Devil's Tower (Gibraltar)
The Devil's Tower was an ancient watchtower in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar close to a rock shelter where fossil remains of a Neanderthal child were discovered, together with palaeolithic tools. The Tower and remains, were unrelated; the tower was constructed in limestone. It was demolished in 1940 during World War II on the orders of Governor General Sir Noel Mason-Macfarlane on the grounds that it was in the line of fire of one of Gibraltar's many guns; the Devil's Tower skull was that of a Neanderthal child. The remains were excavated by Dorothy Garrod in a Mousterian shelter on the site. There is evidence of an injury to the mouth, the teeth show developmental disorders consistent with seasonal starvation; the classic Neanderthal large brain case is evident and the brow ridges have started to develop. The skull reinforced the evidence of the Neanderthals of Gibraltar. Most of the lower jaw has survived, along with the frontal bone, most of the right side of the face and the left parietal bone.
The tower gave its name to the Devil's Tower Camp, the Devils Tower Emplacement, Devil's Tower Road and other nearby places. Media related to Devil's Tower at Wikimedia Commons Reconstruction of the Neanderthal child's head and face
Victoria Stadium (Gibraltar)
Victoria Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Gibraltar. It is used for football matches, but hosts the annual Gibraltar Music Festival, it is located close to the Gibraltar Airport just off Winston Churchill Avenue. It was named after the wife of Gibraltarian philanthropist John Mackintosh. Despite initial plans to replace the stadium in the 2010s, the Gibraltar Football Association purchased the stadium from the Government of Gibraltar in April 2017 in order to improve and renovate it. Victoria Stadium was constructed at the foot of the Rock of Gibraltar and next to Gibraltar Airport in the North District, it was first opened in 1926 as a British military sports ground. In 1971, the stadium was rebuilt by the Royal Engineers as a sports ground for use by both the military forces and the civilian population of Gibraltar. In 1991, the Government of Gibraltar financed improvements of Victoria Stadium's pitch and athletics track; the construction of the stadium was controversial as it was built on the disputed isthmus between Gibraltar and Spain.
When the Gibraltar Football Association applied for membership of UEFA in 2007, Spanish-led opposition caused FIFA officials to look at the wording of the Treaty of Utrecht which ceded Gibraltar to the United Kingdom in 1713. In it, they claimed that there was a loophole in the treaty which they claimed violated FIFA regulations in that the national stadium had to be built on undisputed land; as Victoria Stadium was built on the isthmus, not mentioned in the Treaty of Utrecht but ceded and this fact was pointed out to UEFA members, Gibraltar's application was voted by UEFA's member associations to be rejected. Only the Home Nations of England and Scotland voted in favour of them joining. Victoria Stadium is used for association football matches. All clubs in the Gibraltar Football League play their matches at Victoria Stadium; as such it is used to host the final of the Rock Cup. Prior to membership of FIFA, it has been used as the Gibraltar national football team's home ground for unofficial internationals.
Following the Gibraltar Football Association's admittance as a full member of UEFA in May 2013, UEFA vetoed Gibraltar using Victoria Stadium as their home ground as it did not meet UEFA standards and as the Government of Gibraltar owned it. As a result of this lack of ownership, the Gibraltar Football Association did not have the power to improve it; this was owing to the fact that Victoria Stadium did not meet UEFA standards for international matches, which meant that the Gibraltar national football team were obliged to play their "home" matches in UEFA and FIFA qualifying tournaments at Estádio Algarve in Faro, Portugal however they were permitted to play friendly matches there. The Government of Gibraltar and the Chief Minister of Gibraltar, Fabian Picardo stated that they were not going to spend Gibraltarian taxpayer's money on renovating the stadium without the site having UEFA approval stating "It would have been the worst possible bargain for the people of Gibraltar to have pursued the GSD’s approach of putting taxpayer’s money into Victoria against the wishes of UEFA at the time".
