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Disneyland

Disneyland Park Disneyland, is the first of two theme parks built at the Disneyland Resort in Anaheim, opened on July 17, 1955. It is the only theme park designed and built to completion under the direct supervision of Walt Disney, it was the only attraction on the property. It is the oldest Disney Park in the world. Walt Disney came up with the concept of Disneyland after visiting various amusement parks with his daughters in the 1930s and 1940s, he envisioned building a tourist attraction adjacent to his studios in Burbank to entertain fans who wished to visit. After hiring a consultant to help him determine an appropriate site for his project, Disney bought a 160-acre site near Anaheim in 1953. Construction began in 1954 and the park was unveiled during a special televised press event on the ABC Television Network on July 17, 1955. Since its opening, Disneyland has undergone expansions and major renovations, including the addition of New Orleans Square in 1966, Bear Country in 1972, Mickey's Toontown in 1993, Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge in 2019.

Opened in 2001, Disney California Adventure Park was built on the site of Disneyland's original parking lot. Disneyland has a larger cumulative attendance than any other theme park in the world, with 726 million visits since it opened. In 2018, the park had 18.6 million visits, making it the second most visited amusement park in the world that year, behind only Magic Kingdom, the park it inspired. According to a March 2005 Disney report, 65,700 jobs are supported by the Disneyland Resort, including about 20,000 direct Disney employees and 3,800 third-party employees. Disney announced "Project Stardust" in 2019, which included major structural renovations to the park to account for higher attendance numbers; the concept for Disneyland began when Walt Disney was visiting Griffith Park in Los Angeles with his daughters Diane and Sharon. While watching them ride the merry-go-round, he came up with the idea of a place where adults and their children could go and have fun together, though his dream lay dormant for many years.

He may have been influenced by his father's memories of the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago. The Midway Plaisance there included a set of attractions representing various countries from around the world and others representing various periods of man. Another influence was Benton Harbor, Michigan's nationally famous House of David's Eden Springs Park. Disney visited the park and bought one of the older miniature trains used there; the earliest documented draft of Disney's plans was sent as a memo to studio production designer Dick Kelsey on August 31, 1948, where it was referred to as a "Mickey Mouse Park", based on notes Disney made during his and Ward Kimball's trip to Chicago Railroad Fair the same month, with a two-day stop in Henry Ford's Museum and Greenfield Village, a place with attractions like a Main Street and steamboat rides, which he had visited eight years earlier. While people wrote letters to Disney about visiting the Walt Disney Studios, he realized that a functional movie studio had little to offer to visiting fans, began to foster ideas of building a site near the Burbank studios for tourists to visit.

His ideas evolved to a small play park with other themed areas. The initial concept, the Mickey Mouse Park, started with an 3.2-hectare plot across Riverside Drive. He started to visit other parks for inspiration and ideas, including Tivoli Gardens in Denmark, Efteling in the Netherlands, Greenfield Village and Children's Fairyland in the United States, his designers began working on concepts, though the project grew much larger than the land could hold. Disney hired Harrison Price from Stanford Research Institute to gauge the proper area to locate the theme park based on the area's potential growth. Based on Price's analysis, Disney acquired 65 ha of orange groves and walnut trees in Anaheim, southeast of Los Angeles in neighboring Orange County; the Burbank site considered by Disney is now home to Walt Disney Animation Studios and ABC Studios. Difficulties in obtaining funding prompted Disney to investigate new methods of fundraising, he decided to create a show named Disneyland, it was broadcast on then-fledgling ABC.

In return, the network agreed to help finance the park. For its first five years of operation, Disneyland was owned by Disneyland, Inc., jointly owned by Walt Disney Productions, Walt Disney, Western Publishing and ABC. In addition, Disney rented out many of the shops on Main Street, U. S. A. to outside companies. By 1960, Walt Disney Productions bought out all other shares, a partnership which would lead to the Walt Disney Corporation's acquisition of ABC in the mid-1990s. Construction cost $17 million to complete; the park was opened one year and one day later. U. S. Route 101 was under construction at the same time just north of the site.

Day by Day (Soviet TV series)

Day by Day is an Soviet TV series directing by Vsevolod Shilovsky, based on screenplay by Mikhail Ancharov. Considered the first Soviet television series filmed by the USSR Central Television. Moscow in the early 1970s; the heroes are the residents of a large communal apartment, different families, in particular, the Yakushevs and Banykins. Neighbors become relatives, their fate is intertwined; the old house is going to be scrapped, all neighbors will have to be resettled in different apartments. Vyacheslav Nevinny as Viktor Banykin Nina Sazonova as aunt Pasha Alexey Gribov as uncle Yura Yuri Gorobets as Konstantin Yakushev, painter Nina Popova as Zhenya Yakusheva Alexey Borzunov as Tolich Yevgeni Lazarev as Boris Alexey Eybozhenko as Sedoy Ksenia Minina as Ksenia Valentin Nikulin as Dima Igor Okhlupin as Pakhomov Kira Golovko as Kira Nikolaevna, Tolich's mother Angelina Stepanova as Sokolova Yevgeniya Khanayeva as Antonina Mikhalyova Nadezhda Fedosova as Anastasia Nikolaevna Vsevolod Shilovsky as Zhora Anastasia Zuyeva as old nurse Vitali Konyayev as Igor Afanasy Kochetkov as Afanasy Muravyov Mark Prudkin as Bogdanov Vladimir Grammatikov as filmmaker Valeriya Zaklunna as episode Vitali Bezrukov as episode Valentin Nikulin – Song of the Circus, On the Relativity of Age, Aelita Valentina TolkunovaVocalise, Drip-drip, At Night I Walked Down the Street, Sound of Footsteps, Forgive Me, Vocalise Intermedia Vladimir Troshin – Sip Water, In the German Far Side Vladimir Makarov – Comrade, Memories of Moscow Yuri Gorobets – I Dreamed of Raw Rattle Nina Sazonova – I Stand on the Train Station Lev Leshchenko – She was All Right Day by Day on IMDb Day by Day at the Russia-K

Hyporheic zone

The hyporheic zone is the region of sediment and porous space beneath and alongside a stream bed, where there is mixing of shallow groundwater and surface water. The flow dynamics and behavior in this zone is recognized to be important for surface water/groundwater interactions, as well as fish spawning, among other processes; as an innovative urban water management practice, the hyporheic zone can be designed by engineers and managed for improvements in both water quality and riparian habitat. The assemblage of organisms which inhabits this zone are called hyporheos; the term hyporheic was coined by Traian Orghidan in 1959 by combining two Greek words: hypo and rheos. The hyporheic zone is the area of rapid exchange, where water is moved into and out of the stream bed and carries dissolved gas and solutes, contaminants and particles with it. Depending on the underlying geology and topography, the hyporheic zone can be only several centimeters deep, or extend up to 10s of meters laterally or deep.

The conceptual framework of the hyporheic zone as both a mixing and storage zone are integral to the study of hydrology. The first key concept related to the hyporheic zone is that of residence time. Water residence times influence carbon processing rates. Longer residence times promote dissolved solute retention, which can be released back into the channel, delaying or attenuating the signals produced by the stream channel; the other key concept is that of hyporheic exchange, or the speed at which water enters or leaves the subsurface zone. Stream water enters the hyporheic zone temporarily, but the stream water reenters the surface channel or contributes to groundwater storage; the rate of hyporheic exchange is influenced by streambed structure, with shorter water flow paths created by streambed roughness. Longer flowpaths are induced by geomorphic features, such as stream meander patterns, pool-riffle sequences, large woody debris dams, other features; the hyporheic zone and its interactions influence the volume of stream water, moved downstream.

Gaining reaches indicate that groundwater is discharged into the stream as water moves downstream, so that the volume of water in the main channel increases from upstream to downstream. Conversely, when water infiltrates into the groundwater zone resulting in a net loss of surface water, the stream reach is considered to be "losing" water. A stream or river ecosystem is more than just the flowing water that can be seen on the surface: rivers are connected to the adjacent riparian areas; therefore and rivers include the dynamic hyporheic zone that lies below and lateral to the main channel. Because the hyporheic zone lies underneath the surface water, it can be difficult to identify and observe. However, the hyporheic zone is a zone of biological and physical activity, therefore has functional significance for stream and river ecosystems. Research scientists use tools such as wells and piezometers and reactive tracers, transport models that account for advection and dispersion of water in both the stream channel and the subsurface.

These tools can be used independently to study water movement through the hyporheic zone and to the stream channel, but are complementary for a more accurate picture of water dynamics in the channel as a whole. The hyporheic zone is an ecotone between the stream and subsurface: it is a dynamic area of mixing between surface water and groundwater at the sediment-water interface. From a biogeochemical perspective, groundwater is low in dissolved oxygen but carries dissolved nutrients. Conversely, stream water from the main channel contains lower nutrients; this creates a biogeochemical gradient, which can exist at varying depths depending on the extent of the hyporheic zone. The hyporheic zone is dominated by heterotrophic microorganisms that process the dissolved nutrients exchanged at this interface. An article on the hyporheic zone of streams, water purification. Includes a diagram