler [who uncovered the abuses while writing a book about the FBI, leading to Sessions' dis
Pel's flying squirrel or Pel's scaly-tailed squirrel is a species of rodent in the family Anomaluridae. It is found in Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, where it lives in lowland tropical rainforests. Pel's flying squirrel is named after Hendrik Pel; the tropical forests of Africa were little explored by Europeans before the nineteenth century. Colugos and flying squirrels had been known from south eastern Asia and gliding marsupials from Australia earlier than this, but the discovery of the scaly-tailed squirrels of equatorial Africa was not made till the 1840s. British zoologist and collector Louis Fraser exploring the Niger basin brought a specimen of Lord Derby's scaly-tailed squirrel back to Britain. Compared to the known flying squirrels, this had two rows of large scales on the underside of the basal part of its tail; the flying membrane stretched from wrist to ankle and was supported by a cartilaginous strip which had its origin at the elbow. The scaly tailed squirrels had an additional membrane extending from the ankle to part-way along the tail, when extended, the membrane formed a straight line from heel to heel.
Ten years a specimen of another species, Pel's flying squirrel, was brought to Europe and showed similar anatomical features. The hands and feet had the digits close together with curved nails; the tail was unusual in that the free part resembled the shape of a feather, with the large cornified scales a prominent feature on the underside. The animal's fur was described without any spines. Pel's flying squirrel is a large species, with a head-and-body length of 400 to 540 mm and a tail of 320 to 550 mm, it weighs between 1,300 to 2,000 g The upper parts are black, with some white patches, while the underparts are white. The margin of the patagium, the membrane joining the wrist with the ankle, is white, that of the uropatagium, joining the ankles and tail, is all white; the ears are of average size and naked, the forefeet are black, the hind feet have white patches and the tail is plume-like. Pel's flying squirrel is native to West Africa where its range includes eastern Liberia, southern Ivory Coast and southwestern Ghana.
It occurs in the tropical rainforest at low altitudes where there are tall, emergent trees and palms trees, in areas with annual precipitation in the range 1,400 to 3,900 millimetres. However, it appreciates separate trees that are not wreathed in lianas, because when it emerges from its den at night, it needs space to glide down to lower levels to feed. Pel's flying squirrel is wholly nocturnal, spending the day in a hole in a tree and only emerging after dark, it feeds on bark, supplemented with fruits and leaves. It occurs in pairs, but as many as six individuals have been found sharing the same nesting site in a tree. If disturbed in its den, this squirrel snaps its teeth and hisses, the sound may be amplified by the acoustics of the hollow tree. Given its large size, bold colouration and aggressive behaviour, this species may be able to drive off potential predators such as birds of prey, small carnivores and primates, compete with hornbills for nest sites; the reproduction of this species is poorly known.
In Ghana, litters seem to occur twice a year, in April and September, with two or three young in each litter four. A copulatory plug is present in the vagina during pregnancy and the young are furred and have their eyes open at birth; the young remain in the nest and both parents bring them food. The tropical forests where this flying squirrel lives are under threat because of timber harvesting and the conversion of the land to agricultural use; the animal is under threat from hunters and is sometimes to be seen on sale as bushmeat in markets. As a secretive, nocturnal species, its population size and natural history are little known, the International Union for Conservation of Nature has been unable to classify its conservation status and has rated it as "data deficient". Dieterlen, F. 2005. Family Anomaluridae. Pp. 1532–1534 in Mammal Species of the World a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder eds. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press
Loïc Vadelorge, born 26 November 1964, graduate from École Normale Supérieure Lettres et Sciences Humaines, is a French historian, teacher of contemporary history at the Paris 13 University, after having been Senior Lecturer at the Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines University from 1998 to 2009 and at the University of Rouen from 1992 to 1994. He argued in 1996 a doctoral thesis at the Paris-Sorbonne University, under the supervision of Jean-Pierre Chaline on the theme "For a cultural history of the native. Rouen from 1919 to 1940". Member of the Research Centre Economies, Cultures, his research focuses on the history of cultural policies, the history of new towns and the history of the equipment, he has conducted investigations for the French Comité d'histoire du ministère de la Culture et des institutions culturelles. Rouen sous la IIIe République. Politiques et pratiques culturelles, Presses universitaires de Rennes, 2005, 441 p.. With Philippe Poirrier, Pour une histoire des politiques du patrimoine, Paris, La Documentation française / Ministère de la Culture, Comité d'Histoire, 2003 « La Mémoire des villes nouvelles », Ethnologie Française, 1, 2003 Éléments pour une histoire des villes nouvelles, Manuscrit.com, collection Manuscrit Université, 2004 Gouverner les villes nouvelles.
