The General Directorate for External Security is France's external intelligence agency. The French equivalent to the United Kingdom's MI6 and the United States' CIA, the DGSE operates under the direction of the French Ministry of Defence and works alongside its domestic counterpart, the DGSI, in providing intelligence and safeguarding French national security, notably by performing paramilitary and counterintelligence operations abroad; as with most other intelligence agencies, details of its operations and organization are classified, are therefore not made public. The DGSE's head office is in the 20th arrondissement of Paris, it engages in a significant amount of economic espionage. The DGSE can trace its roots back to November 27, 1943, when a central external intelligence agency, known as the DGSS, was founded by politician Jacques Soustelle; the name of the agency was changed on October 26, 1944 for DGER. As this beginning was marred by numerous cases of nepotism and political feuds, Soustelle was removed from his position as Director.
Former free-fighter André Dewavrin aka "Colonel Passy" was tasked to reform the DGER. The SDECE combined under one head a variety of separate agencies – some, such as the best-known Deuxième Bureau aka 2e Bureau, created by the military circa 1871-1873 in the wake of the birth of the French Third Republic. During the WWII, from July 1940 to November 27, 1943 more was created a wartime intelligence agency known as the BCRA, with André Dewavrin as its head. On April 2, 1982, the new socialist government of François Mitterrand reformed the SDECE and renamed this agency DGSE; the SDECE had remained independent until the mid-1960s, when it was discovered to have been involved in the kidnapping and presumed murder of Mehdi Ben Barka, a Moroccan revolutionary living in Paris. Following this scandal, it is said, the agency was placed under the control of the French Ministry of Defence, but in reality, foreign intelligence activities in France have always been supervised by the military since 1871. Exceptions related to telecommunications interception and cyphering and code-breaking, which were carried on by the police in territorial France, by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs abroad.
And economic and financial intelligence, which first were carried on by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, from 1915 on by the Ministry of Commerce until the aftermath of WWII, when the SDECE of the Ministry of Defence took over the specialty in partnership with the Ministry for the Economy and Finance. In 1992, most of the defence responsibilities of the DGSE, no longer suitable to the post-Cold War context, were transferred to the Military Intelligence Directorate, a new military agency. Combining the skills and knowledge of five military groups, the DRM was created to close the intelligence gaps of the 1991 Gulf War; the SDECE and DGSE have been shaken by numerous scandals. In 1968, for example, Philippe Thyraud de Vosjoli, an important officer in the French intelligence system for 20 years, asserted in published memoirs that the SDECE had been penetrated by the Soviet KGB in the 1950s, he indicated that there had been periods of intense rivalry between the French and U. S. intelligence systems.
In the early 1990s a senior French intelligence officer created another major scandal by revealing that the DGSE had conducted economic intelligence operations against American businessmen in France. A major scandal for the service in the late Cold War was the sinking of the Rainbow Warrior in 1985; the Rainbow Warrior was sunk by operatives in what the service named Opération Satanique, killing one of the crew. The operation was ordered by François Mitterrand. New Zealand was outraged that its sovereignty was violated by an ally, as was the Netherlands since the killed Greenpeace activist was a Dutch citizen and the ship had Amsterdam as its port of origin; the agency was conventionally run by French military personnel until 1999, when former diplomat Jean-Claude Cousseran was appointed its head. Cousseran had served as an ambassador to Turkey and Syria, as well as a strategist in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Cousseran reorganized the agency to improve the flow of information, following a series of reforms drafted by Bruno Joubert, the agency's director of strategy at that time.
This came during a period when the French government was formed as a cohabitation between left and right parties. Cousseran, linked to the Socialist Party, was therefore obliged to appoint Jean-Pierre Pochon of the Gaullist RPR as head of the Intelligence Directorate. Being conscious of the political nature of the appointment, wanting to steer around Pochon, Cousseron placed one of his friends in a top job under Pochon. Alain Chouet, a specialist in terrorism Algerian and Iranian networks, took over as chief of the Security Intelligence Service, he had been on post in Damascus at a time. Chouet began writing reports to Cousseran. Politics took precedence over DGSE's intelligence function. Instead of informing the president's staff of reports directly concerning President Chirac, Cousseran informed only Sociali
The Disi Water Conveyance Project is a water supply project in Jordan. It is designed to pump 100,000,000 cubic metres of water per year from the Disi aquifer, which lies beneath the desert in southern Jordan and northwestern Saudi Arabia; the water is piped to the capital and other cities to meet increased demand. Construction began in 2009 and was completed in July 2013 when the project was inaugurated by King Abdullah of Jordan, its total cost was US$1.1 billion. An independent study revealed the water to be radioactive and dangerous to drink surrounding the project with controversy. Jordan's Ministry of Water and Irrigation has stated that the radioactivity is not a problem because the water is to be diluted with an equal amount of water from other sources, although it remains disputed if this would be enough to bring the water up to standards; the Ministry said the independent study was inaccurate, as it did not test water from any of the wells that will be used in the project. The President of the Jordanian Geologists Association Bahjat Al Adwan stated that the radiation is present in the water in the form of Radon, thus dissipates harmlessly when the water is exposed to air on the surface.
