Eduardo Matarazzo Suplicy is a Brazilian left-wing politician and professor. He is main political figures on the Workers Party of Brazil. In the municipal elections of São Paulo in 2016 was consecrated as the most voted city councilor in the history of Brazil. Son of coffee grower Paulo Cochrane Suplicy and Filomena Matarazzo, he is an heir of the well-known coffee company Suplicy Cafés, besides belonging to the traditional Italian Brazilian Matarazzo family, his mother is a granddaughter of Francesco Matarazzo, known for having created the largest industrial complex in Latin America in the early 20th century. Suplicy has a degree in business management from the Fundação Getúlio Vargas' School of Business Administration, where he is a professor, a degree in economics from Michigan State University. On 1964, Suplicy married Marta Teresa Smith de Vasconcelos, better known as Marta Suplicy, had three sons with her: João, André, Eduardo, they were one of the most famous couples of Brazilian politics until their divorce in 2001.
Eduardo has a new partner, journalist Monica Dallari. In 1966, he became professor of the Economics Department of the School of Business Administration of the Fundação Getúlio Vargas in São Paulo, where he still works until today. In 1968, he obtained his master's degree at the Michigan State University. In 1973, Suplicy concluded his PhD at Michigan State University with the thesis "The Effects of Mini devaluation in the Brazilian Economy", published in 1975 by the Fundação Getúlio Vargas, he did a post-doctorate at Stanford University. Eduardo Suplicy is the author of "The Effect of Mini devaluations in the Brazilian Economy". On the second of February 2016, he is made doctor honoris causa from the University of Louvain. Suplicy managed to be first elected senator in the history of the Brazilian Labour Party, his political performance is the result of a public life constructed throughout 20 years, when he was elected for his first mandate as State Deputy. He is one of the founders of Workers Party of Brazil and member of the Executive and the National Directory of the Party.
Elected Senator of the Republic for the mandate 1991/99, with 4,229,706 votes, Eduardo Suplicy occupied the position of leader of PT in the Federal Senate for three times. Since 1991, Suplicy acts as a Senator for the state of São Paulo; that year, he became the first member of the Workers' Party to take office as Senator. In the 1998 elections for the Federal Senate, Eduardo Suplicy conquered the biggest poll for this position in the Country and the second greatest of the history of São Paulo, with 6,718,463 votes. One of the most important Bill of Law presented by Suplicy institutes in Brazil the Program of Guaranteed Basic Income. Approved in the Senate in December 1991, it waited for seven years to be voted in the Commission of Finances and Taxation of the House of Representatives. Suplicy presented Bills of Law requiring the knowledgement of the main debtors to the Federal Budget, to the Labour Ministry, to the Social Security and Federal Government Saving Bank. To fulfill his campaign promises, Suplicy tried to present a proposition to reduce the senators’ mandate for four years.
Basic income in Brazil Curriculum Vitae in English
José Serra is a Brazilian politician who has served as a Congressman, Minister of Planning, Minister of Health, Mayor of São Paulo, Governor of São Paulo state, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Brazil. José Serra was born in São Paulo's neighbourhood called Mooca to Francesco Serra, an Italian immigrant from Corigliano Calabro and Serafina Chirico, a Brazilian born to Italian parents. Serra comes from a lower middle class family, his father was semi-illiterate and worked as a fruit vendor in a market of São Paulo, but he was able to enroll his only child in college. In the early 1960s, he was a prominent member of the socio-political movement Ação Popular which opposed the conservative political system that existed at the time. Serra interrupted his studies in engineering at age 22 and left the country in 1964, after the coup that established the military government era in Brazil. Serra had come to the attention of the authorities having served as President of the União Nacional dos Estudantes, which opposed the conservative regime existing while he was a 4th year engineering student at the Polytechnic School at the University of São Paulo.