L’État et les collectivités locales, Manuscrit.com, collection Manuscrit Université, 2005 L’action culturelle dans les villes nouvelles, Paris, La Documentation française, Comité d’histoire du ministère de la Culture, Programme interministériel d’histoire et d’évaluation des villes nouvelles, 2005 Habiter les villes nouvelles, manuscrit.com, 2006
Brant David Daugherty is an American actor, known for his recurring role as Noel Kahn on the teen drama television series Pretty Little Liars. In 2013, he had a recurring role as Brian in the NBC daytime drama Days of Our Lives. In 2013, he was a regular of the cast of Lifetime Network's Army Wives for season 7, which began airing in April 2013, in the role of Patrick Clarke, he had a credited role in Jason Friedberg and Aaron Seltzer's motion picture comedy film The Starving Games released in fall 2013. In 2014, he had a credited role in the Charlie Sheen FX series Anger Management. Daugherty was a contestant in season 17 of Dancing with the Stars in which he partnered with professional dancer Peta Murgatroyd, they were eliminated in the eighth week of competition. In 2018, he played Luke Sawyer in the film Fifty Shades Freed. Daugherty was born and raised in Mason, the son of David Daugherty, an art teacher, his wife, Mary Beth Daugherty, head of rehabilitation services for Shriners Hospitals for Children, Cincinnati.
He grew up along with his brother and sister, Caitey. Brant's father, was an art teacher at Mason Middle School when he died of cancer on February 19, 2009, at age 57. Daugherty attended William Mason High School, where he played football until his sophomore year and tried out for the school play, he continued to perform in school plays until his graduation in 2004. He moved to Los Angeles in 2008 after earning a film degree from Columbia College Chicago, he now resides in West Hollywood. He started dating actress Kimberly Hidalgo in 2016, they got engaged in February 2018 during a trip to Amsterdam. They married on June 15, 2019. Brant Daugherty on IMDb Brant Daugherty on Twitter
Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences is a leading research institute in Nainital, Uttarakhand which specializes in Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences. An autonomous body under the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, the institute is situated at Manora Peak, about 9 km from Nainital, a popular hill station; the astronomical observatory is open to the public during working days on afternoons. For night viewing however, three - four days on moonlight nights are fixed and prior permission is needed; the institute was started on 20 April 1954 under the supervision of Dr. A. N. Singh as Uttar Pradesh State Observatory in the premises of the Govt. Sanskrit College, presently known as Sampurnanand Sanskrit University, Uttar Pradesh. With the creation of the State of Uttarakhand on 9 Nov 2000, because of its geographical location within the boundaries of Uttarakhand, UPSO came under the administrative control of the new government and was re-christened as the State Observatory.
Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences was its new name when it came under the Department of Science & Technology, Govt. of India as an autonomous body on 22 March 2004. Research activities at ARIES cover topics related to the sun and galaxies. ARIES has made significant contributions to the field of star clusters and Gamma-Ray Bursts; the longitude of ARIES locates it in the middle of a 180-degree wide longitude band having modern astronomical facilities lying between the Canary Islands and Eastern Australia. Observations, which are not possible in Canary Islands or Australia due to daylight, can be made at ARIES; because of its geographical location and existence of good astronomical observation sites, ARIES has made unique contributions to many areas of astronomical research those involving time critical phenomena. A large number of eclipsing binaries, variable stars, star clusters, nearby galaxies, GRBs, supernova have been observed from ARIES; the other research fields of the institute include solar astronomy, stellar astronomy, star clusters, stellar variability and pulsation, photometric studies of nearby galaxies and transient events like supernovae and energetic Gamma-Ray Bursts.
A total solar eclipse lasting about 4 minutes was observed from Manavgat, Antalya in Turkey on 29 March 2006 by a team of scientists from the Institute. In past, new ring systems around Saturn and Neptune were discovered from the observatory. For the first time a direct correlation between the intra-night optical variability and the degree of polarization of the radio jets in Quasars was established based on the observations from ARIES. For the first time periodic oscillations are detected in optical intra day variability data of blazers, useful to get the blackhole mass of blazers and provide a strong support to accretion disk based models of AGN. Nainital is located at a high altitude in the Central Himalayas and away from urban cities or any major pollution source; this factor makes it suitable for carrying out observations in background condition and to study the regional environment interactions between natural and anthropogenic trace species and climate change. Additionally, the ARIES site can provide information on long range transport of pollutants.
