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District Railway

The Metropolitan District Railway was a passenger railway that served London from 1868 to 1933. Established in 1864 to complete the inner circle, an underground railway in London, the first part of the line opened using gas-lit wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives; the Metropolitan Railway operated all services until the District introduced its own trains in 1871. The railway was soon extended westwards through Earl's Court to Fulham, Richmond and Hounslow. After completing the inner circle and reaching Whitechapel in 1884, it was extended to Upminster in Essex in 1902. To finance electrification at the beginning of the 20th century, American financier Charles Yerkes took it over and made it part of his Underground Electric Railways Company of London group. Electric propulsion was introduced in 1905, by the end of the year electric multiple units operated all of the services. On 1 July 1933, the District Railway and the other UERL railways were merged with the Metropolitan Railway and the capital's tramway and bus operators to form the London Passenger Transport Board.

Today, former District Railway tracks and stations are used by the London Underground's District and Circle lines. In 1863, the Metropolitan Railway opened the world's first underground railway; the line was built from Paddington beneath the New Road, connecting the main line railway termini at Paddington and King's Cross. It followed Farringdon Road to a station at Farringdon Street in Smithfield, near the capital's financial heart in the City; the Met's early success prompted a flurry of applications to parliament in 1863 for new railways in London, many competing for similar routes. The House of Lords established a select committee that recommended an "inner circuit of railway that should abut, if not join, nearly all of the principal railway termini in the Metropolis". For the 1864 parliamentary session, railway schemes were presented that met the recommendation in varying ways and a joint committee composed of members of both Houses of Parliament reviewed the options. Proposals to extend west and south from Paddington to South Kensington and east from Moorgate to Tower Hill were accepted and received Royal Assent on 29 July 1864.

To complete the circuit, the committee encouraged the amalgamation of two schemes proposed to run via different routes between Kensington and the City and a combined proposal under the name Metropolitan District Railway was agreed on the same day. The District and the Met were associated and it was intended that they would soon merge; the Met's chairman and three other directors were on the board of the District, John Fowler was the engineer of both companies and the construction works for all of the extensions were let as a single contract. The District was established as a separate company to enable funds to be raised independently of the Met. Unlike the Metropolitan, the route did not follow an easy alignment under existing roads and land values were higher, so compensation payments for property were much higher. To ensure ventilation, the line west of Gloucester Road was carried in open cuttings, the rest in a cut and cover tunnel 25 feet wide and 15 feet 9 inches deep. Construction costs and compensation payments were so high that the cost of the first section of the District from South Kensington to Westminster was £3 million three times the cost of the Met's original, longer line.

On 24 December 1868, the District opened its line from South Kensington to Westminster, with stations at South Kensington, Sloane Square, Victoria, St. James's Park and Westminster Bridge, the Met extending eastwards from Brompton to a shared station at South Kensington on the same day; the District had parliamentary permission to extend westward from Brompton station and, on 12 April 1869, it opened a single track line from there to West Brompton on the West London Railway. There were no intermediate stations and this service operated as a shuttle. By summer 1869 additional tracks had been laid between South Kensington to Brompton and from Kensington to a junction with the line to West Brompton. During the night of 5 July 1870 the District secretly built the disputed Cromwell curve connecting Brompton and Kensington. East of Westminster, the next section ran in the newly constructed Victoria Embankment built by the Metropolitan Board of Works along the north bank of the River Thames; the line was opened from Westminster to Blackfriars on 30 May 1870 with stations at Charing Cross, The Temple and Blackfriars.

The Met operated all services, receiving 55 per cent of the gross receipts for a fixed level of service. The District were charged for any extra trains and the District's share of the income dropped to about 40 per cent; the District's level of debt meant that merger was no longer attractive to the Met and its directors resigned from the District's board. To improve its finances, the District gave the Met notice to terminate the operating agreement. Struggling under the burden of high construction costs, the District was unable to continue with the original scheme to reach Tower Hill and made a final extension of its line one station further east from Blackfriars to a unplanned City terminus at Mansion House. On Saturday 1 July 1871, an opening banquet was attended by the Prime Minister William Gladstone, a shareholder; the following Monday, Mansion House opened and the District began running its own trains. From this date, the two companies operated a joint inner circle service between Mansion Hous

Campeonato Nacional Feminino

The Campeonato Nacional Feminino known as Liga BPI for sponsorship reasons, is a Portuguese semi-professional league for women's association football clubs. It is run by the Portuguese Football Federation and began in 1993. An initial ten teams compete in the league, which replaced the Taça Nacional as the highest level of women's football in Portugal; the current champions are Braga, who won their first title in 2019. The most successful team is S. U. 1º de Dezembro, with 12 titles. As of 2016–17 There are 12 clubs in the Campeonato Nacional. During the course of a season each club plays the others twice, once at their home stadium and once at that of their opponents', for 22 games. Teams receive one point for a draw. No points are awarded for a loss. Teams are ranked by total points head-to-head points, head-to-head goal difference, goal difference, matches won, goals scored. If still equal, a play-off match at a neutral venue decides rank; the two lowest placed teams are relegated into the Campeonato Nacional II Divisão, the top two teams from the Campeonato Nacional de Promoção are promoted in their place.