The water in the Disi aquifer gathered 30,000 years ago during the Pleistocene era. It is 320 kilometres long and located 500 metres below ground inside of porous sandstone; the aquifer is classified as a fossil aquifer, meaning that the water is not replenished if it is removed. In fact, the aquifer has a recharge rate of 50,000,000 m3 of water per year; this recharge is dwarfed, however, by the current extraction rate of 90,000,000 m3 for agricultural and domestic needs, including 15,000,000 m3 of water, supplied to Aqaba, Jordan. The current extraction rate of 90,000,000 m3, coupled with the future extraction rate of 100,000,000 m3 for the project, is expected to produce a total extraction rate of 190,000,000 m3. At that rate, the water in the aquifer will last a minimum of 50 years, according to the Disi Water Company. Only a small portion of the Disi aquifer lies beneath Jordan, while the majority lies beneath Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia extracts water from the aquifer; the aquifer has created controversy between Saudi Arabia and Jordan, with each country demanding the other to use less of the shared water.
There is no formal agreement between the countries regarding the water and the Disi Water Conveyance Project is being constructed without Saudi consultation or involvement. Non-revenue water is a serious problem in Amman. 40% of water in Amman is lost as non-revenue water. The city rations water, with individual residents averaging 36 hours of water access weekly. If the non-revenue water problem remains, it is possible that a large portion of the water provided by the Disi Water Conveyance project will be lost as it is piped through Amman; the Disi Water Conveyance project was first proposed in the 1990s, but was regarded as too expensive. A feasibility study was completed in 1996, but it was not until 2007 that the Jordanian Government was able to contract a firm to begin construction. The project proposed by the Jordanian government will pump 100,000,000 m3 of water per year from 55 wells in the aquifer. However, a total of 64 wells will be drilled, the extra wells to be used as piezometers to measure the elevation of the water.
Nine of the 55 water producing wells will be used in emergencies only. The wells producing water will be drilled 600–700 m deep while the piezometers will be drilled to a depth of 400 m; the plan is to pump the piezometer wells according to the project leader. After being pumped from the wells, water will be transported to Amman, via a 325 km pipeline, passing through a pumping station flowing by gravity and being pumped up again; the reservoirs near Amman are only 200 m higher than the surface area where the pumping field is located. The total elevation differential over which water needs to be lifted by both pumping stations is about 800 metres. To pump the water through the proposed pipeline will require 4 kilowatt-hours per cubic meter of water; the entire project would require 4 percent of Jordan's current electrical production. The project is expected to be completed by January 2017 and to run for 25 years or until the Two Seas Canal is built; the 100,000,000 m3 of water will be divided between the Abu Alanda reservoir and the Dabouq reservoir.
40,000,000 m3 of water will be sent to the Abu Alanda reservoir where it will be diluted with water from the Zara Ma’en desalination plant as well as water from Wala. The remaining 60,000,000 m3 of water will be sent to the Dabouq reservoir where it will be diluted with water from the Zai Treatment Plant as well as water from Wala, it is estimated that the cost of one cubic meter of water from the project will be 0.74 JOD. In June 2009, the Turkish firm GAMA began construction. By February 2011, eight piezometer wells and two water producing wells have been completed. Twenty-three other wells were to be drilled, 85 km of pipe were to be installed. By April 2011, 99% of the 340 km of project's piping had arrived from Turkey, an anonymous source told The Jordan Times; this source stated that it was ahead of schedule. Construction was delayed by disgruntled members of a Bedouin tribe living in the area, who intimidated workers by shooting in the air and at c
Morano Calabro is a town and comune in the province of Cosenza in the Calabria region of southern Italy. It was the birthplace of mathematician Gaetano Scorza; the municipality borders with Castrovillari, Rotonda, San Basile, Terranova di Pollino and Viggianello. Its frazione, the village of Campotenese, is located on a mountain pass at 1,015 amsl. A tourist site, the village is best known for the Battle of Campo Tenese between the First French Empire and the Kingdom of Naples. Porto Alegre, Brazil Battle of Campo Tenese Media related to Morano Calabro at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Iglesia de San Salvador is a Romanesque-style, Roman Catholic church located in the town of Fuentes, in the council Asturian of Villaviciosa. The church of San Salvador is documented in 1021 as due to the patronate of Diego Perez, consecrated by Bishop Adaganeo I; the church appears to have been built in the 12th-century. The diocese of Villaviciosa is mentioned in 1385 by the bishop of Gutierre de Toledo; the temple is mentioned in 1625 in documents of the Monastery of San Pelayo of Oviedo. In the 18th century it was a parish church; the church was declared an Artistic Historical Monument in 1931. During the Spanish civil war the church was burned, it was reconstructed in its prior form in 1950. A processional crucifix, a bejeweled silver cross, with gilded wood, semiprecious stones and a Roman cameo from the church, one of the pinnacles of goldsmithery in medieval Asturian, were stolen in 1898 and sold to French and American private collectors. In 1917 J. Pierpont Morgan donated it to the Metropolitan Museum in New York, where it now is exhibited.