Victoria Stadium did meet the UEFA criteria as a Category 2 Stadium for UEFA intercontinental club matches such as UEFA Champions League games with an example of this being when Lincoln Red Imps used it to host their 2016–17 UEFA Champions League match against Scottish team Celtic. However, in 2017, UEFA stated that Victoria Stadium could not be used for all of Gibraltar's representatives in the UEFA Champions League and UEFA Europa League during the 2017–18 season; this was owing to an increase in the number of Gibraltarian representatives in the competitions and due to failing a UEFA pitch inspection. The Gibraltar Football Association proposed to build the Europa Point Stadium to replace the Victoria Stadium as Gibraltar's national stadium. Owing to opposition, the Europa Point Stadium plans were scrapped by the local government of Gibraltar. An alternative plan for replacement of Victoria Stadium was put forward for a new stadium to be built at Lathbury Barracks however the Gibraltar Ornithological and Natural History Society opposed this citing that the Ministry of Defence would have to give up land, designated by the European Union Habitats Directive as a Special Area of Conservation for the proposed site.
In April 2017, the Gibraltar Football Association announced its purchase of the stadium in order to redevelop it into a UEFA Category 4 stadium at a cost of £16.5 million given to the GFA by UEFA and FIFA. The proposed new stadium sites at Lathbury and Europa Point would be developed into multi-sports facilities by the Government of Gibraltar; the GFA announced it would invest £15 million into the stadium after purchasing it owing to grants from UEFA and FIFA. As a result of the GFA's purchase of Victoria Stadium, UEFA dropped their objections to the stadium providing works to expand the stadium to 8,000 capacity were complete by 2018 they would be permitted to use the stadium for their home games in UEFA sanctioned international competition matches. In January 2018, it was announced that due to the Gibraltar Music Festival being held at the stadium that year, football games in August and September would be played at Lathbury Barracks; the ground has hosted cricket matches since 1993. Victoria Stadium hosted its first cricket match when Marylebone Cricket Club visited Gibraltar in 1993 between Gibraltar and the MCC.
It has been used by the Gibraltar national rugby union team. Victoria Stadium has an Olympic standard 400 metre-six lane athletics track surrounding it and is used to host athletics meets. In 2019, following the redevelopments, Victoria Stadium will be used as the main stadium as Gibraltar host the 2019 Island Games. Football in Gibraltar Sport in Gibraltar
History of the Genoese in Gibraltar
A Genoese community has existed in Gibraltar since the 16th century and became an important part of the population. There is much evidence of a community of emigrants from Genoa, who moved to Gibraltar in the 16th century and that were more than a third of the Gibraltar population in the first half of the 18th century. Although labeled as "Genoese", they were not only from the city of Genoa but from all of Liguria, a northern Italian region, the center of the maritime Republic of Genoa. After the conquest of Gibraltar from Spain in 1704, nearly all the original Spanish population moved away. Among those who stayed there were 30 Genoese families, most of them forming a group resident in Catalan Bay which worked as fishermen, their main activities in the years following the conquest of Gibraltar and its formal transfer to Great Britain were not only related to fishing, but to craftsmanship and commerce. According to the 1725 census, on a total civilian population of 1113 there were 414 Genoese, 400 Spaniards, 137 Jews, 113 Britons and 49 others.
In the 1753 census the Genoese were the biggest group of civilian residents in the Gibraltar and up until 1830 Italian was spoken together with English and Spanish and used in official announcements. Many Genoese in the late 18th century arrived to work for the garrison and went on to form the basis of Gibraltar's civilian police force - the Genoese Guard. "In 1740, English Law was introduced in Gibraltar and in 1753 the first Justices of the Peace were appointed.... During this period the Military Authorities were experiencing great difficulties with Army deserters going into the Kingdom of Spain and thus a group of inhabitants were recruited to act as Frontier Guards; this group became known as the Genoese Guard and in time came to serve as a rudimentary Police Force when they were called upon to support the Military Authorities when dealing with civilians. Sergeants were appointed within the Genoese Guard and their titles "Jews Sergeant" and "Spanish Sergeant" reflected their role within the sectors of the community.