José Serra was in exile from 1964 to 1978 in Bolivia, France and the United States. In Chile, he taught Economics at the University of Chile. There he married Monica Allende a top ballerina at the National Ballet of Chile, they had two children and Luciano. In the United States José Serra was awarded a Masters and Ph. D. in economics at Cornell University and spent 2 years at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, NJ. On returning to Brazil after the political amnesty in 1978, Serra lectured economics at the University of Campinas, did research for Cebrap, wrote for the newspaper Folha de S. Paulo. In 1982 he was appointed São Paulo's State Secretary for Economics and Planning under Franco Montoro's governorship, became an influential secretary of Montoro's government. In 1986 and 1990 he was elected reelected to Congress. In 1994 he was elected Senator for the State of São Paulo with more than 6.5 million votes. His first bid for the mayorship of the City of São Paulo came in 1988 in an election won for the Worker's Party by Luiza Erundina.
He ran again in 1996, resigning as Minister of Planning to participate in the election for mayor, won by Celso Pitta. Pitta was the designated successor of mayor Paulo Maluf, who headed the right-wing populist Progressive Party. After another stint as minister in the federal government, Serra ran for president on behalf of the PSDB party in 2002, he was beaten by PT founder Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in the second round. In every elections since 1988 Serra represented the Brazilian Social Democracy Party, which he helped found in 1988 alongside former and future São Paulo State governors Franco Montoro and Mario Covas and future Brazilian president Fernando Henrique Cardoso, from a split in the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party. PSDB was seen as a coalition of democrats and social democrats with more centrist outlook than the leftist Workers' Party of presidents Lula da Silva and Dilma Rousseff. Both parties have great support in São Paulo state, but the state has been governed by the PSDB since 1994.
Serra came to political prominence under Fernando Henrique Cardoso's presidency, when he was appointed minister of planning, minister of health. During Serra's tenure in the Health Ministry, the generic drug industry, which gave wider access to medicines to a poor population, ANVISA, the Brazilian food and drug regulatory agency, were both created. All forms of tobacco advertising were banned, cigarette packages were required to display images of smoking-related diseases. Serra was elected mayor of São Paulo in 2004. Serra created a 24-hour cultural festival inspired by the French Nuit Blanche, he established the Bilhete Único system in the São Paulo Metro subway system. Serra sought nomination as the PSDB candidate for president in the 2006 elections, but on March 14, 2006 decided to run instead for governor of the state of São Paulo, he resigned as mayor of São Paulo. Gilberto Kassab, the deputy mayor, took office and remained the mayor until 2012. Serra on January 1, 2007 took office as the Governor of São Paulo State.
Cases of corruption and cartel formation involving José Serra are old, both in Brazil and abroad. Two interlinked controversies: the so-called Alstom case, Collusion between companies in the construction of the São Paulo subway. Serra's campaign was supported by American oil companies such as Exxon Chevron, he secretly promised to sell the rights to Brazil's newest petroleum discoveries in the pre-salt layer to those companies, reversing the model of da Silva. Serra ended state-owned oil company Petrobras' role as the chief operator of the pre-salt oil fields, which have an estimated value of three trillion dollars – twice the size of Brazil's gross domestic product. WikiLeaks released several documents showing that Serra promised protection to Chevron in order to transfer control from Petrobras in case of election victory. Serra was the presidential candidate of the incumbent Brazilian Social Democracy Party party in 2002, an election he lost to Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. In 2004, he was elected mayor of São Paulo in a run-off election with 55% of the votes after he signed a public commitment to stay in office for the full term.
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, popularly known as Lula, is a Brazilian politician, former union leader who served as the 35th President of Brazil from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2010. Lula was a founding member of the Workers' Party and ran unsuccessfully for President three times before achieving victory in the 2002 election, being re-elected in the 2006 election; the introduction of social programs such as Bolsa Família and Fome Zero were hallmarks of his time in office. As President, Lula played a prominent role in international matters including activities related to the nuclear program of Iran and global warming, being described as "a man with audacious ambitions to alter the balance of power among nations". Succeeded by his former Chief of Staff, Dilma Rousseff, he left an enduring mark on Brazilian politics in the form of Lulism. However, during Brazil's Operation Car Wash corruption investigations he was sentenced to 12 years in prison and jailed on 7 April 2018 on charges of money laundering and passive corruption.
