Wind-up Entertainment is an American independent record label founded by Alan and Diana Meltzer in 1997. It is distributed by Universal Music Group. Wind-up's best-selling artists worldwide were Creed. Wind-up Records was formed in 1997 by Alan Meltzer, former owner of CD One Stop, his wife Diana Meltzer, following their 1996 purchase of Grass Records. Wind-up at one point was the largest independently owned record label in the world; the parent company Wind-up Entertainment runs numerous publishing companies as well as a full-scale retail and tour merchandising company. The company's slogan is "Developing Career Artists"; some of the successful acts on the label included Creed, Evanescence and Finger Eleven. The label has re-released albums from bands associated with Grass Records, such as Toadies, The Wrens and Commander Venus; the label's current roster includes Civil Twilight, Jillette Johnson, The Griswolds, The Virginmarys, Young Guns, Strange Talk, The Revivalists, Five For Fighting, Filter, SPEAK, Genevieve and Aranda.
In September 2009, the label reached an agreement with EMI Music Germany and in February 2011 with EMI Music Canada. The partnership has seen EMI Music take over the marketing and distribution of artists such as Creed, Evanescence and Finger Eleven throughout the world outside of the US. In Canada, distribution was with Sony Music Canada as was the distribution in the United States. However, in October 2004, distribution in Canada switched over to Warner Music Canada with the creation of Wind-up Entertainment Canada. Distribution in Canada moved again, for a third time in February 2011, this time to EMI Music Canada. On October 31, 2011, the label's founder, Alan Meltzer, died at the age of 67. In 2012, Universal Music Group acquired the EMI music operations, making the distribution in Canada distributed by Universal Music Group. In October 2013, the Bicycle Music Company bought the rights to much of Wind-Up's back catalogue, including the contracts to acts such as Seether; these artists will be distributed by Concord Music Group, which merged with Bicycle.
In May 2015, Concord bought the rest of the Wind-Up label. In 2016, Concord retired Wind-Up as a frontline label, transferred most of Wind-Up's artists to other labels. Accurate according to Wind-up's website as of October 9, 2016. Allday Aranda Civil Twilight Citizen Zero Crobot Eclypse Records Feenixpawl Filter Five for Fighting Genevieve Jillette Johnson The Revivalists - transferred to Razor & Tie SPEAK Spirit Animal Ryan Star Strange Talk The Griswolds Young Guns The Virginmarys 12 Stones Alter Bridge American Pearl Atomship Baboon Bayside Ben Moody Big Dismal Bob Guiney Boy Hits Car Boysetsfire Brainiac Breaking Point Bridget Cartel Cauterize CFO$ Company of Thieves The Crash Motive Creed The Darkness The Drowners Drowning Pool Dust for Life Edgewater Emily Osment Evanescence The Exit Finger Eleven Godplow Hawthorne Heights It's Alive James Durbin Jeremy Fisher Julia Darling Loomis Megan McCauley Midnight Cinema Must New Radiant Storm King O. A. R. Papercut Massacre People in Planes Pilot Speed Pollen Push Play The Queen Killing Kings Scott Stapp Seether Seven Wiser Slowpoke Stars of Track and Field Stefy Stereo Fuse Strata Stretch Princess Submersed Tickle Me Pink Thriving Ivory Trickside The Wrens 1080° Avalanche Daredevil: The Album Elektra: The Album Fantastic 4: The Album John Tucker Must Die The Punisher: The Album Scream 3: The Album Walk the Line: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack List of record labels Official site Interview with Diana Meltzer, HitQuarters, July 2003
In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
Shaun Morgan Welgemoed, known publicly as Shaun Morgan, is a South African musician, singer and guitarist for the South African rock band Seether. Morgan spent all of his early life in Zimbabwe, his parents divorced. Morgan is one of three children, he was a student at Merchiston Preparatory School and Maritzburg College in Pietermaritzburg, where he became a prolific front-row rugby player for his age-group's top teams in his first three years of high school. In his third year of playing rugby, Morgan injured his back and was unable to play anymore, which led to him following his passion of playing guitar. At the age of 14, he discovered the Seattle grunge movement after listening to Nirvana’s Nevermind album, which inspired him to become a musician. Prior to forming their band, Saron Gas, Morgan was a member of a tribute band, tributing songs of bands such as Creed and Tom Petty. In May 1999, Morgan became the rhythm back-up vocalist of a new band, Saron Gas. There were four other members to the band.
