The Distant Early Warning Line known as the DEW Line or Early Warning Line, was a system of radar stations in the far northern Arctic region of Canada, with additional stations along the North Coast and Aleutian Islands of Alaska, in addition to the Faroe Islands and Iceland. It was set up to detect incoming Soviet bombers during the Cold War, provide early warning of any sea-and-land invasion; the DEW Line was the northernmost and most capable of three radar lines in Alaska. The first of these was the joint Canadian-US Pinetree Line, which ran from Newfoundland to Vancouver Island just north of the Canadian border, but while it was being built there were concerns that it would not provide enough warning time to launch an effective counterattack; the Mid-Canada Line was proposed as an inexpensive solution using a new type of radar. This provided a "trip wire" warning located at the 55th parallel, giving commanders ample warning time, but little information on the targets or their exact location.
The MCL proved useless in practice, as the radar return of flocks of birds overwhelmed signals from aircraft. The DEW Line was proposed as a solution to both of these problems, using conventional radar systems that could both detect and characterize an attack, while being located far to the north where they would offer hours of advanced warning; this would not only provide ample time for the defenses to prepare, but allow the Strategic Air Command to get its active aircraft airborne long before Soviet bombers could reach their bases. The need was considered critical and the construction was given the highest national priorities. Advanced site preparation began in December 1954, the construction was carried out in a massive logistical operation that took place during the summer months when the sites could be reached by ships; the 63-base Line reached operational status in 1957. The MCL was shut down in the early 1960s, much of the Pinetree line was given over to civilian use. In 1985, as part of the "Shamrock Summit", the US and Canada agreed to transition DEW to a new system known as the North Warning System.
Beginning in 1988, most of the original DEW stations were deactivated, while a small number were upgraded with all-new equipment. The official handover from DEW to NWS took place on 15 July 1993; the shortest route for a Russian air attack on North America is through the Arctic, across the North Pole. The DEW Line was built during the Cold War to give early warning of a Soviet nuclear strike, to allow time for US bombers to get off the ground and land-based ICBMs to be launched, to reduce the chances that a preemptive strike could destroy US strategic nuclear forces; the original DEW line was designed to detect bombers and was unable to detect intercontinental ballistic missiles. To give warning of this threat, in 1958 a more sophisticated radar system was constructed, the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System; the DEW Line was a significant achievement among Cold War initiatives in the Arctic. A successful combination of scientific design and logistical planning of the late 1950s, the DEW Line consisted of a string of continental defence radar installations stretching from Alaska to Greenland.
In addition to the secondary Mid-Canada Line and the tertiary Pinetree Line, the DEW Line marked the edge of an electronic grid controlled by the new SAGE computer system and was centered at the Cheyenne Mountain Complex, command hub of the North American Aerospace Defense Command. The construction of the DEW Line was made possible by a bilateral agreement between the Canadian and US governments, by collaboration between the US Department of Defense and the Bell System of communication companies; the DEW Line grew out of a detailed study made by a group of the nation's foremost scientists in 1952, the Summer Study Group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The subject of the study was the vulnerability of the US and Canada to aerial bombing attacks, its concluding recommendation was that a distant early warning line of search radar stations be built across the Arctic border of the North American continent as as possible. Improvements in Soviet technology rendered the Pinetree Line and Mid-Canada Line inadequate to provide enough early warning and on 15 February 1954, the Canadian and American governments agreed to jointly build a third line of radar stations, this time running across the high Arctic.
The line would run along the 69th parallel north, about 200 miles or 300 kilometers north of the Arctic Circle. Before this project was completed and women with the necessary knowledge and experience were drawn from Bell Telephone companies in every state in the US, many Canadian provinces. Much of the responsibility was delegated under close supervision to a vast number of subcontractors, US military units; the initial contract with the U. S. Air Force and the Royal Canadian Air Force provided for the design and construction of a small experimental system to determine at the beginning whether the idea was practicable; the designs of communication and radar detection equipment available at the time were known to be unsuited to the weather and atmospheric conditions to be encountered in the Arctic. Prototypes of several stations were designed and built in Alaska in 1953. A prototype built for training purposes was chosen to be located in Streator, Illinois in 1952; the Streator DEW-Line Training Center became operational in 1956 and closed when operations were moved to Colorado Springs in 1975.
