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District line

The District line is a London Underground line that runs from Upminster in the east to Earl's Court in west London, where it splits into a number of branches. One branch runs one runs north to Edgware Road. A short branch said to be weekends only runs for one stop to Kensington, although in fact there are some limited weekday services, two in the evening out and a number of early morning journeys which commence out of service from Lillie Bridge Depot; the main route continues west from Earl's Court to Turnham Green after which it divides again into two western branches, to Richmond and Ealing Broadway. Coloured green on the Tube map, the line serves 60 stations over 40 miles, it is the only Underground line to use a bridge to traverse the River Thames, crossing on both the Wimbledon and Richmond branches. The track and stations between Barking and Aldgate East are shared with the Hammersmith & City line, between Tower Hill and Gloucester Road and on the Edgware Road branch they are shared with the Circle line.

Some of the stations between South Kensington and Ealing Common are shared with the Piccadilly line. Unlike London's deep-level lines, the railway tunnels are just below the surface, the trains are of a similar size to those on British main lines; the District line is the busiest of the sub-surface lines and the fifth-busiest line overall on the Underground, with over 208 million passenger journeys recorded in 2017/18. The original Metropolitan District Railway opened in December 1868 from South Kensington to Westminster as part of a plan for a below-ground "inner circle" connecting London's main line termini. At first, services were operated using wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives. Electrification was financed by the American Charles Yerkes, electric services began in 1905; the railway was absorbed by the London Passenger Transport Board in 1933. In the first half of the 1930s the Piccadilly line took over the Uxbridge and Hounslow branches, although a peak-hour District line service ran on the Hounslow branch until 1964.

Kensington has been served by the District line since 1946, a short branch to South Acton closed in 1959. The trains carried guards until one-person operation was introduced in 1985; the signalling system is being upgraded, the previous D Stock trains were replaced by seven-car S Stock trains in 2017. The Metropolitan District Railway was formed to build and operate part of an underground'inner circle' connecting London's railway termini; the first line opened with services from South Kensington to Westminster. By 1871, when the District began operating its own trains, the railway had extended to West Brompton and a terminus at Mansion House. A curve from Earl's Court onto the West London Railway was used by the London & North Western Railway for a service to Broad Street and the Great Western Railway for a service to Moorgate via Paddington. Between 1 March 1883 to 30 September 1885 the District Railway ran trains between Mansion House and Windsor, after Ealing Broadway the stations were West Ealing, Southall, Hays & Harlington, West Drayton, Langley and Windsor Hammersmith was reached from Earl's Court, services were extended to Richmond over the tracks of the London and South Western Railway, branches reached Ealing Broadway and Wimbledon.

As part of the project that completed the Circle line in October 1884, the District began to serve Whitechapel. Services began running to Upminster in 1902, after a link to the London, Tilbury & Southend Railway had been built. At the start of the 20th century, the District was seeing increased competition from the new electric underground tube lines and trams, the use of steam locomotives underground led to unpopular smoke-filled stations and carriages; the American Charles Yerkes, to form the Underground Electric Railways of London, financed the needed electrification of the railway and the first electric services ran from Ealing to South Harrow in 1903. Electric multiple-units were introduced on other services in 1905, East Ham became the eastern terminus. Electric locomotives were used on the L&NWR services from Mansion House to Earl's Court, in years exchanged for a steam locomotive on LT&SR services from Southend to Ealing Broadway at Barking. Hounslow and Uxbridge were served by 2 or 3-car shuttles from Mill Hill Park.

Services were extended again to Barking in 1908 and Upminster in 1932. In 1932 Piccadilly line trains were extended from Hammersmith to South Harrow, taking over the District service from Acton Town to South Harrow, although the District continued to provide a shuttle from South Harrow to Uxbridge. In 1933 Piccadilly trains reached to Hounslow West, the District continuing to run services with an off-peak shuttle from South Acton to Hounslow. On 1 July 1933 the District Railway amalgamated with other Underground railways, tramway companies and bus operators to form the London Passenger Transport Board, from 23 October 1933 Piccadilly line trains ran through to Uxbridge and the District line shuttle was withdrawn. Most of the trailer cars on the District line were the 1904–1905 B Stock type with wooden bodies, but motor cars were less than fifteen years old; the 1935–1940 New Works Programme saw the Q Stock formed from these motor cars, upgraded with electro-pneumatic brakes and guard controlled air-operated doors, the trailers replaced with new vehicles.