The Genoese Guard were subsequently disbanded sometime after the Seven Year War." After Napoleonic times many Sicilians and some Tuscans migrated to Gibraltar, but the Genoese and Ligurians remained the majority of the Italian group. Indeed, the Genoese dialect was spoken in Catalan Bay well into the 20th century, dying out in the 1970s. Today, the descendants of the Genoese community of Gibraltar consider themselves Gibraltarians and most of them promote the autonomy of Gibraltar, their most renowned representatives are: Joe Bossano, Adolfo Canepa and Kaiane Aldorino. Catalan Bay had been populated by Genoese fishermen who were part of a much larger settlement pattern along the eastern coast of The Rock during the 17th and 18th centuries. In the 18th century the Genoese dialect was so spoken in Gibraltar that Government notices were published in Italian. Genoese was spoken by most people in La Caleta well into the 19th century, dying out in the late decades of the 20th century. There has been some discussion that the British may have mixed up Catalans with Genoese but it is by no means clear why they would suffer such a confusion since there is other evidence which demonstrates that the British were aware that the residents of La Caleta were Genoese: the orders for the siege of 1727 refer to this bay as the Genoese Cove and the numerous 18th and 19th century census record large numbers of people born in Genoa, not in Catalonia.
It is possible a confusion between the letters of "Calata" and "Catala" in the early English pronunciation of the Bay. During the 19th century only fishermen were permitted to live in Catalan Bay; the families who live in the village today are descendants of these Genoese fishermen and are colloquially known as caleteños. Genoese heritage is evident throughout Gibraltar but in the architecture of the town's older buildings which are influenced by traditional Genoese housing styles featuring internal courtyards; until the 1980s, most Gibraltarians lived densely packed around these communal patios. A prominent feature of Gibraltar's architecture is the traditional Genoese wooden window shutters. Many of the Gibraltarian cuisine's roots lie in Genoa; the most notable dish of Genoese origin is calentita. It is a chickpea flour-based flatbread similar to the Italian farinata; the Gibraltarian panissa, a bread-like dish similar to the calentita, shares its Italian origins: it is a descendant of the Genoese dish with the same name "panissa".
Other important Gibraltarian dishes such as rosto and meat in a tomato sauce, is of Genoese origin. Genoese heritage is present in the upper strata of Gibraltarian society: this class consists of a few families of Genoese origin. While the upper middle class consists of Catholic and Hindu merchants and lawyers, the working class is made up of families of Spanish and Italian origin; the present-day descendants of the Genoese settlers in Gibraltar are integrated as Gibraltarians. Today, Gibraltarians with Genoese surnames make up 20% of the total population; this group is integrated in the Gibraltarian society and there it is no association related to them. The Genoese in Gibraltar have left their presence in the Llanito, the local Gibraltarian dialect used by most of the descendants of these Ligurians
Great Siege of Gibraltar
The Great Siege of Gibraltar was an unsuccessful attempt by Spain and France to capture Gibraltar from the British during the American War of Independence. The British garrison under George Augustus Eliott were blockaded from June 1779 by the Spanish alone, led by Martín Álvarez de Sotomayor; the blockade failed because two relief convoys entered unmolested—the first under Admiral George Rodney in 1780 and the second under Admiral George Darby in 1781—despite the presence of the Spanish fleets. The same year, a major assault was planned by the Spanish, but the Gibraltar garrison sortied in November and destroyed much of the forward batteries. With the siege going nowhere and constant Spanish failures, the besiegers were reinforced by French forces under de Crillon, who took over command in early 1782. After a lull in the siege, during which the allied force gathered more guns and troops, a "Grand Assault" was launched on 18 September 1782; this involved huge numbers—60,000 men, 49 ships of the line and ten specially designed, newly invented floating batteries—against the 5,000 defenders.