After leaving Streator, the land on which the Streator DEW-Line Training Center stood
The George R. Brown School of Engineering is an academic school at Rice University in Houston, Texas, it contains the departments of Bioengineering and Biomolecular Engineering and Environmental Engineering and Applied Mathematics, Computer Science, Electrical Engineering and Computer Engineering, Materials Science and Nanoengineering, Mechanical Engineering, Statistics. Engineering has been part of Rice's curriculum since the university's founding in 1912, but the school was not established as its own unit until 1975. In its earliest days, Rice offered courses in chemical, civil and electrical engineering. Over the years, the engineering program grew, in 1975 the George R. Brown School of Engineering was established and named after George R. Brown, a major donor and leader of Brown & Root Inc. Presently, the school comprises nine academic departments and includes 22 engineering-related research institutes and centers. One third of Rice's students are engineering majors. Among the more than 136 engineering faculty are 9 members of the National Academy of Engineering, 3 members of the National Academy of Sciences and 2 members of the National Academy of Medicine.
Students work with professors working in labs and research projects. More than 60 percent of undergraduates have had significant research experience by the time they graduate. Research expenditures in FY 2018-19 exceeded $76 million. Departments and centers within the school of engineering take advantage of Houston's role as a center for the energy industry, medical research, space exploration, the city's growing high-technology sector. Several departments have active industrial affiliates programs, many research projects are undertaken with local companies. Students benefit from these relationships through collaborative research projects, summer internships, making contacts for employment before graduation. Pedro J. J. Alvarez, National Academy of Engineering Reginald DesRoches, National Academy of Engineering Naomi Halas, National Academy of Engineering. - American entrepreneur and politician best known for serving as U. S. Secretary of Energy on the Cabinet of President Jimmy Carter from 1979 to 1981 Lynn Elsenhans - former Chairperson, Chief Executive Officer and President of Sunoco Kevin Harvey - venture capitalist, founding member of and general partner at Benchmark Jeffrey A. Hoffman - American former NASA astronaut, made five flights as a Space Shuttle astronaut, including the first mission to repair the Hubble Space Telescope in 1993 James A. Kahle - chief architect of many IBM POWER microprocessors Tim League - founder of the Alamo Drafthouse Cinema chain and the founder of the film distribution company Drafthouse Films Michael Loren "Fuzzy" Mauldin - retired computer scientist and the inventor of the Lycos web search engine Arun Netravali - pioneer in the development of digital video technology including HDTV, former president of Bell Laboratories John D. Olivas - American engineer and a former NASA astronaut Pete Olson - U.
S. Representative for Texas's 22nd congressional district, serving since 2009 Geoffrey Orsak - engineering academic, former dean of the Lyle School of Engineering at Southern Methodist University Vladimir Rokhlin Jr. - professor of computer science and mathematics at Yale University, co-inventor of the fast multipole method in 1985 Hector Ruiz - former CEO & executive chairman of semiconductor company Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. Dorry Segev - transplant surgeon known for his role in getting the HIV Organ Policy Equity Act signed into law Fred I. Stalkup - known for his work in the field of oil and gas production, member of the National Academy of Engineers Jimmy Treybig - founded Tandem Computers George R. Brown School of Engineering website Rice University
The Sarasota metropolitan area is a metropolitan area located in Southwest Florida. The metropolitan area is defined by the Office of Management and Budget as the North Port–Sarasota–Bradenton metropolitan statistical area as a metropolitan statistical area consisting of Manatee County and Sarasota County; the largest cities in the MSA are Sarasota and Bradenton. At the 2010 Census, the MSA had a population of 702,281; the Census Bureau estimates that its population was 821,573 in 2018. Additionally, the federal government defines the North Port–Sarasota combined statistical area as a combined statistical area consisting of the combination of the North Port–Sarasota–Bradenton MSA, the Punta Gorda, Florida MSA, the Arcadia, micropolitan statistical area. At the 2010 Census, the CSA had a population of 897,121; the Census Bureau estimates that its population was 1,044,060 in 2018. The Sarasota standard metropolitan statistical area was first defined in 1973, included only Sarasota County; the Bradenton SMSA was defined after the 1980 United States Census, included only Manatee County.