The winner of Campeonato Nacional qualifies for the UEFA Women's Champions League qualifying round. For the 2019–20 season: The following teams won the league: Women's League at Portuguese league at UEFA Portuguese league at

La Pobla de Vallbona

La Pobla de Vallbona is a municipality in the province of Valencia in the autonomous community of the Valencian Country. The shield of La Pobla de Vallbona was created to avoid fraud and mistakes with documents or authorizations that each mayor of the towns of Spain issued. In 1848 the government implied as an obligation to use a stamp with the goal of not confusing documents; this is when La Pobla de Vallbona decided to use the shield, used since 1975. The shield is divided in three parts; the first part, the largest has the 4 bars of Aragón. There are two smaller divisions one have 3 “moreras” of sinople; the last division has a blue background that indicates loyalty and there is the “caserio de plata” that makes reference of the name “Pobla”, the unique characteristic of the vallbonenses: Loyalty. Lastly, one can see at the top the Royal Crown. Access to La Pobla de Vallbona can be either through the highway CV-35 or through the Valencia Metro line 1. In the municipality of La Pobla de Vallbona besides the urban core one can found the following towns: Casa Blanca Camp del Turia Gallipont La Conarda Pla dels Aljubs Rascanya After the highway with access to Valencia was finished, the population doubled due to the proximity to the city.

In general, this increased the local trade in the town. Additionally, the agriculture in the town throughout years has been abandoned, but new farmers have been arriving and enriching the fields. Although the fields tend to be small they attract a lot of visitors because it allows people to have pleasant walks through crops such as oranges, mandarins, artichokes and olives. In La Pobla de Vallbona they are some important monuments that make part of the culture of the valencian people and of the history of their town these are: “Ermita de San Sebastian” “Ermita Mas de Tous” “Iglesia Santiago Apostol” “Iglesia de la Santísima Trinidad y San José” “La Casa Bernal” “La Casa Gran” Football La Pobla de Vallbona has a futbol club named “Atletico Vallbonense”; this club is recognized among the entire region because they have a lot of teams in minor divisions that have made to the leagues. In general this team is small and since 2002 has been position in category 2B. Basketball The club of Basketball in la Pobla has a school funded recently.

It has been growing and it becomes a recognized team. Valencian pilota La Pobla has been home to prominent players of the raspall variant of the game, among them Hector Coll Sebastia and Pasqual Balaguer Catillo; the town's trinquet is one of the stop-over of the annual Professional League tour

Kenneth Oxford

Sir Kenneth Gordon Oxford was a senior British police officer and chief constable of Merseyside Police from 1976 to 1989. Kenneth Oxford was born in Camberwell and educated at Caldicott School, Lambeth, he joined the Royal Air Force in 1942 and served with RAF Bomber Command in south east Asia until 1947. Oxford joined the Metropolitan Police after leaving the RAF, within six months was transferred to detective with the CID. In 1961 Oxford, by a Sergeant, was bagman to Superintendent Basil Montague Acott in the A6 Murder investigation that led to the conviction of James Hanratty. In 1963 he took part in the Profumo affair investigation, arresting Christine Keeler on suspicion of perjury and conspiracy to pervert the course of justice. In 1966, as a Detective Chief Inspector Oxford assisted Detective Superintendent Charles Hewett in the investigation into the theft of pictures worth £2.75 million from the Dulwich Picture Gallery. In 1969 Oxford joined Northumbria Police as assistant chief constable.

He was appointed deputy chief constable of Merseyside Police in 1974, became chief constable in 1976. Kenneth Oxford's tenure as Chief Constable of Merseyside was beset by controversy. From his appointment Oxford made a clear commitment to improving the manpower and structure of the Merseyside force, he expanded beat policing at the expense of mobile patrols as a means of improving police/public relations. One of Oxford's first decisions as Chief Constable was to disband his force's "Task Force", a mobile support unit modeled on the Metropolitan Police's Special Patrol Group which had gained a reputation for excessive force and harassment among Liverpool's black community. Oxford received the congratulations of the Merseyside Community Relations Council for scrapping the "Task Force", which he felt himself had been responsible for some heavy-handed tactics. By the late 1970s the relationship between Merseyside Police and parts of deprived communities in Liverpool had plummeted, a series of incidents of alleged excessive force culminated in the death of Jimmy Kelly in June 1979.