The assault was a disastrous failure. The siege settled down again to more of a blockade, but the final defeat for the allies came when a crucial British relief convoy under Admiral Richard Howe slipped through the blockading fleet and arrived at the garrison in October 1782; the siege was lifted on 7 February 1783 and was a decisive victory for the British forces, being a vital factor in the Peace of Paris, negotiated towards the end of the siege. This was the largest action fought during the war in terms of numbers the "Grand Assault". At three years and seven months, it is the longest siege endured by the British Armed Forces and one of the longest sieges in history. In 1738 a dispute between Spain and Great Britain arose over commerce between Europe and the Americas. Both sides intended to sign an agreement at the Spanish Royal Palace of El Pardo, but in January of the following year, the British Parliament rejected the advice of Foreign Minister Robert Walpole, a supporter of the agreement with Spain.
A short time the War of Jenkins' Ear began, both countries declared war on 23 October 1739, each side drawing up plans to establish trenches near Gibraltar. Seeing these first movements, Britain ordered Admiral Vernon to sail from Portobello and strengthen the squadron of Admiral Haddock, stationed in the Bay of Gibraltar; the passage of years failed to break the hostilities in the region. On 9 July 1746, King Philip V of Spain died in Madrid, his successor, Ferdinand VI, soon began negotiations with Britain on trade. The British Parliament was amenable to such negotiations, looked favourably upon lifting the British embargo on Spain and ceding Gibraltar; the neutrality adopted by Ferdinand VI ended with his death in 1759. The new king, Charles III, was less willing to negotiate with Great Britain. Instead, he signed a Family Compact with Louis XV of France on 15 August 1761. At that time France was at war with Britain, so Britain responded by declaring war on Spain and capturing the Spanish colonial capitals of Manila and Havana.
Two years after cessation of hostilities, Spain recovered Manila and Havana in exchange for Spanish holdings in Florida as part of the 1763 Treaty of Paris. In the years of peace that followed both France and Spain hoped for an opportunity to launch a war against Britain on more favourable terms and recover their lost colonial possessions. Following the outbreak of the American War of Independence, both states supplied funding and arms to the American rebels, drew up a strategy to intervene on the American side and defeat Britain. In October 1778 France entered the war and on 12 April 1779, both France and Spain signed the Treaty of Aranjuez wherein they agreed to aid one another in recovering lost territory from Britain. France and Spain sought to secure Gibraltar, a key link in Britain's control of the Mediterranean Sea, expected its capture to be quick—a precursor to a Franco-Spanish invasion of Great Britain; the Spanish blockade was to be directed by Martín Álvarez de Sotomayor. Spanish ground forces were composed of 16 infantry battalions, which included the Royal Guards and the Walloon Guards, along with artillery and 12 squadrons of cavalry.
This yielded a total of about 14,000 men in all. The artillery was commanded by Rudesindo Tilly, while the cavalry and the French dragoons were headed by the Marquis of Arellano. Antonio Barceló commanded the maritime forces responsible for blockading the bay, he established his base with a fleet of several xebecs and gunboats. A fleet of 11 ships of the line and two frigates were placed in the Gulf of Cadiz under the command of Luis de Córdova y Córdova to block the passage of British reinforcements; the British garrison in 1778 consisted of 5,382 soldiers. All the defences were strengthened; the most prominent new work was the King's Bastion designed by Sir William Green and built by the Soldier Artificer Company on the main waterfront of the town in Gibraltar. The King's Bastion comprised a stone battery holding 26 heavy guns and mortars, with barracks and casemates to house a full battalion of foot; the Grand Battery protected the Land Port Gate, the main entrance to Gibraltar from the isthmus connecting to the Spanish mainland.