However, when the singer and guitarist did not turn up to the first practice, the band decided to stay as a three-piece, with Welgemoed on lead vocals and guitar. Saron Gas enjoyed moderate success before the bass player decided to quit in January 2000, causing Welgemoed to get in touch with the only other good bass player he knew, Dale Stewart; the band released an album that year, entitled Fragile. In January 2002, the band relocated to the United States to sign with Wind-up Records. During this time the band’s original drummer left to return home to South Africa, whilst the two remaining members were left to think of a new band name, at the request of Wind-up, they settled on Seether, after the Veruca Salt song of the same name. Around this time, Morgan decided to use his middle name as his last name professionally while performing for Seether because some Americans have a hard time pronouncing "Welgemoed". Seether went on to release their debut major-label album, Disclaimer, on 20 August 2002.
Since Seether has released four more studio albums. In addition, they released the compilation album Disclaimer II in 2004, the live CD/DVD One Cold Night in 2006. In 2009, the band released three new songs. In 2013, Morgan collaborated with Hall of Fame Band Lynyrd Skynyrd and guitarist John 5 on "Sad Song", a song that appeared in the Deluxe version of Lynyrd Skynyrd's album Last of a Dyin' Breed. In May 2017, the band released Poison the Parish, produced by Shaun Morgan. Bands that have influenced Morgan include Nirvana, Silverchair, The Beatles, Stone Temple Pilots, Nine Inch Nails, Mad Season, Rage Against the Machine, Black Sabbath, Soundgarden, Led Zeppelin, Alice in Chains, Pearl Jam, Deftones. Shaun Morgan uses Schecter guitars, he was offered an endorsement and a signature model with PRS, but declined. He uses Mesa/Boogie amplifiers the Triple Rectifier. From 2004 to 2005, Morgan dated Evanescence singer Amy Lee. Morgan checked into rehab in July 2006. Lee wrote; when Finding Beauty in Negative Spaces was released on 23 October 2007, its third single, "Breakdown", was rumored to be about Amy Lee, however Morgan confirmed it wasn't.
In August 2007, Morgan's brother, Eugene Welgemoed killed himself, just a few weeks before Finding Beauty in Negative Spaces was released, as the album was finished there was no delay, but the opus was dedicated to Eugene and featured a memorial. Eugene jumped to his death shortly after midnight on Monday, 13 August 2007 from an eighth-floor window of the Radisson Hotel in Rapid City, South Dakota. According to police, no foul play was suspected in the death, the death was ruled a suicide after an investigation. Morgan has 1308 tattooed on his four right fingers, 2007 tattooed on his four left fingers which marks the day Eugene died. Seether's song, "Rise Above This" is a tribute to Eugene. Morgan was awarded The National Council's 2016 Artistic Expression Impact Award of Excellence. Morgan is engaged to Jordan Kirby, they share a 1-year old daughter named Lily. The family lives in Tennessee. Studio albums As Saron Gas Fragile As Seether Disclaimer Disclaimer II Karma and Effect Finding Beauty in Negative Spaces Holding Onto Strings Better Left to Fray Isolate and Medicate Poison the Parish Live albums One Cold Night Digital albums iTunes Originals – Seether Rhapsody Originals – Seether Art of Dying featuring Shaun Morgan – Die Trying HURT featuring Shaun Morgan – "World Ain't Right" on the album Goodbye to the Machine Acoustic cover of Alice In Chains "Nutshell".
Duet with Brent Smith, lead singer of Shinedown. The song is featured on The 97X Green Room: Volume 2, a radio station based in Tampa, FL
Alternative metal is a rock music fusion genre that infuses heavy metal with influences from alternative rock and other genres not associated with metal. Alternative metal bands are characterized by downtuned, mid-paced guitar riffs, a mixture of accessible melodic vocals and harsh vocals and sometimes unconventional sounds within other heavy metal styles; the term has been in use since the 1980s. Other genres considered part of the alternative metal movement included rap metal and funk metal, both of which influenced another prominent subgenre, nu metal. Nu metal expands the alternative metal sound, combining its vocal stylings and downtuned riffs with elements of other genres, such as hip hop, thrash metal, hardcore punk and industrial metal; the genre is considered a fusion between alternative rock and heavy metal, although Allmusic states "alt-metal is a far-reaching term, used to describe everyone from Hammerlock to Neurosis to Ministry to Limp Bizkit". They remarked that alternative metal was "a style united by its nonconformist sensibility rather than any classifiable sound."One of the main characteristics of alternative metal and its subgenres are downtuned, mid-paced "chug"-like guitar riffs.