The off-peak Distr

Iris adriatica

Iris adriatica is a species in the genus Iris, it is in the subgenus of Iris. It is a rhizomatous perennial, from the Dalmatia region of Croatia in Europe, it has short sickle shaped leaves, small stem and flowers that vary from yellow to purple or violet. It is cultivated as an ornamental plant in temperate regions, it is similar in form to Iris pseudopumila, Iris pumila and Iris attica. It has a rhizome, has falcate, or straight leaves, that can grow up to between 3–10 cm long, between 0.5 and 1 cm wide. They are longer than the flowering stem, die back at winter, it has a dwarf stem, that can grow up to between 1–5 cm tall. The stem has green spathes, that have wide scarious margins, they are similar in size to the perianth tube, at 4–7 cm long and keeled at blooming time; the stems hold 1 terminal flower, blooming in spring, in March and April. The large flowers, come in shades of yellow, purple, or violet. Or they can be a combination of these colours. Like other irises, it has 2 pairs of petals, 3 large sepals, known as the'falls' and 3 inner, smaller petals, known as the'standards'.

The falls have a beard in the centre, either blue of yellow. After the iris has flowered, it produces an elliptical or trigonous seed capsule, 2–3 cm long, when ripe it is straw coloured. Inside the capsule are many little, elliptical shaped, dark brownish seeds, they are smaller and darker than other similar irises. In 2009, a plant regeneration study was carried out on Iris adriatica, using somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis. In 2012, Iris adriatica was studied to assess the possibility of growing this species as a pot plant. Biometric analysis showed only that substrate was an influence in cultivation; as most irises are diploid, having two sets of chromosomes, this can be used to identify hybrids and classification of groupings. It has a chromosome count: 2n = 16, it is sometimes known as Adriatic Iris. The Latin specific epithet adriatica refers to being from the region beside the Adriatic Sea, it was first described by Trinajstic L, Papes D. Lovasen-Eberhardt Z. & Bacani Lj. in'Book of Summaries' page25 in 1980, but not validly published.

New specimens were found in Dalmatia region, near the town of Šibenik in Croatia, by M. Milović, M. Radnić, M. Mitić and B. Mitić on 16 March 2002, it was described and published as Iris adriatica Trinajstić ex Mitić in'Phyton', Vol.42 on page 305 in 2002. It was verified by United States Department of Agriculture and the Agricultural Research Service on 7 April 2003 updated on 2 December 2004, it is listed in the Encyclopedia of Life. It is an accepted name of The Plant List, although no synonyms have been recorded on that source. Iris adriatica is not yet an accepted name by the RHS, as of 12 September 2015, it is native to Europe. It is found in the Mediterranean country, of Croatia, within the Dalmatia region. Including around the Croatian towns of Zadar, Šibenik, Drniš and Unešić; as well as being found on the islands of Ciovo, Brač, Vir. It grows in sandy, with'Stipo-Salvietum officinalis' (a mixture of Stipa and Salvia officialis, and'Festuco-Koelerietum splendentis' plants, it can grow in rocky pastures.

They can be found at an altitude of 0–100 m above sea level. Iris adriatica has decreasing wild populations, was listed as near threatened in the Flora Croatica Red Book, it is threatened due overgrowth of other more dominant plant species. The Dalmatian islands have 179 endemic plants and several threatened species including Iris adriatica, Salvia fruticosa, Salvia brachypodon, Portenschlagiella ramosissima, Phyllitis sagitata, Ornithogalum visianicum, Orchis quadripunctata, Geranium dalmaticum, Euphorbia rigida, Dianthus multinervis, it is hardy to USDA Zone 8. It needs dry summers, it is thought to be difficult to grow in cultivation. It can be found growing in Biokovo Botanical Garden Kotišina. Like many other irises, most parts of the plant are poisonous, if mistakenly ingested can cause stomach pains and vomiting. Handling the plant may cause a skin irritation or an allergic reaction. Data related to Iris adriatica at Wikispecies

List of Big Brother 4 (American season) houseguests

The fourth edition of the American reality series Big Brother featured a total of thirteen HouseGuests competing for the grand prize. 10 of the new HouseGuests had an girlfriend in the house playing the game as well. The exes had no effect on the format of the game, only featured personal consequences. Alison Kemerer Irwin, was a retail sales manager from Pennsylvania. Alison's ex-boyfriend, Justin Giovinco, was a HouseGuest due to the "X-Factor" twist, she had a boyfriend, outside of the house, but became known in the house for using her looks to advance in the game. She was caught sharing a bed and kissing the majority of the male HouseGuests, a strategy which she used to avoid nomination. Though she had flirtatious relationships with nearly all of the men, she most flirted and slept with Nathan, as she saw him as "gullible" and a strong competitor; when Alison won a luxury dinner in the third week, she chose to take Nathan with her. Her relationship with Nathan led to him using the Golden Power of Veto on her after she was nominated by Dana.