Other fortifications and batteries crowded on the Rock. Eliott began a programme of increasin
MV New Flame
MV New Flame was a Panamanian bulk-carrier cargo ship. It collided with an oil tanker off Europa Point, the southernmost tip of Gibraltar on 12 August 2007, ended up submerged in the Strait of Gibraltar; the vessel broke into two in December 2007 amid numerous unsuccessful recovery efforts. The cargo was salvaged and the stern section removed for scrap. Following the crew's rescue, the captain was arrested for having departed without authorisation. Charges of endangering shipping were dropped. New Flame measured 190 metres long, 30 metres wide and 28 metres tall, of which 16 metres were under the water line, it had a capacity of nearly 44,000 tonnes deadweight. At time of the incident it had a crew of 23 and it was owned by Transmar, a Greek shipping company; the ship was built in June 1994 by Daewoo H. I, South Korea and first named as Skaustrand. From 1995 it was named Aditya Gautam and was owned by the Indian company Century Textiles & Industries Ltd, who sold it in 2005 to Transmar for $22.5 million.
In the early morning of 12 August 2007, New Flame departed from Europa Point en route to Turkey, carrying 27,000 tons of scrap metal and 750 tons of fuel oil. About one kilometre south of Europa Point, it ran into the stern of Torm Gertrud, a double-hulled Danish petroleum tanker, scheduled to complete a personnel transfer in the Spanish port of Algeciras; the tanker proceeded towards Algeciras after the collision, where it was secured, with its cargo of 39,000 tons of fuel, whilst New Flame took water by the bow. The ship was abandoned by the crew and thereafter became submerged and ran aground nearby; the rescue response at the working level of Gibraltar was commended, although there was considerable criticism at a local level in Spain, due to the dispute between Spain and Gibraltar. Removal of the vessel’s fuel was initiated on 15 August with the arrival of the tug Hua-An joined by the tug Fotiy Krylov, it was the first priority of the salvage operation to minimise the environmental impact of the collision, followed by operations to refloat the ship.
On 20 August the salvage operation turned to the controlled break-up of the ship in two halves and the first reports of a'minor' oil-spill were reported. It was reported; the tug Fotiy Krylov had attempted to move the ship and divers checked the damage, concluding that the ship's structural integrity was sound enough for the removal of fuel to continue. By 24 August, it looked that the ship would be refloated if only to tow to a safer location; the salvage companies involved were Svitzer Wijsmuller Salvage. On 14 September 2007, the Government of Gibraltar announced that all fuel had been removed from the vessel, totalling 780 cubic metres; the operation had been hampered by the exposed location of the wreck. It was reported that the ship would not be salvaged in a single piece due to structural damage and would be instead cut in two parts at one-third of its length from the bow; the stern section would be removed first and towed to a safe area, where it would have its cargo removed and be taken to dry dock in Gibraltar.
On completion, the bow part would have been taken apart. The operation was scheduled to start in October 2007 with the removal of the stern in November and the bow as late as March 2008. However, the salvage company experienced technical difficulties in cutting up the vessel. Following prolonged bad weather, the vessel broke into two on 22 December 2007, prompting an emergency meeting by the Government of Gibraltar with maritime authorities. On 28 December 2007, the vessel's insurers placed the salvage operation in the hands of Titan Maritime, one of the world's largest marine salvage companies. New Flame avoided becoming a local shipwreck when in August 2008, the stern section was lifted and taken to the ship repair yard; the salvage operation of New Flame featured on "Salvage Code Red" on the National Geographic Channel on 16 February 2009. Following the collision, there were concerns raised that such incidents in the area were commonplace, with local politicians on both Gibraltar and Spanish sides calling for a review of procedures.