However, funk metal bands use a more conventional riffing style influenced by 1980s thrash metal. Alternative metal features clean and melodic vocals, influenced by those of alternative rock, in contrast to other heavy metal subgenres. Bands incorporated vocal styles that alternated between clean singing and screaming. Examples include alternative metal bands associated with the nu metal movement, such as Korn and Deftones, who have been described as having "bipolar vocals". Jonathan Gold of the Los Angeles Times wrote in 1990 "Just as rock has an alternative, wing-bands like the Replacements and Dinosaur Jr.-so does metal. Alternative metal is alternative music that rocks, and alternative metal these days can reach 10 times the audience of other alternative rock. Jane's Addiction plays an intense brand of'70s-influenced arty metal. In fact, the arty meanderings of Sab and the Zep themselves would be considered alternative metal." Houston Press has described the genre as being a "compromise for people for whom Nirvana was not heavy enough but Metallica was too heavy."The first wave of alternative metal bands emerged from many backgrounds, including hardcore punk, noise rock, Seattle's grunge scene, stoner rock, sludge metal, gothic metal and industrial.
These bands never formed a distinct scene. Jane's Addiction borrowed from art rock and progressive rock, Quicksand blended post-hardcore and Living Colour injected funk into their sound, for example, while Primus were influenced by progressive rock, thrash metal and funk and Faith No More mixed progressive rock, R&B, funk and hip hop. Fudge Tunnel's style of alternative metal included influences from both sludge noise rock; the origins of the genre can be traced back to funk rock music of the early to mid-1980s, when alternative bands like Fishbone, Faith No More and the Red Hot Chili Peppers started mixing heavy metal with funk, creating the alternative metal subgenre funk metal. Other early bands in the genre came from hardcore punk backgrounds. Bands such as Faith No More, Jane's Addiction and Soundgarden are recognized as some of the earliest alternative metal acts, with all three of these bands emerging around the same time, setting the template for the genre by mixing heavy metal music with a variety of different genres in the mid to late 1980s.
During the 1980s, alternative metal appealed to alternative rock fans, since all 1980s alt-metal bands had their roots in the American independent rock scene. The emergence of grunge as a popular style of rock music in the early 1990s helped make alternative metal more acceptable to a mainstream audience, with alternative metal soon becoming the most popular metal style of the 1990s. Several bands associated with the genre denied their status as metal bands. Helmet drummer John Stanier said "We fell into the whole metal thing by accident, we always hated it when people mentioned metal in conjunction with us." Saby Reyes-Kulkarni of Pitchfork Media stated "bands like Faith No More, Primus, the Rollins Band, dozens more were marketed as quasi-metal acts. This was only possible in a climate where record labels and college radio DJs understood that the metal audience could embrace new, albeit arty variations on the form." The alternative music festival Lollapalooza conceived by Jane's Addiction singer Perry Farrell, helped bands associated with the movement such as Tool, Rage Against the Machine, Nine Inch Nails and Alice in Chains gain exposure.
The progressive rock-influenced band Tool became a leading band in the alternative metal genre with the release of their 1993 debut album Undertow. Spin stated in August 1998 that "It was Helmet that spawned the idea of alternative metal with the punk crutch of 1992's Meantime bands such as Rage Against the Machine took the concept a crucial step further, integrating hip hop to connect with skate
Bad Blood (2004)
Bad Blood was a professional wrestling pay-per-view event produced by World Wrestling Entertainment. It took place on June 2004, at the Nationwide Arena in Columbus, Ohio, it was the final annual Bad Blood event. The main event was a Hell in a Cell match, in which Triple H defeated Shawn Michaels in a ring surrounded by a steel structure of metal. Two bouts were featured on the undercard. In respective singles matches, World Heavyweight Champion Chris Benoit defeated Kane to retain his title and WWE Intercontinental Champion Randy Orton defeated Shelton Benjamin to retain his title; the event marked the third time. Bad Blood grossed over $494,000 ticket sales from an attendance of 9,000 and received 264,000 pay-per-view buys, was instrumental in helping WWE increase its pay-per-view revenue by $4.7 million compared to the previous year. When the event was released on DVD, it reached a peak position of third on Billboard's DVD Sales Chart. Seven professional wrestling matches were scheduled on the event's card beforehand, which were planned with predetermined outcomes by WWE's script writers.