Translated from Spanish Wikipedia entry, citing Fundacio Cardin
Julio Moizeszowicz is an Argentine psychiatrist. He was born May 1943 in Buenos Aires, Argentina, he is the son of Polish immigrants who moved to Argentina before World War II. Moizeszowicz's research aims to treat mental disorders such as psychosis and depression by rebalancing the relationship between the body and mind through psychotherapy and treatment with psychoactive drugs, he uses drugs to address imbalances of neurotransmitters in the brain, preventing the formation or reinforcement of traumatic memories via neuronal plasticity after psychological trauma. Moizeszowicz was a Resident Physician at the University of Buenos Aires Medical Clinic Research Institute from 1965-1968, he worked with the team. He was involved in the first Balint Society group for psychotherapists in Argentina. In 1968, after completing his residency, he went to Germany to work on clinical drug development, he contributed to Phase I/II studies of a variety of drugs at the Pharmacologic and Medical Department of Hoechst AG, Behringwerke in Germany.
In 1973, he joined the National Neuropsychiatric Hospital José Tiburcio Borda in Buenos Aires. He obtained a specialty certification as a psychiatrist, his thesis was entitled "Current status of the clinical evaluation of psychotropic drugs". In 1983, as the result of an open scientific competition, he was appointed as an Associate Professor in the Mental Health Department at Buenos Aires Medical School; the jury included Mauricio Goldenberg and Dionisio Duarte. He held this position until 1994, teaching the application of evidence-based medicine to the neuro-psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments of patients in the general hospital. From 1983 to 1989, he ran the Seminars in Psychoanalysis at the Psychoanalytic Association of Buenos Aires. Other significant positions include Professor of Psychopathology at the Buenos Aires Psychoanalytic Association. 1985–1986: Professor at Salta Health Sciences School, National University of Salta1997: Visiting Professor at the School of Medicine, National University of Córdoba2001: Visiting Professor at the Galician School of Health Administration, Santiago de Compostela, Spain Argentine Medical AssociationArgentine Psychiatric AssociationArgentine College of Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience American Psychiatric Association New York Academy of Sciences He has served as President of the Psychopharmacology Section of the Argentine Psychiatrist Association and as a Member of the Buenos Aires Psychoanalytic Association.
He was Medical Director at "The Aleph" Day Mental Health Clinic. "Psicofarmacología Psicodinámica IV. Estrategias terapéuticas y psiconeurobiológicas", Editorial Paidós, Buenos Aires, 1998.. "Psicofarmacología y Territorio Freudiano. Teoría y clínica de un abordaje interdisciplinario", en colaboración con Mirta Moizeszowicz, Editorial Paidós, Buenos Aires, 2000.. "Psicofármacos en Geriatría", en colaboración con Myriam Monczor, Editorial McGraw- Hill Interamericana, Buenos Aires, 2001 y 2012.. "Actualizaciones en Psicofarmacología Psicodinámica 2009". Ediciones Roche, Buenos Aires, 2009. "Actualizaciones en Psicofarmacología Psicodinámica 2008". Ediciones Roche, Buenos Aires, 2008.. "Actualizaciones en Psicofarmacología Psicodinámica 2007". Ediciones Roche, Buenos Aires, 2007.. "Actualizaciones en Psicofarmacología Psicodinámica 2006". Ediciones Roche, Buenos Aires, 2006.. "Actualizaciones en Psicofarmacología Psicodinámica 2005". Ediciones Roche, Buenos Aires, 2005.. "Actualizaciones en Psicofarmacología Psicodinámica 2004".