He is the fifth President of Brazil who has gone to jail and the first to be arrested for corruption. Lula has been called one of the most popular politicians in the history of Brazil and while in office was one of the most popular in the world, he was featured in Time's 2010 The 100 Most Influential People in the World and Perry Anderson called him "the most successful politician of his time". In October 2011, a smoker for 40 years, was diagnosed with throat cancer and underwent chemotherapy, leading to a successful recovery. In early 2016, Lula was appointed Chief of Staff under Rousseff, but Justice Gilmar Mendes of the Supreme Federal Court blocked the appointment due to ongoing federal investigations. On 12 July 2017, Lula was convicted of money laundering and passive corruption, defined in Brazilian criminal law as the receipt of a bribe by a civil servant or government official. Lula was sentenced to nine years and six months in prison by judge Sérgio Moro, but he remained free pending an appeal of the sentence.
On 24 January 2018, the Regional Federal Court of the 4th Region, a panel of three appellate judges, unanimously upheld Moro's ruling against Lula and increased the sentence to 12 years. On 5 April 2018, the Supreme Federal Court voted to reject Lula's habeas corpus plea and on the same day a warrant was issued for his arrest, he turned himself in and began serving his sentence on 7 April 2018. Lula announced his candidacy for the 2018 presidential election, but he was disqualified from running under Brazil's Clean Slate Law by the Superior Electoral Court on 31 August 2018 and was replaced by Fernando Haddad on 11 September 2018; the United Nations Human Rights Committee requested that the Brazilian government allow Lula to exercise his political rights as a presidential candidate. Prior to being barred, Lula led all scenarios in polls for the October election, achieving 39 percent in voter intentions within one month of the first round. Luiz Inácio da Silva was born on 27 October 1945 in Caetés, located 250 km from Recife, capital of Pernambuco, a state in the Northeast of Brazil.
He was the seventh of eight children of Eurídice Ferreira de Melo. Two weeks after Lula's birth, his father moved to Santos, São Paulo, with Valdomira Ferreira de Góis, a cousin of Eurídice, he was raised Roman Catholic. Lula's mother was of partial Italian descent. In December 1952, when Lula was only 7 years old, his mother decided to move to São Paulo with her children to rejoin her husband. After a journey of thirteen days in a pau-de-arara, they arrived in Guarujá and discovered that Aristides had formed a second family with Valdomira. Aristides' two families lived in the same house for some time, but they did not get along well, four years Eurídice moved with her children to a small room behind a bar in São Paulo. After that Lula saw his father, who became an alcoholic and died in 1978. Lula was married twice. In 1969, he married Maria de Lourdes, who died of hepatitis in 1971, while pregnant with their first son, who died. Lula and Miriam Cordeiro had a daughter, born out of wedlock in 1974.
In 1974, Lula married Marisa Letícia Rocco Casa, a widow with whom he had three sons. He adopted Casa's son from her first marriage, they remained married until her death on 2 February 2017 after a stroke. Lula had little formal education, he did not learn to read until he was ten years old, quit school after the second grade to work and help his family. His first job at age 12 was as street vendor. By 14 he had a formal job in a warehouse, he lost the little finger on his left hand at 19 in an accident, while working as a press operator in an automobile parts factory. After the accident he had to run to several hospitals; this experience increased his interest in participating in the Workers' Union. Around that time, he held several important union posts. Due to perceived incompatibility between the Brazilian military government and trade union activities, Lula's views moved further to the political left. Inspired by his brother Frei Chico, Lula joined the labour movement when he worked at Villares Metals S.
A, rising through the ranks. He was elected in 1975, reelected in 1978, as president of the Steel Workers' Union of São Bernardo do Campo and Diadema. Both cities are located in the ABCD Region, home to most of Brazil's automobile manufacturing facilities, including Ford, Toyota, Mercedes-Benz and others, are among the most industrialized in the country. In the late 1970s, when Brazil was under military rule, Lu
Francisco "Chico" Buarque de Hollanda, popularly known as Chico Buarque is a Brazilian singer-songwriter, composer, playwright and poet. He is best known for his music, which includes social and cultural commentary on Brazil; the firstborn son of Sérgio Buarque de Hollanda, Buarque lived at several locations throughout his childhood, though in Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Rome. He wrote and studied literature as a child and found music through the bossa nova compositions of Tom Jobim and João Gilberto, he performed as a singer and guitarist the 1960s as well as writing a play, deemed dangerous by the Brazilian military dictatorship of the time. Buarque, along with several Tropicalist and MPB musicians, was threatened by the Brazilian military government and left Brazil for Italy in 1969. However, he came back to Brazil in 1970, continued to record and write, though much of his material was suppressed by government censors, he published three novels in the 1990s and 2000s. Buarque came from an intellectually privileged family background—his father Sérgio Buarque de Holanda was a well-known historian and journalist and his mother Maria Amélia Cesário Alvim was a painter and pianist.