The buildup to these matches and scenarios that took place before and after the event were planned by the script writers. The event featured wrestlers and other talent from Raw's brand – a storyline expansion in which WWE assigned its employees. Wrestlers portrayed either a villainous or fan favorite gimmick, as they followed a series of events which built tension, leading to a wrestling match; the main event scripted into Bad Blood was fought in a Hell in a Cell match between Triple H and Shawn Michaels, a match where the ring is surrounded by a structure of metal. The buildup to the match began after Backlash, WWE's previous pay-per-view event, where the main event was a rematch of the main event of WrestleMania XX where Michaels and Triple H took on Chris Benoit in a Triple Threat Match for the World Heavyweight Championship, which saw Benoit retain by forcing Michaels to submit. On the May 3 episode of Raw, one of WWE's primary television programs, General Manager Eric Bischoff signed a title defense between Benoit and Michaels.
The title match saw Benoit retain the title after interference by Triple H. On the May 10 episode of Raw, at the start of the program, a singles match between Triple H and Shelton Benjamin resulted in a no contest after Michaels attacked Triple H; the following week on Raw, a number one contender's battle royal was contested, with the winner facing Benoit for the World Heavyweight title at Bad Blood. During the match, Michaels interfered and eliminated Triple H. On the May 24 episode of Raw, Bischoff scheduled Michaels and Triple H in a Hell in a Cell match at Bad Blood. One of the featured matches was contested for the World Heavyweight Championship pitting Benoit against the winner of the aforementioned battle royal, which turned out to be Kane; the following week, Kane held a promotional interview, in which he revealed that he envied Benoit for having the World Heavyweight Championship and concluded that he would win the championship. On the May 31 episode of Raw, Kane was scheduled in a match against Eugene.
The match ended in a disqualification. After the match ended, Kane began to assault him. Benoit, came down to the ring to Eugene's aid; the following week and Edge faced off against La Résistance and Kane in a handicap tag team match. The match saw Kane pin Benoit for the win; the other featured preliminary match was Randy Orton versus Shelton Benjamin in a singles match for Orton's Intercontinental Championship. On the May 17 episode of Raw, Randy Orton, a villain, was giving a speech. Shelton Benjamin interrupted Orton's speech and challenged Orton to an Intercontinental Championship match; the challenge, was denied by Orton, in which prompted Benjamin to attack Orton. The following week, an all-out brawl ensued between Chris Jericho; the brawl brought out Batista, to Orton's aid. Benjamin made his way to the ring and evened the sides; as a result of the brawl, Bischoff announced a tag team match, in which Benjamin and Jericho defeated Orton and Batista. On the May 31 episode of Raw, it was announced that Orton would defend the Intercontinental Championship against Benjamin at Bad Blood.
Before the event went live on pay-per-view, Batista defeated Maven in a match taped for Heat, one of WWE's secondary television programs. After Heat, the pay-per-view began with a tag team match for the World Tag Team Championship, where La Résistance defended the titles against Chris Benoit and Edge. La Résistance gained the early advantage when Conway grabbed Edge and rammed him onto the security wall, back first. At one point, Benoit applied a crossface submission hold on Grenier. Kane's pyrotechnics went off and made his way to the ring, as he entered the ring and delivered a Big Boot to Benoit, prompting the referee to end the match in a disqualification, thus La Résistance retained the World Tag Team titles; the second match was Tyson Tomko, accompanied by Trish Stratus, versus Chris Jericho. In the early stages both competitors wrestled inconclusively, reversed each other's attacks, before Tyson backed Jericho into the ring corner and hit him numerous times with his elbows. Afterwards, Jericho attempted to perform the Lionsault.