Ediciones Roche, Buenos Aires, 2004.. "Actualizaciones en Psicofarmacolo
Eric Miller is a professional photographer based in South Africa. Miller spent his childhood in Johannesburg. After studying psychology and working in the corporate world for several years, Miller was driven by the injustices of apartheid to use his hobby, photography, to document opposition to apartheid by becoming a full-time photographer. Miller began his work as a freelance photographer with a collective called Afrapix, which used photography to document the realities of apartheid and the resistance to the regime during the 1980s. Miller first got the attention of the international wire services with a photograph of a mineworker and his partner in a room of a mineworkers' hostel; the photo was meaningful as the unions were fighting for family housing for mine workers, rather than single-sex hostels which forced workers to leave their families behind to make a living. Soon after, Miller was hired for his first international lead, taking photographs of the 1987 strike in which over 300,000 mine workers across South Africa walked off the job.
The majority of Miller's work early in his career was the documentation of strikes and funerals which were manifestations of people's opposition to the apartheid regime and contributed to its eventual downfall. For three years from 1988, Miller worked for Reuters. During the early 1990s, as the world witnessed the crumbling of the apartheid government, the subject matter of Miller's work changed from protests and funerals to the negotiations that would lead to a democratic South Africa. Once the transition to a post-apartheid government began, the focus of his and others' photography was on transformation issues such as health and labour. After Nelson Mandela's release from prison in February 1990, Miller gained access to countries across Africa, closed to South African passport holders; the first place Miller travelled to after Mandela's release was South Sudan, to document the famine that occurred there in the 1990s. He has pursued photographic projects in 28 different countries including Botswana, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Namibia, Sierra Leone, Rwanda, Sudan, Uganda and Zimbabwe.
Although Miller spent much time and effort documenting South Africa's first democratic election during April 1994, he was able to travel to Rwanda to document the last 10 days of the genocide there. He documented the conditions of the victims of the atrocity who fled to refugee camps in Tanzania, his work reflects not only the internal chaos and violence caused by the genocide in Rwanda, but the lasting effects for those who were forced to flee, the problems faced by the neighbouring countries to which they fled. Miller's collection of photographs from Rwanda was more used in a project which he presented at the University of Cape Town during a symposium on post-apartheid and post-genocide transitions and violence in South Africa and Rwanda. During Miller's numerous visits to Uganda, he focused on the devastating effects of the war waged by Joseph Kony and the Lord's Resistance Army on every sector of the population, he documented the issue of child soldiers, spent time getting to know young adults who had escaped from the LRA after being forced, as children, to become its soldiers.
Miller is a member of the Panos Pictures photo agency. Miller's photographs have been published in many print publications around the world, he worked for the Associated Press for Reuters for three years. He has completed assignments for The New York Times and Time, Los Angeles Times, Boston Globe, several Washington D. C. area newspapers. Miller has been involved in several photographic exhibitions, his photography was shown in Then and Now, an exhibition which travelled to Cape Town, Johannesburg and Brisbane, is housed at Duke University. The project, curated by fellow South African photographer Paul Weinberg in 2008, presented the work of several Afrapix photographers and contrasted their work under apartheid with work done post-apartheid. Miller contributed to the exhibition "The Nevergiveups." The work chronicles the strength of grandmothers in Khayelitsha township who have been forced by the consequences of the HIV/AIDS pandemic to unexpectedly become primary caregivers responsible for the raising of their grandchildren orphaned by HIV/AIDS.
The exhibition was shown at Katzen Arts Center, American University in Washington D. C. and Old Dominion University in Virginia in late 2013. Miller has worked on assignments for a range of organisations including the United Nations, the World Bank, Amnesty International and the Red Cross, his educational video on HIV/AIDS has been distributed for viewing at high schools around the Western Cape. Miller's story on counteracting stereotypes of Islamic education appeared in The Chronicle of Higher Education. Eric Miller. Thula Baba. Johannesburg: Ravan Press, 1987. ISBN 0869753231. According to the title page: "This story was written after many discussions between groups of adult learners and teachers in literary classes, it is based on the lives of some domestic workers in a city. The photographs were taken by Eric Miller to illustrate the text." Eric Miller. Thula Baba. Vom Leben einiger Hausangestellter in einer südafrikanischen Grossstadt. Erlangen: Verlag der Evangelisch-lutherischen Mission, 1989.
ISBN 3-87214-231-3. A German-language version. Eric Miller. Thula Baba: «Pleure pas mon bébé». Lausanne: Éditions d'en bas, 1990. ISBN 2-8290-0123-0. A French-language version. Görrel Espeluend and Jesper Strudsholm, Eric Mill