The Eastern Bloc was the group of communist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact. The terms Communist Bloc and Soviet Bloc were used to denote groupings of states aligned with the Soviet Union, although these terms might include states outside Central and Eastern Europe. Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, who viewed the Soviet Union as a socialist island, Eastern Poland, Estonia and Bessarabia in northern Romania were recognized as parts of the Soviet sphere of influence. Lithuania was added in a secret protocol in September 1939. During the Occupation of East Poland by the Soviet Union, the Soviets liquidated the Polish state, Soviet authorities immediately started a campaign of sovietization of the newly Soviet-annexed areas. Soviet authorities collectivized agriculture, and nationalized and redistributed private and state-owned Polish property, the international community condemned this initial annexation of the Baltic states and deemed it illegal.
In June 1941, Germany broke the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact by invading the Soviet Union, from the time of this invasion to 1944, the areas annexed by the Soviet Union were part of Germanys Ostland. Thereafter, the Soviet Union began to push German forces westward through a series of battles on the Eastern Front, from 1943 to 1945, several conferences regarding Post-War Europe occurred that, in part, addressed the potential Soviet annexation and control of countries in Central Europe. I think that if I give him everything I possibly can and ask for nothing from him in return, noblesse oblige, he wont try to annex anything and will work with me for a world of democracy and peace. While meeting with Stalin and Roosevelt in Tehran in 1943, Churchill stated that Britain was vitally interested in restoring Poland as an independent country, Britain did not press the matter for fear that it would become a source of inter-allied friction. In February 1945, at the conference at Yalta, Stalin demanded a Soviet sphere of influence in Central Europe.
Stalin eventually was convinced by Churchill and Roosevelt not to dismember Germany, after resistance by Churchill and Roosevelt, Stalin promised a re-organization of the current pro-Soviet government on a broader democratic basis in Poland. He stated that the new primary task would be to prepare elections. In addition to reparations, Stalin pushed for war booty, which would permit the Soviet Union to directly seize property from conquered nations without quantitative or qualitative limitation, a clause was added permitting this to occur with some limitations. At first, the Soviets concealed their role in other Eastern Bloc politics, as a young communist was told in East Germany, its got to look democratic, but we must have everything in our control. Moscow-trained cadres were put into crucial power positions to fulfill orders regarding sociopolitical transformation, elimination of the bourgeoisies social and financial power by expropriation of landed and industrial property was accorded absolute priority.
These measures were publicly billed as reforms rather than socioeconomic transformations, the bloc system permitted the Soviet Union to exercise domestic control indirectly. Crucial departments such as responsible for personnel, general police, secret police
Molly Crabapple is an artist and writer living in New York. She is an editor for VICE and has written for The New York Times, The Paris Review, Vanity Fair, The Guardian, CNN. Her published books include her illustrated memoir Drawing Blood, Discordia on the Greek economic crisis, and she regularly speaks to audiences around the world, at institutions such as The Museum of Modern Art, The London School of Economics, and Harvard and Columbia University. Her works are held in the permanent collections of the Museum of Modern Art, The Barjeel Art Foundation, Crabapple began drawing at the age of four with guidance from her mother, an illustrator who worked on toy product packaging. At age 12, Crabapple remembers herself as a snotty goth moppet in a pair of Doc Martens, who blared Hole on her Walkman, drew headless cheerleaders and her school diagnosed her with oppositional defiant disorder and she was expelled from the seventh grade. In high school, Crabapple described herself as gothy and she never liked her given name so she started using the name Molly Crabapple after a boyfriend suggested it reflected her character.
After graduating at the age of 17, she traveled to Europe, in Paris, she was welcomed by George Whitman, the proprietor of the English-language bookstore Shakespeare and Company. After receiving a notebook as a gift she began drawing on a serious basis, Crabapple went on to work as a life model and a burlesque performer, and modeled for the Society of Illustrators. At the age of 19, she was modeling for SuicideGirls, working as a model allowed Crabapple to earn more money than a typical day job and to continue working on her illustrations. She briefly attended the Fashion Institute of Technology, but withdrew during her third year, for four years she worked as the house artist for the Box, a New York City nightclub. Crabapple described her time at the Box as her artistic coming-of-age, after working as an artists model, Crabapple became disenchanted with the structure of a formal sketch class. In 2005, she and illustrator A. V. Phibes founded Dr. Sketchys Anti-Art School, in a typical sketching session, artists will drink alcohol, sketch burlesque models, and play art games in a bar or venue like an art museum.
