In hydrology, discharge is the volumetric flow rate of water, transported through a given cross-sectional area. It includes any suspended solids, dissolved chemicals, or biologic material in addition to the water itself. Synonyms vary by discipline. For example, a fluvial hydrologist studying natural river systems may define discharge as streamflow, whereas an engineer operating a reservoir system might define discharge as outflow, contrasted with inflow. GH Dury and MJ Bradshaw are two hydrologists who devised the models showing the relationship between discharge and other variables in a river; the Bradshaw model described. The units that are used to express discharge include m³/s, ft³/s and/or acre-feet per day. For example, the average discharge of the Rhine river in Europe is 2,200 cubic metres per second or 190,000,000 cubic metres per day. A applied methodology for measuring, estimating, the discharge of a river is based on a simplified form of the continuity equation; the equation implies that for any incompressible fluid, such as liquid water, the discharge is equal to the product of the stream's cross-sectional area and its mean velocity, is written as: Q = A u ¯ where Q is the discharge A is the cross-sectional area of the portion of the channel occupied by the flow u ¯ is the average flow velocity The catchment of a river above a certain location is determined by the surface area of all land which drains toward the river from above that point.
The river's discharge at that location depends on the rainfall on the catchment or drainage area and the inflow or outflow of groundwater to or from the area, stream modifications such as dams and irrigation diversions, as well as evaporation and evapotranspiration from the area's land and plant surfaces. In storm hydrology, an important consideration is the stream's discharge hydrograph, a record of how the discharge varies over time after a precipitation event; the stream rises to a peak flow after each precipitation event falls in a slow recession. Because the peak flow corresponds to the maximum water level reached during the event, it is of interest in flood studies. Analysis of the relationship between precipitation intensity and duration and the response of the stream discharge are aided by the concept of the unit hydrograph, which represents the response of stream discharge over time to the application of a hypothetical "unit" amount and duration of rainfall; the amount of precipitation correlates to the volume of water that subsequently flows out of the river.
Using the unit hydrograph method, actual historical rainfalls can be modeled mathematically to confirm characteristics of historical floods, hypothetical "design storms" can be created for comparison to observed stream responses. The relationship between the discharge in the stream at a given cross-section and the level of the stream is described by a rating curve. Average velocities and the cross-sectional area of the stream are measured for a given stream level; the velocity and the area give the discharge for that level. After measurements are made for several different levels, a rating table or rating curve may be developed. Once rated, the discharge in the stream may be determined by measuring the level, determining the corresponding discharge from the rating curve. If a continuous level-recording device is located at a rated cross-section, the stream's discharge may be continuously determined. Larger flows can transport more sediment and larger particles downstream than smaller flows due to their greater force.
Larger flows can erode stream banks and damage public infrastructure. List of rivers by discharge Groundwater discharge Submarine groundwater discharge Stream gauge "Chapter 14: Stage-Discharge Relationships". USDA NRCS National Engineering Handbook. Part 630: Hydrology. USDA. April 2012. USDA NRCS National Engineering Handbook. Part 630: Hydrology. USDA. May 2012
Brett Nolan Schultz is a former South African cricketer who played in nine Test matches and one One Day International between 1992 and 1997. During the course of his career, he played for Eastern Province, Western Province and Gauteng. Schultz’s fast-paced left-handed bowling caused major problems for both right- and left-handed batsmen, evidenced by the 20 wickets which fell in the three-Test series against Sri Lanka in 1993-94, his debut tour. Described in 2013 by the Indian Express as "one of the most intimidating opponents in world cricket", Schultz made his mark on the world stage despite his career being plagued by injury. While he only lasted nine Tests, the "Bear", as he was aptly named for his menacing demeanour on field, added excitement and character to the cricket pitch and an air of tension for batsmen and fans alike whenever he thundered towards the bowling crease. Following his cricketing career, after a stint as owner of All Bar None on Bree Street, Cape Town, Schultz turned to business.
He is now a Director at short-term insurance specialists, Econorisk Broker Consultants, an independent South African-based risk management and short-term insurance business. Shultz is ambassador for the Sasfin Bank Cape Town Cricket Sixes, alongside Allan Donald, JP Duminy and Meyrick Pringle; the event, the biggest sixes tournament in Africa, takes place at The Western Province Cricket Club and aims to raise money for underprivileged children. Schultz now resides in Cape Town with his wife daughter Skye. Schultz is involved in supporting a number of charitable organisations, including TEARS Animal Rescue, SOS Children's Villages SA and Acres of Love, he supports the Breatheasy Programme at the Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital, a programme for parents of children reliant on tracheostomy or artificial ventilation for breathing. In November 2016, a fundraiser, initiated by Brett and sponsored by Econorisk, raised over R100,000 for the Breatheasy Tracheostomy and Ventilation Homecare Programme and the Red Cross.
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Ichthyotherapy is the use of fish such as Garra rufa for cleaning skin wounds or treating other skin conditions. The name ichthyotherapy comes from the Greek name for fish – ichthys; the history of such treatment in traditional medicine is sparsely documented. In a museum near the River Kwai, recording the privations of prison camps, a sketch drawn by a prisoner showed him up to his waist in water, but with small fish attending to his leg ulcers. There is widespread use of such fish in India in rural areas; the most known form of ichthyotherapy is used in the treatment of skin conditions and involves the Garra rufa known as doctor fish or nibble fish. This fish occurs in the Euphrates; the benefits were first observed in Turkey. Many suffering from psoriasis and dermatitis have benefited from the treatment, which involves lying in the ponds and letting the fish eat the scales and loose skin on the affected areas. In fact such is the popularity of the treatment for skin conditions that Kangal became a health resort.
Cleaning station Maggot therapy - Use of maggots to selectively remove dying tissue Medical leech Pilot Study – "Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine", December 2006. Results of the Ichthyotherapy – Study VII An International Conference on Biotherapy