The match concluded as Jericho performed an enzuigiri on Tomko for the win
A music video is a short film that integrates a song with imagery, is produced for promotional or artistic purposes. Modern music videos are made and used as a marketing device intended to promote the sale of music recordings. There are cases where songs are used in tie-in marketing campaigns that allow them to become more than just a song. Tie-ins and merchandising can be used for food or other products. Although the origins of the music video date back to musical short films that first appeared in the 1920s, they again came into prominence in the 1980s when the channel MTV based their format around the medium. Prior to the 1980s, these kinds of videos were described by various terms including "illustrated song", "filmed insert", "promotional film", "promotional clip", "promotional video", "song video", "song clip" or "film clip". Music videos use a wide range of styles and contemporary video-making techniques, including animation, live action and non-narrative approaches such as abstract film.
Some music videos combine different styles with the music, such as animation and live action. Combining these styles and techniques has become more popular because of the variety for the audience. Many music videos interpret images and scenes from the song's lyrics, while others take a more thematic approach. Other music videos may not have any concept, being a filmed version of the song's live concert performance. In 1894, sheet music publishers Edward B. Marks Joe Stern hired electrician George Thomas and various performers to promote sales of their song "The Little Lost Child". Using a magic lantern, Thomas projected a series of still images on a screen simultaneous to live performances; this would become a popular form of entertainment known as the illustrated song, the first step toward music video. In 1926, with the arrival of "talkies" many musical short films were produced. Vitaphone shorts featured many bands and dancers. Animation artist Max Fleischer introduced a series of sing-along short cartoons called Screen Songs, which invited audiences to sing along to popular songs by "following the bouncing ball", similar to a modern karaoke machine.
Early 1930s cartoons featured popular musicians performing their hit songs on-camera in live-action segments during the cartoons. The early animated films by Walt Disney, such as the Silly Symphonies shorts and Fantasia, which featured several interpretations of classical pieces, were built around music; the Warner Bros. cartoons today billed as Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies, were fashioned around specific songs from upcoming Warner Bros. musical films. Live action musical shorts, featuring such popular performers as Cab Calloway, were distributed to theaters. Blues singer Bessie Smith appeared in a two-reel short film called St. Louis Blues featuring a dramatized performance of the hit song. Numerous other musicians appeared in short musical subjects during this period. Soundies and released from 1940 to 1947, were musical films that included short dance sequences, similar to music videos. In the mid-1940s, musician Louis Jordan made short films for his songs, some of which were spliced together into a feature film, Lookout Sister.
These films were, according to music historian Donald Clarke, the "ancestors" of music video. Musical films were another important precursor to music video, several well-known music videos have imitated the style of classic Hollywood musicals from the 1930s to the 1950s. One of the best-known examples is Madonna's 1985 video for "Material Girl", modelled on Jack Cole's staging of "Diamonds Are A Girl's Best Friend" from the film Gentlemen Prefer Blondes. Several of Michael Jackson's videos show the unmistakable influence of the dance sequences in classic Hollywood musicals, including the landmark "Thriller" and the Martin Scorsese-directed "Bad", influenced by the stylised dance "fights" in the film version of West Side Story. According to the Internet Accuracy Project, disc jockey–singer J. P. "The Big Bopper" Richardson was the first to coin the phrase "music video", in 1959. In his autobiography, Tony Bennett claims to have created "...the first music video" when he was filmed walking along the Serpentine in Hyde Park, London in 1956, with the resulting clip being set to his recording of the song "Stranger in Paradise".
The clip was sent to UK and US television stations and aired on shows including Dick Clark's American Bandstand. The oldest example of a promotional music video with similarities to more abstract, modern videos seems to be the Czech "Dáme si do bytu" created in 1958 and directed by Ladislav Rychman. In the late 1950s the Scopitone, a visual jukebox, was invented in France and short films were produced by many French artists, such as Serge Gainsbourg, Françoise Hardy, Jacques Dutronc, the Belgian Jacques Brel to accompany their songs, its use spread to other countries, similar machines such as the Cinebox in Italy and Color-Sonic in the USA were patented. In 1961, for the Canadian show Singalong Jubilee, Manny Pittson began pre-recording the music audio, went on-location and taped various visuals with the musicians lip-synching edited the audio and video together. Most music numbers were taped in-studio on stage, the location shoot "videos" were to add variety. In 1964, Kenneth Anger's experimental short film, Scorpio Rising used popular songs instead of dialog.
In 1964, The Moody Blues producer, Alex Murray, wanted to promote his version of "Go Now". The short film clip he produced and directed to promote the single has a striking visual style that predates Queen's similar "Bohemian Rhapsody" vid
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh