In optics, a dispersive prism is an optical prism having the shape of a geometrical triangular prism, used as a spectroscopic component. Spectral dispersion is the best known property of optical prisms, although not the most frequent purpose of using optical prisms in practice. Triangular prisms are used to disperse light, that is, to break light up into its spectral components. Different wavelengths of light will be deflected by the prism at different angles, producing a spectrum on a detector; this is a result of the prism's material index of refraction varying with wavelength. By application of Snell's law, one can see that as the wavelength changes, the refractive index changes, the deflection angle of a light beam will change, separating the colors of the light spatially. Longer wavelengths thereby undergo a smaller deviation than shorter wavelengths where the refractive index is larger. A good mathematical description of single-prism dispersion is given by Wolf; the case of multiple-prism dispersion is treated by Duarte.
The dispersion of white light into colors by a prism led Sir Isaac Newton to conclude that white light consisted of a mixture of different colors. Although the refractive index is dependent on the wavelength in every material, some materials have a much more powerful wavelength dependence than others. Crown glasses such as BK7 have a small dispersion, while flint glasses have a much stronger dispersion and hence are more suitable for use as dispersive prisms. Fused quartz and other optical materials are used at ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths where normal glasses become opaque; the top angle of the prism can be widened to increase the spectral dispersion. However it is chosen so that both the incoming and outgoing light rays hit the surface at around the Brewster angle. Most dispersive prisms are equilateral where this is the case. Types of dispersive prism include: Triangular prism Abbe prism Pellin–Broca prism Amici prism Compound prism There are six grating/prism configurations which are considered to be "classics": Paschen-Runge Eagle Wadsworth Ebert-Fasti Littrow Pfund A diffraction grating may be ruled onto one face of a prism to form an element called a "grism".
Spectrographs are extensively used in astronomy to observe the spectra of stars and other astronomical objects. Insertion of a grism in the collimated beam of an astronomical imager transforms that camera into a spectrometer, since the beam still continues in the same direction when passing through it; the deflection of the prism is constrained to cancel the deflection due to the diffraction grating at the spectrometer's central wavelength. A different sort of spectrometer component called an immersed grating consists of a prism with a diffraction grating ruled on one surface; however in this case the grating is used in reflection, with light hitting the grating from inside the prism before being internally reflected back into the prism. The reduction of the light's wavelength inside the prism results in an increase of the resulting spectral resolution by the ratio of the prism's refractive index to that of air. With either a grism or immersed grating, the primary source of spectral dispersion is the grating.
Any effect due to chromatic dispersion from the prism itself is incidental, as opposed to actual prism-based spectrometers. An artist's rendition of a dispersive prism is seen on the cover of Pink Floyd's The Dark Side of the Moon, one of the best-selling albums of all time; the iconic graphic shows a coherent ray of white light entering the prism and beginning to disperse, shows the spectrum leaving the prism. Multiple-prism dispersion theory Multiple-prism grating laser oscillator
Laxminarayan Mishra was a freedom fighter, good literaturist of Odisha, India. He was one of the most active nationalist of Western Odisha. Laxmi Narayan Mishra was born in undivided Sambalpur District of Odisha state in India in 11th April 1904, he was the third son of late Revati Devi. He was from middle class Brajmin family, he completed his primary education from Gurupada primary school and high school from C. B. S Zilla school from Sambalpur, he was one of the brilliant student in his school time. From his school time he protested against the oppressive British rule, he had left school as a student to join India’s Freedom Movement. He was a writer, he was an expert in various languages which include Sanskrit, Bengali, Hindi and had earned a fame as an extraordinary orator. He was assassinated during a train journey at Jharsuguda, he was an active nationalist in Western Odisha.. He was imprisoned for his active role in National struggle for Independence. Jail provided him advantage to be a scholar and Laxmi Narayan had become a real Pandit with his education on religion and political thought.
He was involved in moments such as Non-corporation movement, drive against untouchability, the Nagpur flag march, move against the partial exclusion of the district of Sambalpur, the struggle against the zamindars and the state rulers, the quit India movement. He was honoured by various Institution by keeping his name which include Laxminarayan College, Jharsuguda
DEGENESIS is a pen-and-paper role-playing game created by Christian Günther and Marko Djurdjevic. Under the working title of "Endzeit", DEGENESIS was created as a fan art project, supported by Projekt Odyssee, it was produced and distributed in 2004 by Sighpress-Verlag. Since 2014, the second and current edition is produced and distributed by SIXMOREVODKA; the game is categorized by the designers as "Primal Punk", a description detailing a world in which humanity is at its end and denying its end-of-times struggle for survival. The game is set around the regions of Europe and North Africa at the end of the 26th century, more than 500 years after a major asteroid event devastated the face of the Earth and the ensuing chaos and conflict reset human civilization, when it was just at the edge of transhumanism. From the ashes of the old world, new cultures fight for survival. Furthermore, an alien entity travelled within the asteroids, in its interaction with terrestrial lifeforms it pushes them to mutate and evolve.
The Primer, as it is called, is a menace to the human species, for when it infects a human embryo it can turn it into something more primal: A Homo Degenesis. Characters within the universe are shaped by three different ideals: culture and concept. Culture is defined as the home region, the concept as the character's personal background theme and the cult as the player's team or organization; the story universe spans 13 different cults, which are either at war, partnered together or neutral within the current world state. Players choose characters whose actions are defined by their choice of cult. There are seven cultures in the world of DEGENESIS, representing the main regional identities which have emerged conditioned by the Primer manifestations; the cultures, along with a short description and a rough real world equivalent are as follows: Borca: Franka: Purgare: Pollen: Africa: Balkhan: Hybrispania: Spitalians: Chroniclers: Hellvetics: Judges: Clanners: Scrappers: Neolibyans Scourgers: Anubians: Jehammedans: Apocalyptics: Anabaptists: Palers: The gaming system is based on five Attributes.
Players rolls two 10-sided die below it. Difficulties are described by numbers the players must "beat". Fighting is an expansion of the basic rules of the game by which the characters are "action points"; the action points are modifiers within the game that either set initiative or other actions within the battle scenario. Players do damage by rolling a number of d10 under a specified number. There are experience points that can be collected via battles or free experience points that can be distributed amongst the players. However, players strive to roll as little as possible. Noted points of departure from the first edition include the whole revamping of the game system, lore-wise, a more lax and intertwined relationship between the cults; the revamped Katharsys game system uses a d6 pool system where players roll a number of d6 equal to the sum of the relevant Attribute and the specific Skill, plus or minus circumstancial modifiers. Character's stats consist of 6 primary attributes and each one of these has six specific skills.
Primal and Focus and Willpower, Secondary stats and backgrounds. The Degenesis: Rebirth Edition was awarded the 2015 Special Jury Prize by the German Role-Playing Game Prizes. Degenesis - Official Webpage SIXMOREVODKA - Homepage