Studies on lower atmospheric dynamics are very important in this region, lacking over northern India. The Institute has in-house workshops to meet the requirements of electronic and optical maintenance of the instruments. ARIES has a modern computer center with internet facility and a well maintained library with more than 10,000 volumes of research journals and an excellent collection of books on Astronomy & Astrophysics and Atmospheric Sciences. 3.6m Devasthal Optical Telescope 1.3 m Robotic Telescope at Devasthal Stratosphere Troposphere Radar Lidar University of California High-Performance AstroComputing Center Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences National Centre for Radio Astrophysics ARIES, Official website ARIES at Department of Science and Technology website
The Citroën 2CV is an air-cooled front-engine, front-wheel-drive economy car introduced at the 1948 Paris Mondial de l'Automobile and manufactured by Citroën for model years 1948–1990. Conceived by Citroën Vice-President Pierre Boulanger to help motorise the large number of farmers still using horses and carts in 1930s France, the 2CV has a combination of innovative engineering and utilitarian, straightforward metal bodywork—initially corrugated for added strength without added weight; the 2CV featured low cost, simplicity of overall maintenance, an serviced air-cooled engine, low fuel consumption, an long-travel suspension offering a soft ride and light off-road capability. Called "an umbrella on wheels", the fixed-profile convertible bodywork featured a full-width, roll-back sunroof, which accommodated oversized loads and until 1955 reached to the car's rear bumper. Michelin introduced and first commercialised the radial tyre with the introduction of the 2CV. Manufactured in France between 1948 and 1988, more than 3.8 million 2CVs were produced, along with over 1.2 million small 2CV-based delivery vans known as fourgonnettes.
Citroën offered several mechanically identical variants including the Ami. In total, Citroën manufactured 9 million 2CVs and variants. A 1953 technical review in Autocar described "the extraordinary ingenuity of this design, undoubtedly the most original since the Model T Ford". In 2011, The Globe and Mail called it a "car like no other"; the motoring writer L. J. K. Setright described the 2CV as "the most intelligent application of minimalism to succeed as a car", a car of "remorseless rationality". In 1934, family-owned Michelin, as the largest creditor, took over the bankrupt Citroën company; the new management commissioned a market survey, conducted by Jacques Duclos. France at that time had a large rural population. In fuel economy, the car would use no more than 3 l/100 km. One design parameter required that customers be able to drive eggs across a freshly ploughed field without breakage. In 1936, Pierre-Jules Boulanger, vice-president of Citroën and chief of engineering and design, sent the brief to his design team at the engineering department.
The TPV was to be developed in secrecy at Michelin facilities at Clermont-Ferrand and at Citroën in Paris, by the design team who had created the Traction Avant. Boulanger monitored all decisions relating to the TPV, proposing reduced target weights, he created a department to weigh and redesign each component, to lighten the TPV without compromising function. Boulanger placed engineer André Lefèbvre in charge of the TPV project. Lefèbvre raced Grand Prix cars; the first prototypes were bare chassis with rudimentary controls and roof. By the end of 1937 20 TPV experimental prototypes had been tested; the prototypes had only one headlight, all, required by French law at the time. On 29 December 1937, Pierre Michelin was killed in a car crash. By 1939 the TPV was deemed ready, after 47 technically different and incrementally improved experimental prototypes had been built and tested; these prototypes used aluminium and magnesium parts and had water-cooled flat twin engines with front-wheel drive. The seats were hammocks hung from the roof by wires.
The suspension system, designed by Alphonse Forceau, used front leading arms and rear trailing arms, connected to eight torsion bars beneath the rear seat: a bar for the front axle, one for the rear axle, an intermediate bar for each side, an overload bar for each side. The front axle was connected to its torsion bars by cable; the overload bar came into play when the car had three people on board, two in the front and one in the rear, to support the extra load of a fourth passenger and fifty kilograms of luggage. In mid-1939 a pilot run of 250 cars was produced and on 28 August 1939 the car received approval for the French market. Brochures were printed and preparations made to present the car, renamed the Citroën 2CV, at the forthcoming Paris Motor Show in October 1939. One innovation included from the beginning of production was Michelin's new radial tyre, first commercialised with the introduction of the 2CV; this radial design is an integral part of the design of the 2CV chassis. On 3 September 1939, France declared war on Germany following that country's invasion of Poland.
An atmosphere of impending disaster led to the cancellation of the 1939 motor show less than a month before it was scheduled to open. The launch of the 2CV was abandoned. During the German occupation of France in World War II Boulanger refused to collaborate with German authorities to the point where the Gestapo listed him as an "enemy of the Reich", under constant threat of arrest and deportation to Germany. Michelin and Citroën managers decided to hide the TPV project from the Nazis, fearing some military application as in the case of the future Volkswagen Beetle