Disney's Hollywood Studios is a theme park at the Walt Disney World Resort in Bay Lake, near Orlando. It is owned and operated by The Walt Disney Company through its Parks and Products division. Based on a concept by Marty Sklar, Randy Bright, Michael Eisner, the park opened on May 1, 1989, as the Disney-MGM Studios Park, was the third of four theme parks built at Walt Disney World. Spanning 135 acres, the park is dedicated to the imagined worlds from film, television and theatre, drawing inspiration from the Golden Age of Hollywood. Disney's Hollywood Studios was developed as both a theme park inspired by show business and an operating production studio, with active film and television production services, an animation facility branch, a functioning backlot. Construction on the combined park and studio began in 1987, but was accelerated when the construction of the similarly-themed Universal Studios Florida began a few miles away. To increase public interest and the variety of film representation within the park, Disney entered into a licensing agreement with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, from which the park's original name was derived.
The park's production facilities were removed throughout the 2000s, many of the park's soundstages were retrofitted for newer attractions and guest use. The park's current name took effect in 2008, with the removal of the MGM-branding throughout the park. In the 2010s, the park began to distance itself from the original studio backlot intention and entered a new direction of immersive theming and attraction development inspired by Hollywood stories; the park's icon was the Earffel Tower from the park's opening until 2001 when the Sorcerer's Hat—a stylized version of the magical hat from Fantasia—was erected in the park's central hub. It served as the park's icon until its removal in January 2015. In 2018, the park hosted 11.258 million guests, ranking it the fifth most-visited theme park in North America and the ninth most-visited theme park in the world. The World you have entered was created by The Walt Disney Company and is dedicated to Hollywood—not a place on a map, but a state of mind that exists wherever people dream and wonder and imagine, a place where illusion and reality are fused by technological magic.
We welcome you to a Hollywood. A team of Walt Disney Imagineers led by Marty Sklar and Randy Bright had been given an assignment to create two new pavilions for Epcot's Future World section; the brainstorming sessions led to Wonders of Great Movie Ride pavilions. The latter was to look like a soundstage backdrop, with a movie theater-style entrance in the middle and would have sat between the Land and Journey Into Imagination pavilions; when newly appointed CEO Michael Eisner saw the plans for the pavilion, he requested that, instead of placing the ride in an existing park, it should be the anchor for a new park themed with Hollywood and show business. In 1985, Disney and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer entered into a licensing contract that gave Disney worldwide rights to use the MGM brand and logo for what would become Disney-MGM Studios, which included working production facilities for films and television shows, a backlot, a satellite animation studio for Walt Disney Feature Animation, which began operation prior to the park's debut.
In 1988, MGM/UA responded by filing a lawsuit that claimed Disney violated the agreement by operating a working movie and television studio at the resort. On May 1, 1989, the theme park opened adjacent to the production facilities, with MGM's only affiliation being the original licensing agreement that allowed Disney to use MGM's name and lion logo in marketing, separate contracts that allowed specific MGM content to be used in the Great Movie Ride. On opening day, the only two operating attractions were the Studio Backlot Tour and the Great Movie Ride. Several months after park opening, the "Streetmosphere" improvisational troupe was added to the park; the Streetmosphere performers, now named the Citizens of Hollywood, are the longest-running attraction at the park. Disney filed a countersuit, claiming that MGM/UA and MGM Grand, Inc. had conspired to violate Disney's worldwide rights to the MGM name in the theme park business and that MGM/UA would harm Disney's reputation by building its own theme park at the MGM Grand hotel and casino in Las Vegas, Nevada.
On October 23, 1992, Los Angeles Superior Court Judge Curtis B. Rappe ruled that Disney had the right to continue using the Disney-MGM Studios name on film product produced at the Florida facility, that MGM Grand had the right to build a Las Vegas theme park using the MGM name and logo as long as it did not share the same studio backlot theme as Disney's property; the 33-acre MGM Grand Adventures Theme Park opened in 1993 at the Las Vegas site and closed permanently in 2000. Disney was contractually prohibited from using the Disney-MGM Studios name in certain marketing contexts. In the 1990s, as the park's popularity and attendance grew, the park saw its first expansion in 1994, with the addition of Sunset Boulevard and The Twilight Zone Tower of Terror attraction; the backlot's New York streets were opened to guest access to relieve traffic and renamed as Streets of America. During that same decade, Walt Disney Feature Animation's on-site satellite studio assisted in the production of Beauty and the Beast and The Lion King, with Mulan and Lilo & Stitch being completed at the park's studio.