After an artist inquired about starting a Dr. Sketchys in Melbourne, Australia, as of 2010, there were approximately 150 licensees using the Dr. Sketchys name. Crabapple has contributed her illustrations to a number of comics, often with writer John Leavitt and they worked on Backstage, a webcomic at Act-i-vate that tells the story of how fire eater Scarlett OHerring was murdered. Scarlett Takes Manhattan, a novel published by Fugu Press, is a prequel to Backstage. Puppet Makers, a web comic that depicts an alternate history of the industrial revolution. Crabapple illustrated two Marvel anthologies, Strange Tales vol.2 and Girl Comics vol, in September 2011, Crabapple was living in a studio near Zuccotti Park. Occupy Wall Street protesters had begun to use the Park as a camp to stage their movement, artists began creating posters and Crabapple decided to contribute work, before Occupy I felt like using my art for activist causes was exploitive of activist causes, she told the Village Voice
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Real Irish Republican Army
The Real Irish Republican Army or Real IRA, referred to as the New IRA, is an Irish republican paramilitary organisation which aims to bring about a united Ireland. It formed in 1997 following a split in the Provisional IRA by dissident members and it is an illegal organisation in the Republic of Ireland and designated as a terrorist organisation in the United Kingdom and the United States. Since its formation, RIRA has waged a campaign in Northern Ireland against the Police Service of Northern Ireland —formerly the Royal Ulster Constabulary —and the British Army, the RIRA is the largest and most active of the dissident republican paramilitary groups operating against the British security forces. It has targeted the security forces in gun attacks and bombings, the organisation has been responsible for bombings in Northern Ireland and England with the goal of causing economic harm and/or disruption. The most notable of these was the 1998 Omagh bombing, which killed 29 people, after that bombing the RIRA went on ceasefire, but began operations again in 2000.
In March 2009 it claimed responsibility for an attack on Massereene Barracks which killed two British soldiers, the first to be killed in Northern Ireland since 1997, the Real IRA has been involved in vigilantism, mainly against alleged drug dealers and organised crime gangs. In Dublin in particular it has accused of extortion and engaging in feuds with these gangs. In July 2012 it was reported that Republican Action Against Drugs, as before, the group continues to refer to itself as the Irish Republican Army, but the new group has been referred as the New IRA in the press. In July 1997 the Provisional IRA called a ceasefire, on 10 October 1997 a Provisional IRA General Army Convention was held in Falcarragh, County Donegal. He was backed by his partner and fellow Executive member Bernadette Sands McKevitt, the two dissidents were outmanoeuvred by the leadership and were left isolated. The convention backed the line, and on 26 October McKevitt. In November 1997 McKevitt and other dissidents held a meeting in a farmhouse in Oldcastle, County Meath, the name Real IRA entered common usage when members set up a roadblock in Jonesborough, County Armagh and told motorists Were from the IRA.
The RIRAs objective is a united Ireland by forcing the end of British sovereignty over Northern Ireland through the use of physical force, the organisation rejects the Mitchell Principles and the Good Friday Agreement, comparing the latter to the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty which resulted in the partition of Ireland. The organisation aims to uphold an uncompromising form of Irish republicanism and opposes any political settlement that falls short of Irish unity and he did not die for nationalists to be equal British citizens within the Northern Ireland state. The RIRA adopted a tactic of bombing town centres to damage the infrastructure of Northern Ireland. The organisations first action was a bombing in Banbridge, County Down on 7 January 1998. The intention was to explode a 300 lb car bomb, the RIRA continued its campaign in late February with bombings in Moira, County Down and Portadown, County Armagh. On 9 May the organisation announced its existence, in a telephone call to Belfast media claiming responsibility for a mortar attack on a police station in Belleek
Continuity Irish Republican Army
The Continuity Irish Republican Army, usually known as the Continuity IRA is an Irish republican paramilitary group that aims to bring about a united Ireland. It emerged from a split in the Provisional IRA in 1986 and it is an illegal organisation in the Republic of Ireland and is designated a terrorist organisation in the United Kingdom, New Zealand and the United States. It has links with the political party Republican Sinn Féin and it sees itself as the national army of an Irish Republic covering the whole of Ireland. The security forces initially referred to it as the Irish National Republican Army, since 1994, the CIRA has waged a campaign in Northern Ireland against the British Army and the Police Service of Northern Ireland, formerly the Royal Ulster Constabulary. This is part of a campaign against the British security forces by dissident republican paramilitaries. It has targeted the security forces in gun attacks and bombings, as well as grenades, mortars. The CIRA has carried out bombings with the goal of causing economic harm and/or disruption, to date, it has been responsible for the death of one PSNI officer.