The two MSAs were combined in 1993 as the Sarasota–Bradenton metropolitan statistical area. Venice was added as a principal city after the 2000 census. In 2007, the MSA was renamed the Bradenton–Sarasota–Venice MSA because Bradenton's population exceeded that of Sarasota. In 2009, the area was designated the North Port–Bradenton–Sarasota MSA after North Port qualified as a "principal city" under the metropolitan statistical area definition and was determined to be the largest of the area's three principal cities; as of 2013, the MSA is named the North Port–Sarasota–Bradenton metropolitan statistical area. The North Port–Sarasota–Bradenton MSA is a component of the larger North Port–Sarasota combined statistical area, which includes the Punta Gorda, Florida, MSA and the Arcadia, micropolitan statistical area. At the 2010 census, the MSA had a population of 702,281, a 19% increase over the 2000 census population of 589,959; the following is a list of the five largest cities in the Sarasota metropolitan area as ranked by population.
The following is a list of census-designated places ranked by population. CDPs in the combined statistical area are included; the Sarasota metropolitan area, like most of Florida, is located in the humid subtropical zone. There are hot, humid summers with frequent afternoon thunderstorms and drier and mild winters. Interstate 75 Interstate 275 U. S. Route 19 U. S. Route 41 U. S. Route 301 State Road 37 State Road 62 State Road 64 State Road 70 State Road 72 State Road 681 State Road 684 State Road 758 State Road 776 State Road 780 State Road 789 Port Manatee Sarasota-Bradenton International Buchan Airport Venice Municipal Airport Both Sarasota and Manatee counties have their own transit networks, SCAT and MCAT, which runs bus services in the area. Amtrak does operate a Thruway Route going through the area starting in St. Petersburg-Clearwater and ending in Fort Myers, with Sarasota and Ellenton operating as stops along the route. Anna Maria Island Sun Bradenton Herald Business Observer, a business newspaper, published in Sarasota, but serves several other regions of Florida.
East County Observer Longboat Observer The Bradenton Times, an online newspaper. The Islander Sarasota Herald-Tribune Siesta Key Observer Sarasota Observer Tempo News Venice Gondolier Sun Sarasota MagazineSRQ Magazine Venice: Gulf Coast Living Magazine ABC 7 WSNN Public education is provided by Manatee County School District and Sarasota County Public Schools; the following college/university campuses exist in the metropolitan area. Asolo Conservatory for Actor Training East West College of Natural Medicine Everglades University Florida State University College of Medicine Keiser University LECOM Ringling College of Art and Design New College of Florida State College of Florida Sarasota-Manatee USF Sarasota-Manatee The Sarasota Metropolitan Area has a gross metropolitan product of $34.3 billion as of 2018. Manatee County, Florida Sarasota County, Florida Southwest Florida Tampa Bay Area Metropolitan and micropolitan statistical area definitions
The Old Chief Joseph Gravesite known as Nez Perce Traditional Site, Wallowa Lake, Chief Joseph Cemetery and Joseph National Indian Cemetery is a Native American cemetery near Joseph, Oregon. The area was a traditional campsite of the Nez Perce and may be archaeologically significant, it was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1985, listed as Wallowa Lake Site. It is a component of the Nez Perce National Historical Park; the Old Chief Joseph Gravesite is located at the northern end of Wallowa Lake, on a 5-acre site with commanding views of the lake and surrounding mountains. It is just south of Oregon Highway 351, from which an unpaved drive enters the property through a gateway in a stone wall; the main feature is a circular earthen platform, lined with a low stone retaining wall. At its center is the memorial marker to Old Chief Joseph, a mortared stone pillar, with a bronze relief of the chief's head on one side. Other features of the property include a flagpole, the grave of an early white settler of the area.
Old Chief Joseph was the mid-19th century leader of the Wallowa band of the Nez Perce tribe, one of several that had refused to sign treaties in the 1850s and 1860s that would have forced them onto reservation land in Idaho. The Wallowa Lake area was part of the homeland of this band, both Old Chief Joseph and his successor Chief Joseph, were steadfast in their refusal to abandon the land; when Old Joseph died in 1871, he had a traditional burial at the forks of the Lostine and Wallowa rivers. The Wallowa band were famously forced off the land in the Nez Perce War in 1877. In 1886, Old Chief Joseph's grave was desecrated by local property owners and his skull was removed as a souvenir. In 1926, his grave was moved, with permission from the Nez Perce, to this location, the stone marker was placed. In the 1930s, the Works Progress Administration funded work performed by members of the Nez Perce tribe to make a number of improvements, including the stone wall at the highway, the retaining wall.