On 21 August the Spanish Maritime Safety Agency announced that it had put in place its anti-pollution alert program. This involved the deployment of the ship Don Inda, based in Galicia, which arrived at Algeciras on 14 August. On 31 August the European Maritime Safety Agency announced that, at the request of the Spanish administration the ship Mistra Bay, which specialised in the treatment of pollution, would be sent to the area. Following continued media speculation and accusations in Spain, the Government of Gibraltar announced it would make no further public comment, except to say that "this salvage operation has taken place more than comparable salvage operations elsewhere in the world." The captain, Demetrio Konstantinos, a Greek national, was arrested and released on bail. He faced safety charges. Subsequently Konstantinos pleaded guilty to leaving port without proper notification and paid a small fine, but charges of endangering shipping were dropped. MV Fedra "Pictures and discussion of events".
"Pictures and commentary soon after the collision and once salvage underway". "206/2007, Salvage Operation'New Flame' Attachment". Government of Gibraltar Press Release. 2007-09-14. Archived from the original on 2007-11-24. "New Flame - Gibraltar, agosto de 2007". Titan Marine
Death on the Rock
"Death on the Rock" is a controversial television documentary, an episode of Thames Television's current affairs series This Week, broadcast in the United Kingdom on ITV on 28 April 1988. The programme examined the deaths of three Provisional Irish Republican Army members in Gibraltar on 6 March 1988 at the hands of the British Special Air Service. "Death on the Rock" presented evidence that the IRA members were shot without warning or while attempting to surrender. It was condemned by the British government. "Death on the Rock" subsequently became the first individual documentary to be the subject of an independent inquiry, in which it was vindicated. The project began after it emerged that the three IRA members shot in Gibraltar were found to be unarmed and not in possession of a bomb; the series' editor, Roger Bolton, dispatched journalists to Gibraltar and Spain, where they interviewed several people who witnessed the shootings as well as Spanish police officers, involved in surveillance of the IRA team.
The journalists filmed the funerals of the IRA members in Belfast. Satisfied by the journalists' findings, Bolton sought a conclusion to the programme; the documentary was broadcast on 28 April 1988, despite two attempts by Foreign Secretary Sir Geoffrey Howe to have the Independent Broadcasting Authority postpone the broadcast. Using the eyewitness statements, the documentary questioned the government's version of events, suggested that the three IRA members may have been unlawfully killed. Reporter Julian Manyon summed up the programme's findings: none of the witnesses interviewed for the programme heard the soldiers challenge the trio before opening fire, but variously believed they had seen the IRA members shot in the back, with their hands up, or after falling to the ground; the final contributor was the lawyer recruited by Bolton, who suggested that a judicial inquiry was necessary to resolve the conflicts. The morning after the broadcast, several tabloid newspapers attacked the documentary, accusing it of sensationalism and "trial by television".
In the following days, they mounted a campaign against Carmen Proetta, one of the documentary's main witnesses, accusing her of being a former prostitute and of being anti-British. Other newspapers accused "Death on the Rock" of misrepresenting the eyewitnesses' statements and criticised the IBA for allowing the documentary to be broadcast; the eyewitnesses interviewed for "Death on the Rock" gave evidence at the inquest into the shootings. As a result of the retraction, Thames commissioned an independent inquiry into the making of "Death on the Rock"—the first time an inquiry had been commissioned into the making of an individual documentary; the Windlesham–Rampton report found that the programme's tendency was to present evidence that the IRA members had been unlawfully killed, but that it sought to raise questions rather than to reach a conclusion. The authors made several criticisms of the documentary, but overall found it a "trenchant" work of journalism, made in "good faith and without ulterior motives".
Thames lost its franchise and the IBA was abolished as a result of the Broadcasting Act 1990—decisions which several involved parties believed were influenced by the government's anger at "Death on the Rock". This Week was a current affairs television series that began in 1956. In 1978, it was renamed TV Eye and took on a lighter format; the programme was broadcast across the ITV regions and became a mainstay of ITV's current affairs programming. By 1988, the programme had interviewed several prime ministers and leaders of the opposition, including Margaret Thatcher, interviewed for three full episodes. On 6 March 1988, three members of an IRA Active Service Unit—Daniel McCann, Mairead Farrell, Sean Savage—were witnessed parking a car in a car park in Gibraltar; the three were suspected by the British authorities of being part of a plot to detonate a car bomb in the car park while it was full of soldiers preparing for the ceremony. In the immediate aftermath of the shootings, the British government released a statement to the effect that a large car bomb had been found in Gibraltar, that three suspected terrorists had been shot dead by the Gibraltar Police.