The CIRA is not as big and has not been as active as the Real IRA, the Continuity IRA has its origins in a split in the Provisional IRA. In September 1986, the Provisional IRA held a meeting of its General Army Convention and it was the first GAC in 16 years. The only IRA body that supported this viewpoint was the outgoing IRA Executive and those members of the outgoing Executive who opposed the change comprised a quorum. They met, dismissed those in favour of the change, and they contacted Tom Maguire, who was a commander in the old IRA and had supported the Provisionals against the Official IRA, and asked him for support. Maguire had contacted by supporters of Gerry Adams, and current president of Sinn Féin. Maguire rejected Adams supporters, supported the IRA Executive members opposed to the change, in 1987, Maguire described the Continuity Executive as the lawful Executive of the Irish Republican Army. He was the first police officer to be killed since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement and he was killed two days after the Real IRAs 2009 Massereene Barracks shooting in Antrim.
In a press interview with Republican Sinn Féin some days later, regarded by some to be the wing of the Continuity IRA. In 2013, the Continuity IRAs South Down Brigade threatened a Traveller family in Newry, there were negotiations with community representatives and the CIRA announced the threat was lifted. It was believed the threat was issued after a Traveller feud which resulted in a bomb attack in Bessbrook. The Continuity IRA is believed to be strongest in the County Fermanagh - North County Armagh area and it claimed the group orchestrated a riot during a security alert in Lurgan
Tor (anonymity network)
Tor is free software for enabling anonymous communication. The name is derived from an acronym for the software project name The Onion Router. Using Tor makes it difficult for Internet activity to be traced back to the user, this includes visits to Web sites, online posts, instant messages. Tors use is intended to protect the privacy of users, as well as their freedom. Onion routing is implemented by encryption in the layer of a communication protocol stack. Tor encrypts the data, including the next node destination IP address, multiple times and sends it through a circuit comprising successive. Each relay decrypts a layer of encryption to reveal only the relay in the circuit in order to pass the remaining encrypted data on to it. The final relay decrypts the innermost layer of encryption and sends the data to its destination without revealing, or even knowing. An adversary might try to de-anonymize the user by some means, one way this may be achieved is by exploiting vulnerable software on the users computer.
Attacks against Tor are an area of academic research, and are welcomed by the Tor Project itself. Onion routing was developed by DARPA in 1997. The alpha version of Tor, developed by Syverson and computer scientists Roger Dingledine and Nick Mathewson and called The Onion Routing project, or TOR project, the first public release occurred a year later. On 13 August 2004, Syverson and Mathewson presented Tor, in 2004, the Naval Research Laboratory released the code for Tor under a free license, and the Electronic Frontier Foundation began funding Dingledine and Mathewson to continue its development. In December 2006, Dingledine and five others founded The Tor Project, from this period onwards, the majority of funding sources came from the U. S. government. In November 2014 there was speculation in the aftermath of Operation Onymous that a Tor weakness has been exploited, a representative of Europol was secretive about the method used, This is something we want to keep for ourselves. The way we do this, we share with the whole world.
This possibility was downplayed by Andrew Lewman, a representative of the not-for-profit Tor project, however, in November 2015 court documents on the matter generated serious ethical security research as well as Fourth Amendment concerns. In December 2015, The Tor Project announced that it had hired Shari Steele as its new executive director, Steele had previously led the Electronic Frontier Foundation for 15 years, and in 2004 spearheaded EFFs decision to fund Tors early development
Irish National Liberation Army
The Irish National Liberation Army is an Irish republican socialist paramilitary group formed in December 1974, during the Troubles. It seeks to remove Northern Ireland from the United Kingdom and create a socialist republic encompassing all of Ireland and it is the paramilitary wing of the Irish Republican Socialist Party. The INLA was founded by members of the Official IRA who opposed that groups ceasefire. It was initially known as the Peoples Liberation Army or Peoples Republican Army, the INLA waged a paramilitary campaign against the British Army and Royal Ulster Constabulary in Northern Ireland. It was active to an extent in the Republic of Ireland. High-profile attacks carried out by the INLA include the Droppin Well bombing, the 1994 Shankill Road killings, However, it was smaller and less active than the main republican paramilitary group, the Provisional IRA. It was weakened by feuds and internal tensions, after a 24-year armed campaign, the INLA declared a ceasefire on 22 August 1998.