Kelly, arrested for being drunk and disorderly, died in custody, witnesses alleged that they had seen officers assaulting him. More allegations of police brutality followed, the local MP, Sir Harold Wilson, called for a public inquiry. Kenneth Oxford responded to the wave of pressure that followed with a staunch refusal to discuss the case with his police committee which included both Tory and Labour groups of Liverpool City Council; the most vociferous of these critics was Margaret Simey, who led the Labour Group on the Police Committee. Simey had voiced concerns over what she saw as overly forceful and aggressive policing by Merseyside police and pushed hard for an inquiry. Oxford responded in his annual report by referring to "vituperative, misinformed comment made by members of the County Council, but more by members of the Police Committee". Oxford was a passionate advocate of the operational independence of Chief Constables and resented any demand from the Police Committee to justify his decisions.

He regarded criticisms by elected councillors and community leaders as a politically motivated assault upon the police service. Oxford, together with James Anderton, Chief Constable of Greater Manchester, became the focal point for a debate over police accountability that raged throughout the 1980s and remains unresolved to this day. Within the Merseyside force Oxford was viewed as a tough and forthright Chief Constable who supported his officers against unfair and politically motivated critics. Oxford was viewed as an advocate of a "hard policing" style which relied on the intensive use of stop and search powers by police to combat street crime and violence. Outsiders, saw his management style as abrasive and suggested Oxford lacked the sensitivity required in a modern Chief Constable. In 1981 Oxford responded to critics of his management style "If I am arrogant the spice of arrogance is a necessary constituent of command". On 8 July 1981 clashes broke out between youths in the Liverpool 8 district of the city.

Over the weekend that followed, the disturbance escalated into full-scale rioting, with pitched battles between police and youths in which petrol bombs and paving stones were thrown. During the violence milk floats were directed at police lines. Rioters were observed using scaffolding poles to charge police lines. Oxford had issued his officers with long protective shields but these proved inadequate in protecting officers from missile attacks and in particular the effects of petrol bombs; such was the scale of the rioting in Toxteth that police reinforcements were drafted in from forces across England including Greater Manchester, Cumbria and Devon to try to control the unrest. The overwhelming majority of officers were not trained either in using the shields or in public order tactics other than forming static lines; the sole offensive tactic available to officers, the baton charge, proved ineffective in driving back the attacking crowds of rioters. At 02:15 hours on Monday 6 July Oxford gave the order to deploy CS gas against the rioters.

Merseyside police fired between 25-30 CS gas grenades for the first time in the UK outside Northern Ireland. The gas succeeded in dispersing the crowds. A second wave of rioting began on 27 July 1981 and continued into the early hours of 28 July, with police once again being attacked with missiles and a number of cars being set alight. However, on this occasion the Merseyside force responded by driving vans and land rovers at high speed into the crowds dispersing them; this "mobile pursuit tactic" had been develo


Lisbane is a small village and townland in the parish of Tullynakill and the barony of Castlereagh Lower in County Down, Northern Ireland. It is between Comber on the A22 road, 5 kilometres south-east of Comber, it is near Strangford Lough in North Down Borough Council. Lisbane had a population of 430 people in the 2011 Census; the village consists of the Poacher’s Pocket pub and restaurant, The Poacher’s Pantry, the Old Post Office tearooms, Vivo Grocers, Lisbane Service Station, a community centre and a doctor's surgery and chemist. The name Lisbane is from the Irish An Lios Bán, meaning'the white ringfort'. No white fort exists there now. There are ten other Irish townlands named Lisbane, four of them in County Down, including one near Bangor

Antonio BaƱos Boncompain

Antonio Baños Boncompain is a Spanish Catalan musician and writer. In the Catalan parliamentary election of 2015 led Popular Unity Candidacy - Constituent Call, a pro-independence left-wing electoral list until he resigned in 2016; as a musician he's been a member of the band Los Carradine since 1989 and has released two records: Sospechoso tren de vida and Academia rocanrol. He is speaker of Súmate. Baños has written books and several articles, including: ——. La economía no existe. Los Libros del Lince. ISBN 9788493703820. ——. Posteconomía. Los Libros del Lince. ISBN 9788415070221. ——. La rebel·lió catalana. Labutxaca. ISBN 978-84-9930-653-7. ——. La cara B, una altra mirada al procés. Pagès. ISBN 978-84-99757834. ——. La república possible. Ara llibres. ISBN 978-84-16915194. Antonio Baños Boncompain on Twitter