In 2001, the Sorcerer's Hat—a stylized version of the magical hat from Fantasia—was erected in front of the park's Chinese Theater and began to serve as the park's icon from onwards, displacing
A Trip in the Country is the 11th album by American country music singer-songwriter Roger Miller. It reached #23 in the US Country Music chart. For the sleeve notes he wrote: "Before the days of "Dang Me", "King of the Road" and such, I was a young, ambitious song-writer walking the streets of Nashville, trying to get anybody and everybody who would to record my songs. All in all, I wrote about 150 songs for George Jones, Ernest Tubb and others; some were hits, some were not. Here are a few of the better ones. In the beginning, I created heavenly, earthly songs." One of the songs on the album, "Tall, Tall Trees," was recorded by Alan Jackson. The Jackson version was released as a single and became a No. 1 hit on Billboard's Hot Country Singles & Tracks chart in 1995. Side 1 "Tall, Tall Trees" 2:12 "A World I Can’t Live In" 2:16 "Nothing Can Stop My Love" 1:50 "When Two Worlds Collide" 2:08 "My Ears Should Burn" 2:06 "A World So Full of Love" 2:19Side 2 "Don’t We All Have the Right" 1:56 "That’s the Way I Feel" 1:49 "Half a Mind" 2:45 "When a House is Not a Home" 2:26 "Invitation to the Blues" 2:32 Guitars: Harold Bradley, Ray Edenton, Charlie McCoy, Chip Young Piano: Hargus "Pig" Robbins Bass: Bob Moore Drums: Buddy Harman Steel Guitar: Buddy Emmons Fiddles: Tommy Jackson, Buddy Spicher Producer: Jerry Kennedy Engineers: Tom Sparkman & Charlie Tallent Album Photos: Brian D. Hennssey Album Art Direction: Des Strobel Album Design: Wm. Falkenburg
The Roma Historic District in Roma, Texas preserves an intact example of a border town in the lower Rio Grande valley. The town was an important transshipment point on the Rio Grande from 1829 to the 1880s; the architecture of Roma mirrors its sister city of Ciudad Mier on the Mexican side of the river, as well as Guerrero Viejo upriver. Roma is notable for its buildings of river sandstone, caliche limestone and molded brick, using rejoneado and sillar masonry techniques. Both methods employ an outer finish of rough lime plaster detailed with bands of smooth colored plaster, characteristic of northern Mexico. Roma features innovative use of molded brick, brought to Roma by German immigrant Enrique Portscheller, who used techniques of flat brick roofing from Monterrey to Mier developed a decorative brick used in Roma, Rio Grande City and Laredo. Portscheller designed buildings with his products and used wrought iron balconies in a manner reminiscent of both New Orleans and Monterrey. Roma preserves the bulk of his extant work.
The historic district includes the 1928 Roma-Ciudad Miguel Alemán International Bridge, a State Antiquities Landmark, as well as the river wharfs and custom house. Roma was established in 1821 in; the site offered a convenient crossing on the Rio Grande. The area was notable for a salt trade from the Roma area to Monterrey; the Roma area became the Mexican province of Tamaulipas with Mexican independence, but became part of Texas with the establishment of the Republic of Texas in 1835. Although there was a battle at Mier during the Mexican–American War in 1848, the region remained part of Texas. During the American Civil War the region became wealthy on the cotton trade, transshipped via Mexico to Europe. While steamboats were able to access Roma through the mid-nineteenth century, lowering water levels as a result of development upstream ended river shipment by the 1880s. Bypassed by railroads, Roma inadvertently preserved itself from development; the Roma Historic District comprises 38 contributing buildings, of which 16 are stone buildings from the 1829-1870 period and 19 are brick buildings from the 1880-1900 period.
The district may be divided into the following areas: Plaza Area The plaza area features an open-ended plaza that faces the Rio Grande and Mexico on the far bank. It the northern end is the tower of the Catholic Church, on axis with the plaza; the lower plaza is defined by walled compounds built for the Vale-Garcia, Guerra and Ramirez families. These compounds included commercial uses the Guerra store that dominated the town's commerce. Wharf Area The wharf area along Hidalgo Street and upwards to Juarez and Estrella Streets dealt with river commerce and consist of warehouses and stores, as well as the Roma-Cuidad Miguel Aleman Bridge, it is associated with the Arroyo de San Pedro. Customs House Area The customs house area includes Lincoln and Water Streets, comprising a mixture of commercial and residential structures, chiefly of stone construction and dominated by a brick family compound at Zaragoza and Estrella; the customs house was placed on the highest point on the bluff. Northwestern Zone The northwestern zone is associated with the Arroyo de los Negros, the location of a secondary ferry crossing on the Rio Grande.
The Roma Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1972 and was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1993. In addition to the international bridge, the Manuel Guerra Home and Store is a State Antiquities Landmark; the district is a Recorded Texas Historic Landmark listed as Early Commercial Center, includes several individual RTHLs. List of National Historic Landmarks in Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Starr County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Starr County Roma-Los Saenz, Texas Handbook of Texas Online Photographs of Roma at the National Park Service's NRHP database