He is brother of the singer Miúcha and politician Ana de Hollanda. As a child, he was impressed by the musical style of bossa nova the work of Tom Jobim and João Gilberto, he was interested in writing, composing his first short story at 18 years old and studying European literature at a young age. One of his most consuming interests, was playing football, beginning at age four, which he still does today. Born in Rio de Janeiro, Buarque spent much of his childhood there and in São Italy. Before becoming a musician, Buarque decided at one point to study architecture at the University of São Paulo, but this choice did not lead to a career in that field, he made his public debut as musician and composer in 1964 building his reputation at music festivals and television variety shows when bossa nova came to light and Nara Leão recorded three of his songs. His eponymous debut album exemplified his future work, with catchy sambas characterized by inventive wordplay and an undercurrent of nostalgic tragedy.
Buarque had his first hit with "A Banda" in 1966, written about a marching band, soon released several more singles. Although playing bossa nova, during his career, samba and Música popular brasileira would be explored. Despite that, Buarque was criticized by two of the leading musicians at the time, Caetano Veloso and Gilberto Gil as they believed his musical style was overly conservative. However, an existentially themed play that Buarque wrote and composed in 1968, Roda Viva, was frowned upon by the military government and Buarque served a short prison sentence because of it, he left Brazil for Italy for 18 months in 1970, returning to write his first novel in 1972, not targeted by censors. At this time his thinly veiled protest single "Apesar de Você" was produced. Was overlooked by the military censors. After selling over 100,000 copies, the single was censored and removed from the market. At one point in 1974, the censors banned any song authored by Chico Buarque, he created a pseudonym, naming himself "Julinho da Adelaide", complete with life history and interviews to newspapers.
"Julinho da Adelaide" authored songs such as "Jorge Maravilha" and "Acorda amor" before he was outed in Jornal do Brasil news story. Buarque wrote a play named Calabar, about the Dutch invasion of Brazil in the seventeenth century, drawing parallels with the military regime. Despite the censorship, songs such as "Samba de Orly", "Acorda amor" manifested Buarque's continuing opposition to the military regime. During the 1970s and 1980s, he collaborated with filmmakers and musicians in further protest works against the dictatorship. Buarque approached the 1983 Concert for Peace in Nicaragua as a valid forum to vocalize his strong political views. Throughout the decade, he crafted many of his songs as vehicles to describe the re-democratization of Brazil; the Concert for Peace in Nicaragua was one in a concert series known as the "Central American Peace Concerts." These concerts featured various Latin American artists. The political turmoil that plagued this era were expressed in many of Buarque's songs.
He wrote Budapeste, a novel that achieved critical national acclaim and won the Prêmio Jabuti, a Brazilian literary award comparable to the Man Booker Prize. His 2017 album Caravanas was elected the 3rd best Brazilian album of that year by the Brazilian edition of Rolling Stone. Following the Brazilian military coup of 1964, Buarque avoided censorship by using cryptic analogies and wordplay. For example, in the song "Cálice", a duet written in 1973 with Gilberto Gil and released with Milton Nascimento in 1978, he takes advantage of the homophony between the Portuguese imperative cale-se and cálice to protest government censorship, disguised as the Gospel narrative of Jesus' Gethsemani prayer to God to relieve Him of the cup of suffering; the line "Quero cheirar fumaça de óleo diesel" is a reference to the death of political prisoner Stuart Angel, who had his mouth glued to a jeep's exhaust pipe during a torture session. Buarque was close to Zuzu Angel. 2010 São Paulo Prize for Literature — Short
Estádio Municipal Paulo Machado de Carvalho, colloquially known as Estádio do Pacaembu is a football and rugby union stadium in São Paulo, located in the Pacaembu neighborhood. The stadium is owned by the Municipal Prefecture of São Paulo; the stadium was inaugurated on 27 April 1940, in the presence of the Brazilian President Getúlio Vargas, the intervener Adhemar de Barros and the mayor of São Paulo, Prestes Maia. The stadium holds its pitch dimensions are 104 m of length by 70 m of width; the stadium is named after Paulo Machado de Carvalho. He was the 1958 FIFA World Cup Brazilian delegation chief, the founder of Rede Record, one of the largest television networks in Brazil and was known as "Marechal da Vitória". Pacaembu is used to host home matches of the Big 4 football clubs of the State of São Paulo, of which Corinthians, Palmeiras and São Paulo are based in the capital city itself, only Santos is based in a different city; this occurs when the clubs must cede their own stadiums for concerts, or when reforms are being made.