In August 1999, it stated that There is no political or moral argument to justify a resumption of the campaign, in October 2009, the INLA formally vowed to pursue its aims through peaceful political means and began decommissioning its weapons. The party supports a No First Strike policy, that is allowing people to see the failure of the peace process for themselves without military actions. The INLA is a Proscribed Organisation in the United Kingdom under the Terrorism Act 2000, the INLA was founded on 8 December 1974 in the Spa Hotel in Lucan, Dublin by former members of the Official IRA. The groups political wing, the IRSP was founded on the same day, the IRSPs foundation was made public but the INLAs was kept a secret until the group could operate effectively. The group was formed due to dissatisfaction with the Official IRA ceasefire in 1972, shortly after it was founded, the INLA came under attack from their former comrades in the OIRA, who wanted to destroy the new grouping before it could get off the ground.
On 20 February 1975, Hugh Ferguson, an INLA member, one of the first military operations of the INLA was the shooting of OIRA leader Sean Garland in Dublin on 1 March. Although shot six times, he survived, after several more shootings a truce was arranged, but fighting started again. The most prominent victim of the feud was Billy McMillen. His murder was unauthorised and was condemned by Costello and this was followed by several more assassinations on both sides, the most prominent victim being Seamus Costello, who was shot dead on the North Strand Road in Dublin on 6 October 1977. Costellos death was a blow to the INLA, as he was their most able political. The Officials had denied involvement at the time of the killing and had blamed it on the Provisionals
Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn was a Russian novelist and short story writer. He was a critic of the Soviet Union and communism. He was allowed to only one work in the Soviet Union, One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich. After this he had to publish in the West, most notably Cancer Ward, August 1914, Solzhenitsyn was awarded the 1970 Nobel Prize in Literature for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature. Solzhenitsyn was afraid to go to Stockholm to receive his award for fear that he would not be allowed to reenter and he was eventually expelled from the Soviet Union in 1974, but returned to Russia in 1994 after the states dissolution. Solzhenitsyn was born in Kislovodsk, RSFSR and his mother, Taisiya Zakharovna was of Ukrainian descent. Her father had risen from humble beginnings to become a wealthy landowner, during World War I, Taisiya went to Moscow to study. While there she met and married Isaakiy Solzhenitsyn, a officer in the Imperial Russian Army of Cossack origins.
The family background of his parents is vividly brought to life in the chapters of August 1914. In 1918, Taisia became pregnant with Aleksandr, on 15 June, shortly after her pregnancy was confirmed, Isaakiy was killed in a hunting accident. Aleksandr was raised by his mother and aunt in lowly circumstances. His earliest years coincided with the Russian Civil War, by 1930 the family property had been turned into a collective farm. Later, Solzhenitsyn recalled that his mother had fought for survival and his educated mother encouraged his literary and scientific learnings and raised him in the Russian Orthodox faith, she died in 1944. As early as 1936, Solzhenitsyn began developing the characters and concepts for an epic work on World War I. This eventually led to the novel August 1914 – some of the chapters he wrote still survive, Solzhenitsyn studied mathematics at Rostov State University. At the same time he took courses from the Moscow Institute of Philosophy and History. As he himself makes clear, he did not question the state ideology or the superiority of the Soviet Union until he spent time in the camps.
During the war Solzhenitsyn served as the commander of a battery in the Red Army, was involved in major action at the front
Soviet dissidents were persons who disagreed with certain features in the embodiment of Soviet ideology and who were willing to speak out against them. The term dissident was used in the Soviet Union in the period following Joseph Stalins death until the fall of communism and it was used to refer to small groups of marginalized intellectuals whose modest challenges to the Soviet regime met protection and encouragement from correspondents. Following the etymology of the term, a dissident is considered to sit apart from the regime, as dissenters began self-identifying as dissidents, the term came to refer to an individual whose non-conformism was perceived to be for the good of a society. Political opposition in the USSR was barely visible and, with rare exceptions, instead, an important element of dissident activity in the Soviet Union was informing society about violation of laws and human rights. Over time, the dissident movement created vivid awareness of Soviet Communist abuses, Soviet dissidents who criticized the state faced possible legal sanctions under the Soviet Criminal Code and faced the choice of exile, the mental hospital, or the labor camp.