The cemetery is a sacred place for the Nez Perce people, is held in trust for them by the United States government. Iwetemlaykin State Heritage Site List of National Historic Landmarks in Oregon National Register of Historic Places listings in Wallowa County, Oregon Nez Perce National Historic Trail Nez Perce National Historical Park
Anil Acharya is an Indian Bengali essayist, short story writer and poet. In 1966, he founded the Bengali literary quarterly and little magazine Anustup. Acharya graduated with an honors degree in English literature from the Scottish Church College. Thereafter he earned his master's degree in English literature from the University of Calcutta, he started publishing the literary quarterly Anustup as an undergraduate student at Scottish Church College in 1966. Since his college days, he has written poems, short essays in Bengali and English. After earning a postgraduate degree in English literature, he started out as a lecturer, became a reader and associate professor in English at the Serampore College, within the aegis of the University of Calcutta, he was Head of the Department of English and set up the Communicative English programme in Serampore College. He is a member of the Publisher and Bookseller's Guild, the organisers of the Kolkata Book Fair, Asia's largest book fair and the most attended book fair in the world.
He was elected Secretary of the Guild for three successive terms, between 1996-1998, during his tenure, the noted French Philosopher Jacques Derrida inaugurated the Kolkata Book Fair in 1997. He has spent a life in writing and editing his quarterly journal, has founded an English language literary periodical for translated short stories from Bengali, called Harvest. In 1970, he assisted the Australian director Paul Cox as the assistant director in making the documentary on Calcutta, he was the associate producer of Paul Cox's film "Force of Destiny" released in 2014. He is associated with St. Thomas' College of Engineering and Technology, Kolkata. Between February 2013 and February 2015, he wrote a regular Sunday column in the Bengali newspaper'Ei Somoy', called "Nipaatone Siddho", it documented the myriad experiences, that played out across four decades in the Bengali cultural and political landscape, shaped Anustup and what it stands for. He is the author of the Bengali book titled "Parasmaipadi", a collection of his selected articles.
In recognition of his efforts, in 2012, he was appointed as a Tagore National Scholar by the Ministry of Culture of the Government of India. Little magazine movement Kolkata Little Magazine Library And Research Center
Tatyos Eñserciyan, or Tatyos Efendi, was a famous composer of classical Turkish music, his works continue to be among the best-remembered and played pieces of the genre. An Armenian from Istanbul, Tatyos Efendi was born in 1858 in the Ortaköy district of Istanbul as the son of Monakyan, a musician at the Ortaköy Armenian Church. Tatyos Efendi's family had a minor trading business and when he finished the Ortaköy Armenian Elementary School, he started an apprenticeship at a locksmith and became an apprentice at a savat workshop. Due to his deep interest in music, Tatyos Efendi left his apprenticeship and bought a second hand kanun to receive his first music lessons from his uncle Movzes Papazyan, he played the kanun with musical meetings in a family setting. He took violin lessons from Kemani Kör Sebuh and lessons in singing and theory from Andon and Civan brothers and singer Asdik Aga, he conducted many fasıl concerts in various places including the Pirincci Gazino with artists like Karakaş, Ovakim and Şemsi.
He composed many popular songs and instrumental works for fasıl. Tatyos Efendi co-performed with many famous musicians of his time like Ahmed Rasim Bey and Andon brothers, Şevki Bey, Kemenceci Vasilaki and Tanburi Cemil Bey, his successful instrumental works show the influence of these co-performances. A poet as well as a composer, he wrote the lyrics of most of his works. Tatyos Efendi's compositions reflect the traditional aspects of the melodic forms and are a testimony to his superior understanding of the structure of Turkish classical music; the musicians that learned from him include Arşak Çömlekçiyan, Münir Mazhar Kamsoy, Nasibin Mehmet Yürü, Mustafa Sunar and Abdülkadir Töre. The composer spent his last years alone in misery, his health ailing due to too much alcohol, he was alone except for the company of a few dedicated friends like Ahmed Rasim Bey. He died of cirrhosis of the liver on March 13, 1913 and Ahmed Rasim Bey gathered a dozen or so friends for his funeral and had him buried in the Kadıköy Uzunçayır Armenian Cemetery.
Although famous for his command of musical notation and able to take down a tune to paper at first hearing, many of Tatyos Efendi's works were not written down and were lost in time. His surviving works are the peşrevs in the Karcığar, Rast makams, the saz semais in the Hüseyni, Süznak, Rast makams and more than fifty songs in various makams. List of works by Tatyos Efendi: Ermeni Bestekarlar Vol 1. Various. Istanbul: Sony Music Turkey. 2003. CS1 maint: others