In the case of Santos, Pacaembu is used when the club requires a site with a higher seating capacity for a particular match, given the low capacity of their own stadium. The first match played at Pacaembu Stadium took place on 27 April 1940, when Palestra Italia and Coritiba. Palestra Italia beat Coritiba 6–2; the first goal of the stadium was scored by Coritiba's Zequinha. After this match, another match was played, where Corinthians beat Atlético Mineiro 4–2. Both matches were from Taça Cidade de São Paulo's cup. On 4 May 1940, the Taça Cidade de São Paulo Final was played. Palestra Italia beat Corinthians 2 -- 1; the stadium's attendance record stands at 71,281 people, set on 24 May 1942 when Corinthians and São Paulo drew 3–3. On 20 September 1942, Palmeiras played its first match after changing its name. Palmeiras beat São Paulo 3 -- 1. In 1945, the stadium's largest score was set, when São Paulo beat Jabaquara 12–1. In 2005, the stadium served as the first pit-stop of The Amazing Race 9. On 11 May 2007, the pope Benedict XVI met with the youth of Brazil as a part of his Apostolic Journey to Brazil on the occasion of the Fifth General Conference of the Bishops of Latin America and the Caribbean.
Throughout its history, Corinthians played most of their home matches at Pacaembu until the opening of Arena Corinthians in 2014, given that their original stadium couldn't receive official football matches by the lack of necessary requirements. Between July 2010 and November 2014, the stadium was the temporary home ground of Palmeiras while the Estádio Palestra Itália was demolished and replaced by the Allianz Parque. Several 1950 FIFA World Cup matches were played at Estádio do Pacaembu, which were: Paul McCartney performed in front of 45,000 fans in 1993, during his New World Tour. On January 27, 28 and 30, 1995, the Rolling Stones performed three sold-out concerts at Pacaembu, to a total audience of 170,000 people; the Red Hot Chili Peppers performed at the stadium in 2002 on their By The Way Tour. Avril Lavigne's 2005 Bonez Tour made a stop here, in front of 40,000 fans. Eric Clapton performed in front of 60,000 fans during his Reptile World Tour. Brazilian singer Roberto Carlos performed at the stadium in a 2001 concert.
Heavy metal band Iron Maiden has made two stops at the venue: in 1996 and 2004. On 29 September 2008, the Museu do, it was created to tell the history of Brazilian football. The museum covers 6,900 square metres, it was built at a cost of R$32.5 millions, is located below the stadium's bleachers. The 680 workers hired to build the museum completed the construction in 13 months. Enciclopédia do Futebol Brasileiro, Volume 2 - Lance, Rio de Janeiro: Aretê Editorial S/A, 2001. Santos FC Pacaembu Templos do Futebol Inauguration
Goiânia is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Goiás. With a population of 1,466,105, it is the second-largest city in the Central-Western Region and the 11th-largest in the country, its metropolitan area has a population of 2,527,092, making it the 11th-largest in Brazil. With an area of 739 square kilometres, it has a continuous geography with few hills and lowlands, with flat lands in most of its territory the Meia Ponte River, in addition to Botafogo and Capim Puba streams. Goiânia has its origins as a planned city, founded on October 24, 1933 by Governor Pedro Ludovico to serve as the new state capital and administrative center. Before this, the state capital was the town of Goiás, it is the second most populous city in Brazil's Midwest, only surpassed by the country's capital Brasília. It is an important economic hub of the region and is considered a strategic center for such areas as industry, medicine and agriculture. Goiânia has been described as having the largest green area per inhabitant in Brazil and the second-most in the world, after Edmonton, Canada.