That evening, British television news reported the finding of the alleged car bomb, added that the IRA members had been involved in a "shootout" with authorities. All of Britain's daily newspapers covered the shootings the following morning, several of which cited the size of the alleged car bomb as 500 pounds and claimed that it was "packed with shrapnel"; the same morning, Ian Stewart, Minister of State for the Armed Forces, told BBC Radio 4 that "military personnel were involved" in the shootings, that "a car bomb was found, defused". The following day, Sir Geoffrey H
William Jackson (British Army officer)
General Sir William Godfrey Fothergill Jackson, was a British Army officer, military historian and Governor of Gibraltar. Educated at Shrewsbury School, the Royal Military Academy and King's College, William Jackson was commissioned into the Royal Engineers in 1937, he served with the British Army in Norway during the Second World War, where he was one of the first British officers to engage the enemy. His work in blowing up bridges as the British retreated from Lillehammer earned Jackson his first Military Cross, he served in North Africa and Italy during the war. He was twice injured by a land mine; the one at Bou Arada in Tunisia placed him in bed for four months before he joined Dwight Eisenhower's headquarters, where the invasion of Sicily was being planned. He won a Bar to his MC in 1944 at the Battle of Monte Cassino in recognition of "gallant and distinguished services", by the end of the war Jackson was in post as an acting major but was only formally promoted captain in August 1945, having been promoted to lieutenant in 1940.
He was mentioned in despatches in 1945 for his services in Italy. After the war he became a General Staff Officer at Headquarters Allied Land Forces, South East Asia in 1945 before moving on to be an Instructor at the Staff College, Camberley in 1948. Promoted major in 1950, he was an Instructor at the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst from 1951, he was promoted brevet lieutenant colonel in 1955 and was appointed Assistant Adjutant & Quartermaster General at the War Office during the Suez crisis in 1956. Jackson was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 1957 Birthday Honours. In 1958 he became Commander, Gurkha Engineers in Malaya. In 1960 he was promoted full colonel and in 1961 returned to the Staff College, Camberley as Colonel General Staff at the Minley Division, he was Deputy Director of Staff Duties at the War Office from 1962 and joined the Imperial Defence College in 1965 being promoted brigadier in March. He went on to be Director of the Chief of Defence Staff's Unison Planning Staff in 1966 in the temporary rank of major general and Assistant Chief of the General Staff at the Ministry of Defence in 1968.
In 1970 Jackson was promoted to lieutenant general and appointed General Officer Commanding-in-Chief for Northern Command. He was knighted as a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath in 1971, In 1973 he became Quartermaster-General to the Forces in the local rank of full general with formal promotion to general coming four months later. Advanced to Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire in the 1975 Birthday Honours, Jackson retired from active army service in February 1977, taking a post of Military Historian at the Cabinet Office from 1977 to 1978 and becoming Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Gibraltar, overseeing the colony's transition to a British dependent territory and where he was a stalwart advocate for self-determination in the territory. Jackson retired from his post in Gibraltar in 1982 and returned to being historian at the Cabinet Office until 1987, he had held five honorary military appointments: as ADC General to the Queen, Colonel Commandant the Royal Engineers, Colonel the Gurkha Engineers, Colonel Commandant Royal Army Ordnance Corps and Colonel of the Territorial Army Volunteer Reserve Engineer and Railway Staff Corps.
History of the Second World War, The Mediterranean and Middle East, vol. 6 Attack in the West: Napoleon's First Campaign Re-read Today.