Disney Channel is an American pay television channel that serves as the flagship property of owner Disney Channels Worldwide unit of the Walt Disney Television subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company. Disney Channel's programming consists of original first-run television series, theatrically released and original made-for-TV movies and select other third-party programming. Disney Channel – which operated as a premium service – marketed its programs towards families during the 1980s, at younger children by the 2000s. A majority of Disney Channel's original programming is aimed at children aged 6–16, while its Disney Junior programs are targeted at children aged 7 years and under; as of January 2016, Disney Channel is available to 93.9 million pay television households in the United States. In 1977, Walt Disney Productions executive Jim Jimirro brought forth the idea of a cable television network that would feature television and film content sourced from the studio. Disney chairman Card Walker turned down the proposal, citing the company's focus on developing the Epcot Center at Walt Disney World.
The idea was revived in November 1981, when Disney entered into a partnership with Group W Satellite Communications. In September 1982, Group W rescinded its interest in the intended joint venture, due to disagreements over creative control of the channel and financial obligations that would have had Group W shoulder 50% of the service's start-up costs. Walt Disney Productions continued on with the channel's development with help from the channel's founding president Alan Wagner, formally announced the launch of its family-oriented cable channel in early 1983; the Disney Channel launched nationally as a premium channel at 7:00 a.m. Eastern Time on April 18, 1983; the channel – which maintained a 16-hour-per-day programming schedule from 7:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern and Pacific Time – would become available on cable providers in all 50 U. S. states by September 1983, accrue a base of more than 611,000 subscribers by December of that year.. The channel had reached profitability by January 1985, with its programming reaching 1.75 million subscribers by that point.
In September 1990, TCI's Montgomery, system became the first cable provider to carry the channel as a basic cable service. Between 1991 and 1996, a increasing number of cable providers began shifting The Disney Channel from a premium add-on offering to their basic tiers, either experimentally or on a full-time basis. On April 6, 1997, the channel –, renamed as Disney Channel and, until September 2002, alternatively identified only as "Disney" in on-air promotions and network identifications – underwent a significant rebranding and introducing a new logo styled as a Mickey ear-shaped TV set designed by Lee Hunt Associates. Programming-wise, it maintained a programming format similar to that which it carried as a full-fledged premium service. Disney Channel began to air break interruptions within shows to promote its programming and Disney film and home video releases, decreased the number of older films that aired on its schedule, began catering its music programming more towards acts popular with pre-teens and teenagers.
On August 23, 1997, the channel relaunched its slate of made-for-television movies – Disney Channel Original Movies – with Northern Lights, supplanting the previous Disney Channel Premiere Films banner. Disney Channel started to increase its original programming development, launching with the 1997 debut of the sitcom Flash Forward; the channel would split its programming into three distinct blocks: Playhouse Disney, Vault Disney, Zoog Disney. The Zoog Disney brand would expand to encompass most of the channel's weekend daytime and evening schedule under the "Zoog Weekendz" banner in June 2000. In 1999, Disney Channel began mandating that TV providers which continued to offer it as a premium service shift the channel to their basic channel tiers or else it would decline to renew carriage agreements with providers that chose to continue offering it as an add-on to their service. In the fall of 2002, Disney Channel discontinued the Zoog Weekendz and Vault Disney blocks – phasing out the "Zoog" brand on-air, replacing the latter block with a lineup of same-day repeats of the channel's original and acquired
Thomas Grant Gustin is an American actor and singer. He is known for his role as Barry Allen / The Flash on the CW series The Flash as part of the Arrowverse television franchise, for his role as Sebastian Smythe on the Fox series Glee. Thomas Grant Gustin was born in Virginia, he is the son of Tina Haney, a pediatric nurse, Thomas Gustin, a college professor. During his high school years, he attended the Governor's School for the Arts program in Norfolk for musical theater, he went to Hurrah Players Incorporated, a theater organization in Virginia. In 2008, he graduated from Granby High School and went on to attend the BFA Music Theater Program at Elon University in North Carolina for two years, he has been a friend of actor Chris Wood since college. Gustin left school to take the role of Baby John in the Broadway Revival Tour of West Side Story, performed with the tour from its opening on September 30, 2010, through September 23, 2011. On November 8, 2011, he debuted on the television series Glee as Sebastian Smythe, an gay member of the Dalton Academy Warblers.
Gustin won the recurring role of Sebastian, a promiscuous and scheming character, after "an exhaustive, weeks-long casting search". He auditioned for a role as a tap dancer, but did not get the part. However, Ryan Murphy kept him in mind, he began filming the role early on Monday, September 26, 2011, after having finished his final West Side Story performance the previous Friday night. In January 2012, Naya Rivera and Gustin performed "Smooth Criminal" as a duet in the season three episode "Michael", backed by musical duo 2Cellos; the song was filmed in a similar environment as the 2Cellos music video, in a room surrounded by empty chairs as the two musicians play. This cover debuted and peaked at number 26 at Billboard Hot 100, number 10 at Billboard Digital Songs, number 28 at Billboard Canadian Hot 100 chart at the week of February 18, 2012. Gustin began filming A Mother's Nightmare, an original film for the Lifetime network, in late May 2012; the project stars actresses Annabeth Gish and Jessica Lowndes, was shot in West Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada.
On July 11, 2012, it was announced that Gustin had landed a major role in the independent film Affluenza. On September 13, 2013, it was announced that Gustin would play Barry Allen in the second season of Arrow, he was supposed to appear in three episodes, the last one serving as the backdoor pilot for a potential spin-off Flash series. However, the backdoor pilot plan was dropped in favor of a stand-alone pilot, titled The Flash; the pilot was picked up with an initial order of thirteen episodes, the series premiered on October 7, 2014, with 4.8 million viewers, the most for a premiere on The CW in five years. As of 2019, the show is in its sixth season with nearly 120 episodes; as part of the greater Arrowverse, Gustin has reprised the role on Supergirl and Legends of Tomorrow as well as the web series Vixen. On March 30, 2016, it was announced; the film premiered in 2017 at the Virginia Film Festival, was released in 2018. In January 2016, Gustin began dating Andrea "LA" Thoma; the couple announced their engagement on April 29, 2017.
Frederick Kappel was an American businessman. He served as chairman of AT&T from 1961 to 1972, he served in the Johnson and Nixon administrations. He graduated from the University of Minnesota, he started his career at AT&T in 1924, working as a $25-a-week digger of telephone poles for one of its subsidiaries, the Northwestern Bell Telephone Company in Minnesota. In 1954, he became president of another subsidiary. In 1956, he was elected president of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company renamed AT&T, he served as its chairman from 1961 to 1972. He served as chairman of The Business Council from 1963 to 1964. President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed him as chairman of presidential commissions, including the Commission on Postal Organization and, in 1967, to a special mediation board in a railroad dispute. V President Richard M. Nixon appointed him as a governor of the United States Postal Service and, from 1972 to 1974, as its chairman, he was on the cover of Time Magazine on May 29, 1964. He received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1964 and the John Fritz Medal in 1965.
He served on the boards of directors of Chase Manhattan General Foods. He served as chairman of the board of International Paper from 1969 to 1971, chairman of its executive committee from 1971 to 1972, he had a first marriage in 1927 and a second marriage in 1978. He died of Alzheimer's disease in Sarasota, Florida, in November 1994. Business Purpose and Performance: Selections from Talks and Papers