With rapid population growth and urban expansion, satellite imagery shows the majority of the green area is now at the periphery of its sprawling city limits, the per-capita green area claim may need to be reviewed. The idea of creating a new state capital had been bounced around from early on in the state of Goiás; the first plan came from D. Marcos de Noronha who in 1753 wanted to establish the state capital in the municipality of Pirenópolis; the impetus behind the efforts to move the state capital was the need to locate it in accordance with the economic interests of the state. The first state capital, Vila Boa, had been chosen; when cattle-raising and agriculture came to dominate the state's development, the old capital was considered remote. Legislators kept the idea of change alive for a long time. In 1891, the constitutional delegates made the idea of the transfer of the capital official, including it in the constitution, ratifying it in 1898 and 1918. Vaguely remembered until 1930, the idea became a reality during the government of Pedro Ludovico, the new governor appointed for the state of Goiás after the military revolt of 1930.
In 1932, a commission was created to choose. In 1933 the commission decided on the present location and the foundation stone was laid; the plan was for a city of 50,000 with the shape of a concentric radius — streets in the form of a spoke, with the Praça Cívica as the center, with the seats of the state and municipal government — the Palace of Emeralds and the Palace of Campinas. In 1937, a decree was signed transferring the state capital from the Cidade de Goiás to Goiânia; the official inauguration occurred in 1942 with the presence of the president of the republic and ministers. The name, Goiânia, came about in 1933. Readers from all over the state contributed, with some of the most popular names being Petrônia, Petrolândia, Goianópolis, Goiânia, Bartolomeu Bueno, Eldorado, Liberdade, Goianésia, Pátria Nova, among others. In 1935 Pedro Ludovico used the name Goiânia for the first time, signing a decree creating the municipality; the first buildings in this planned city, designed by Atílio Correia Lima, were inspired by art deco.
The collection of buildings is still representative, with 22 of them listed as National Heritage. Built in the 1940s and 1950s, they have been recognized by the National Institute of Historical and Artistic Heritage; the 22 buildings and monuments are in the original center of Goiânia, as in the pioneering nucleus of Campinas, a town existing before Goiânia. Due to lack of maintenance, several of these buildings are in a state of disrepair. On September 13, 1987, an old medical radiation source was scavenged from an abandoned hospital in Goiânia, causing four deaths and many non-fatal cases of radiation poisoning. Several city blocks had to be demolished due to the contamination; the International Atomic Energy Agency report noted that city and state officials acted with remarkable speed to prevent injury to the population. The city has a tropical wet and dry climate with an average temperature of 23.2 °C. It has a wet season, from October to April, a dry one, from May to September. Annual rainfall is around 1,300 mm.
The lowest temperature recorded was 0.5 °C on July 18, 2000, in the suburbs. 1.2 °C was the lowest recorded downtown, on July 9, 1938. However, such lows are rare. Temperatures may fall below 12 °C every winter in the suburbs; the highest temperature recorded was 40.4 °C on October 19, 2015. The "cerrado" landscape is characterized by extensive savanna formations crossed by gallery forests and stream valleys. Cerrado includes various types of vegetation. Humid fields and "buriti" palm paths are found. Alpine pastures occur at mesophytic forests on more fertile soils. More than 1600 species of mammals and reptiles have been identified in the cerrado, including 180 reptile species, 113 amphibians, 837 birds and 195 mammals. Among the invertebrates, the most notable are the leaf-cutter ants, they are the main herbivores of the cerrado, important to consuming and decomposing of organic matter, as well as constituting an important food source to many other animal species. While Go
São Paulo is a municipality in the Southeast Region of Brazil. The metropolis is an alpha global city and the most populous city in Brazil, the Western Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, besides being the largest Portuguese-speaking city in the world; the municipality is the Earth's 11th largest city proper by population. The city is the capital of the surrounding state of São Paulo, the most populous and wealthiest state in Brazil, it exerts strong international influences in commerce, finance and entertainment. The name of the city honors Saint Paul of Tarsus; the city's metropolitan area, the Greater São Paulo, ranks as the most populous in Brazil and the 12th most populous on Earth. The process of conurbation between the metropolitan areas located around the Greater São Paulo created the São Paulo Macrometropolis, a megalopolis with more than 30 million inhabitants, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. Having the largest economy by GDP in Latin America and the Southern Hemisphere, the city is home to the São Paulo Stock Exchange.