In the 1950s, Soviet dissidents started leaking criticism to the West by sending documents and statements to foreign missions in Moscow. Our history shows that most of the people can be fooled for a long time. But now all this idiocy is coming into clear contradiction with the fact that we have some level of openness, the heyday of the dissenters as a presence in the Western public life was the 1970s. The Helsinki Accords inspired dissidents in the Soviet Union, Hungary, dissident Russian and East European intellectuals who urged compliance with the Helsinki accords have been subjected to official repression. According to Soviet dissident Leonid Plyushch, Moscow has taken advantage of the Helsinki security pact to improve its economy while increasing the suppression of political dissenters,50 members of Soviet Helsinki Groups were imprisoned. US President Jimmy Carter in his address on 20 January 1977 announced that human rights would be central to foreign policy during his administration. In February, Carter sent Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov a letter expressing his support for the stance on human rights.
In the wake of Carters letter to Sakharov, the USSR cautioned against attempts to interfere in its affairs under a pretext of defending human rights. The KGB head Yuri Andropov determined, The need has thus emerged to terminate the actions of Orlov, fellow Helsinki monitor Ginzburg and others once and for all, if we accept human rights violations as just their way of doing things, we are all guilty. On the grounds that political dissenters in the Soviet Union were psychotic and deluded, they were locked away in psychiatric hospitals, confinement of political dissenters in psychiatric institutions had become a common practice. Finally, many persons at that time tended to believe that dissidents were abnormal people whose commitment to mental hospitals was quite justified. Another wave of arrests followed in the early 1980s, Malva Landa, Viktor Nekipelov, Leonard Ternovsky, Feliks Serebrov, Tatiana Osipova, Anatoly Marchenko, Soviet authorities offered some activists the opportunity to emigrate.
By 1983 the Ukrainian Helsinki Group had 37 members, of whom 22 were in camps,5 were in exile,6 emigrated to the West,3 were released and were living in Ukraine,1 committed suicide
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953. Holding the post of the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, he was effectively the dictator of the state. Stalin was one of the seven members of the first Politburo, founded in 1917 in order to manage the Bolshevik Revolution, alongside Lenin, Kamenev, Trotsky and Bubnov. Among the Bolshevik revolutionaries who took part in the Russian Revolution of 1917 and he managed to consolidate power following the 1924 death of Vladimir Lenin by suppressing Lenins criticisms and expanding the functions of his role, all the while eliminating any opposition. He remained General Secretary until the post was abolished in 1952, the economic changes coincided with the imprisonment of millions of people in Gulag labour camps. The initial upheaval in agriculture disrupted food production and contributed to the catastrophic Soviet famine of 1932–33, major figures in the Communist Party and government, and many Red Army high commanders, were arrested and shot after being convicted of treason in show trials.
Stalins invasion of Bukovina in 1940 violated the pact, as it went beyond the Soviet sphere of influence agreed with the Axis, Germany ended the pact when Hitler launched a massive invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941. Despite heavy human and territorial losses, Soviet forces managed to halt the Nazi incursion after the decisive Battles of Moscow, after defeating the Axis powers on the Eastern Front, the Red Army captured Berlin in May 1945, effectively ending the war in Europe for the Allies. The Soviet Union subsequently emerged as one of two recognized world superpowers, the other being the United States, Communist governments loyal to the Soviet Union were established in most countries freed from German occupation by the Red Army, which constituted the Eastern Bloc. Stalin had relations with Mao Zedong in China and Kim Il-sung in North Korea. On February 9,1946, Stalin delivered a public speech in which he explained the fundamental incompatibility of communism and capitalism. He stressed that the system needed war for raw materials.
The Second World War was but the latest in a chain of conflicts which could be broken only when the economy made the transformation into communism. Stalin led the Soviet Union through its post-war reconstruction phase, which saw a significant rise in tension with the Western world that would be known as the Cold War, Stalin remains a controversial figure today, with many regarding him as a tyrant. However, popular opinion within the Russian Federation is mixed, the exact number of deaths caused by Stalins regime is still a subject of debate, but it is widely agreed to be in the order of millions. Joseph Stalin was born Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili, the Russian-language version of his birth name is Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili. Ioseb was born on 18 December 1878 in the town of Gori and his father was Besarion Jughashvili, a cobbler, while his mother was Ekaterine Keke Geladze, a housemaid. As a child, Ioseb was plagued with health issues
Samizdat was a key form of dissident activity across the Soviet bloc in which individuals reproduced censored and underground publications by hand and passed the documents from reader to reader. This grassroots practice to evade official Soviet censorship was fraught with danger, vladimir Bukovsky summarized it as follows, Samizdat, I write it myself, edit it myself, censor it myself, publish it myself, distribute it myself, and spend jail time for it myself. Etymologically, the word derives from sam and izdat. The Ukrainian language has a term, samvýdav, from sam, self. The Russian poet Nikolai Glazkov coined a version of the term as a pun in the 1940s when he typed copies of his poems, Tamizdat refers to literature published abroad, often from smuggled manuscripts. Samizdat copies of texts, such as Mikhail Bulgakovs novel The Master, the techniques used to reproduce these forbidden texts varied. Samizdat distinguishes itself not only by the ideas and debates which it helped spread to a wider audience, the hand-typed, often blurry and wrinkled pages with numerous typographical errors and nondescript covers helped to separate and elevate Russian samizdat from Western literature.