Despite their relationship, Alison played a part in his eviction during the fifth week. Out of the three times the Power of Veto was used this season, it was used on Alison each time. Due to her manipulative gameplay, Alison had no true friends in the house, but did form a girls alliance with Jun and Erika towards the end of the season. Being one of the first eight to enter, Alison was a member of the Elite 8 alliance formed shortly before the exes entered the game. Alison was the fourth Head of Household of the season, evicted Dana from the house, who had nominated her the previous week, she won the eighth Power of Veto competition before Jun cast her nominations, which resulted in Jun nominating Alison. Jun stated she feared Alison would Veto either Jee or Robert and make a deal with them, therefore nominating her ensured Alison would save herself. In the Final Four, Robert nominated Jun for eviction. Alison won the "Stairway to Veto" final Power of Veto competition, saved herself, she cast the sole vote to evict Erika.

Alison won the endurance portion of the Final Head of Household competition, beat Jun in the final part, making her the Final Head of Household of the season. She chose to take Jun with her to the Final Two; the Jury of Seven expressed their displeasure with Jun and Alison being the Final Two, as the two had played manipulative and deceptive games. On Day 82, Alison was crowned the Runner-Up in a six to one Jury vote. Alison is one of only two HouseGuests to make it to the Final Two without being nominated on eviction night, the other being Big Brother 5 contestant Drew Daniel. Alison is referred to as one of the best players to play the game, based on her performance in Big Brother 4. While on Big Brother 7, host Julie Chen referred to Alison as one of the most brutal players to play the game. Following her appearance on Big Brother 4, Alison portrayed herself on an episode of the CBS sitcom Yes Dear, in which main character Jimmy is selected to participate in a season of Big Brother. Alison and boyfriend Donald "Donnie" Patrick appeared on The Amazing Race 5 in 2004, where they came in 10th place.

Alison was picked by producers to participate in Big Brother: All Stars in 2006. Alison was the first person evicted. Despite her early eviction, Alison made a brief appearance in the season when she "stole" an item from the house for a Head of Household competition. Amanda Craig was a bar manager from Illinois. Amanda's ex-boyfriend, Scott Weintraub, was a HouseGuest this season due to the "X-Factor" twist. Amanda's presence in the house played a role in Scott's ultimate breakdown and expulsion from the game during the first week. Despite her short stay in the house, Amanda went on to make Big Brother history when she and David had sex in the Head of Household bedroom; this marked the first time in the US version of the series that two HouseGuests had sex in the house. Amanda was nominated in the first week by Head of Household Nathan, as she had been one of the five exes to enter the game late in the first night, she was evicted on Day 12. She came in 12th place. Brandon Chris Showalter, was a computer engineer from California.

Brandon was disqualified from the show prior to entering the house for contacting his girlfriend during sequester. He was replaced by Jee. Dana Varela was a karate school manager from New York. Dana was one of three HouseGuests to not have an ex enter the game, along with Jack. Being one of the first eight HouseGuests to enter on the first night, Dana became a member of the Elite 8, her loyalty to the alliance was questioned early on, however, as she was seen bonding with Justin and Robert. She was disliked by numerous HouseGuests, including Alison and Scott, the latter of which dubbed her "Man Troll" due to her boyish nature, she did have close friendships with Jee and Jun, had a somewhat romantic relationship with Alison's ex-boyfriend Justin. Dana beat out Nathan to win the first Golden Power of Veto of the season, chose not to use it. Dana won the third Head of Household competition, made the shocking decision to nominate Alison and Jack for eviction, going against the Elite 8; the move led to the downfall of the alliance, turned the majority of the house against Dana.

When Nathan won the Power of Veto and saved his romantic partner Alison, Dana named David the replacement nominee, resulting in his eviction. When Alison won the following Head of Household competition, she nominated Dana