Paulista Avenue is the economic core of São Paulo. The city has the 11th largest GDP in the world, representing alone 10.7% of all Brazilian GDP and 36% of the production of goods and services in the state of São Paulo, being home to 63% of established multinationals in Brazil, has been responsible for 28% of the national scientific production in 2005. With a GDP of US$477 billion, the São Paulo city alone would have ranked 26th globally compared with countries by 2017 estimates; the metropolis is home to several of the tallest skyscrapers in Brazil, including the Mirante do Vale, Edifício Itália, North Tower and many others. The city has cultural and political influence both nationally and internationally, it is home to monuments and museums such as the Latin American Memorial, the Ibirapuera Park, Museum of Ipiranga, São Paulo Museum of Art, the Museum of the Portuguese Language. The city holds events like the São Paulo Jazz Festival, São Paulo Art Biennial, the Brazilian Grand Prix, São Paulo Fashion Week, the ATP Brasil Open, the Brasil Game Show and the Comic Con Experience.
The São Paulo Gay Pride Parade rivals the New York City Pride March as the largest gay pride parade in the world. São Paulo is a cosmopolitan, melting pot city, home to the largest Arab and Japanese diasporas, with examples including ethnic neighborhoods of Mercado and Liberdade respectively. São Paulo is home to the largest Jewish population in Brazil, with about 75,000 Jews. In 2016, inhabitants of the city were native to over 200 different countries. People from the city are known as paulistanos, while paulistas designates anyone from the state, including the paulistanos; the city's Latin motto, which it has shared with the battleship and the aircraft carrier named after it, is Non ducor, which translates as "I am not led, I lead." The city, colloquially known as Sampa or Terra da Garoa, is known for its unreliable weather, the size of its helicopter fleet, its architecture, severe traffic congestion and skyscrapers. São Paulo was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Additionally, the city hosted the IV Pan American Games and the São Paulo Indy 300.
The region of modern-day São Paulo known as Piratininga plains around the Tietê River, was inhabited by the Tupi people, such as the Tupiniquim and Guarani. Other tribes lived in areas that today form the metropolitan region; the region was divided in Caciquedoms at the time of encounter with the Europeans. The most notable Cacique was Tibiriça, known for his support for the Portuguese and other European colonists. Among the many indigenous names that survive today are Tietê, Tamanduateí, Anhangabaú, Diadema, Itapevi, Embu-Guaçu etc... The Portuguese village of São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga was marked by the founding of the Colégio de São Paulo de Piratininga on January 25, 1554; the Jesuit college of twelve priests included Spanish priest José de Anchieta. They built a mission on top of a steep hill between the Tamanduateí rivers, they first had a small structure built of rammed earth, made by American Indian workers in their traditional style. The priests wanted to evangelize – teach the Indians who lived in the Plateau region of Piratininga and convert them to Christianity.
The site was separated from the coast by the Serra do Mar, called by the Indians Serra Paranapiacaba. The college was named for a Christian saint and its founding on the feast day of the celebration of the conversion of the Apostle Paul of Tarsus. Father José de Anchieta wrote this account in a letter to the Society of Jesus: The settlement of the region's Courtyard of the College began in 1560. During the visit of Mem de Sá, Governor-General of Brazil, the Captaincy of São Vicente, he ordered the transfer of the population of the Village of Santo André da Borda do Campo to the vicinity of the college, it was named "College of St. Paul Piratininga"; the new location was on a steep hill adjacent to a large wetland, the lowland do Carmo. It offered better protection from attacks by local Indian groups, it was renamed belonging to the Captaincy of São Vicente. For the next two centuries, São Paulo developed as a poor and isolated village that survived through the cultivation of subsistence crops by the labor of natives.
For a long time, São Paulo was the only village in Brazil's interior, as travel was too difficult for many to reach the area. Mem de Sá forbade colonists to use the "Path Pir