The physical form of samizdat arose from a lack of resources. The form samizdat took gained precedence over the ideas it expressed, in effect, the physical form of samizdat itself elevated the reading of samizdat to a prized clandestine act. Samizdat originated from the dissident movement of the Russian intelligentsia, while circulation of samizdat was relatively low, at around 200,000 readers on average, many of these readers possessed positions of cultural power and authority. The purpose and methods of samizdat may contrast with the purpose of the concept of copyright, self-published and self-distributed literature has a long history in Russia. Samizdat is unique to the post-Stalin USSR and other countries with similar systems, under the grip of censorship of the police state, society turned to underground literature for self-analysis and self-expression. Certain works published legally in the State-controlled media were practically impossible to find in bookshops and libraries, the first full-length book to be distributed as samizdat was Boris Pasternaks 1957 novel Doctor Zhivago.
Although the literary magazine Novy Mir had published ten poems from the book in 1954, the novel One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn had a similar fate and was widely distributed via samizdat. The editors of magazines were regulars at impromptu public poetry readings in 1958-61 on Mayakovsky square in Moscow. The gatherings did not last long, as soon the authorities began clamping down on them, in the summer of 1961, several meeting regulars were arrested and charged with anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda, putting an end to most of the magazines. Not everything published in samizdat had political overtones, in 1963, Joseph Brodsky was charged with social parasitism and convicted for being nothing but a poet. His poems circulated in samizdat, with only four judged as suitable for official Soviet anthologies, in the mid-1960s, the Youngest Society of Geniuses, an unofficial literary group known by the acronym SMOG issued an almanac titled The Sphinxes and collections of prose and poetry
Chronicle of Current Events
A Chronicle of Current Events was one of the longest-running samizdat periodicals of the post-Stalin USSR. The unofficial publication reported violations of rights and judicial procedure by the Soviet government. Appearing first in April 1968, it became the main voice of the Soviet human rights movement, inside the country. During the 15 years of its existence the Chronicle covered 424 political trials, not one of the accused was acquitted. In addition,164 people were declared insane and sent for periods of compulsory treatment in psychiatric hospitals. Despite constant harassment by the Soviet authorities more than sixty issues of the Chronicle were compiled and published between April 1968 and July 1982, one issue was confiscated, the last issue never went into circulation. Today the Chronicle offers a historical overview of political repression in the Soviet Union. No other samizdat publication covered the country for so long, recording every aspect of human rights violation committed by the post-Stalin Soviet authorities at national and local level.
The periodical modelled itself on earlier more narrowly-focused underground publications and in the early 1970s its example was followed in Ukraine, the Chronicles precursors were produced by confessional and ethnic minority groups, the persecuted Baptists and Crimean Tatars. A Chronicle of Current Events was created by dissenting members of Moscows literary, the first editor and typist of the Chronicle was Natalya Gorbanevskaya. She was a contributor to the publication and responsible for introducing its regular Samizdat update section. A participant in the 1968 Red Square demonstration, she was forced to undergo psychiatric examination, then, in 1970 she was tried and convicted and sent to the Kazan Special Psychiatric Hospital, from which she was released in 1972. Others stepped forward to take Gorbanevskayas place and were themselves, in turn, subjected to forms of harassment. This pattern would be repeated more than once over the next 13 years, by the mid-1960s critically minded adults and youngsters in Moscow were confronted by a growing range of information about ongoing political repressions in the Soviet Union.
For the circle of future editors, this picture was amplified by Anatoly Marchenkos My Testimony and it provided a detailed account of his time in labor camps and Soviet prisons, as well as describing the conditions there. A prototype already existed in bulletins by repressed groups that had recently begun publication in samizdat, such as a Baptist periodical. An example for the Chronicles first editorial group was the bulletin of the Crimean Tatars. A turning point for the dissident movement came in 1967 when Yuri Galanskov, Alexander Dobrovolsky