Quarter (United States coin)
The quarter, short for quarter dollar, is a United States coin worth 25 cents, one-fourth of a dollar. It has a thickness of.069 inches. The coin sports the profile of George Washington on its obverse, its reverse design has changed frequently, it has been produced on and off since 1796 and since 1831. The choice of 1⁄4 as a denomination—as opposed to the 1⁄5 more common elsewhere—originated with the practice of dividing Spanish milled dollars into eight wedge-shaped segments. "Two bits" is a common nickname for a quarter. The current clad version is two layers of cupronickel, 75% copper and 25% nickel, on a core of pure copper; the total composition of the coin is 8.33% nickel, with the remainder copper. It weighs 1/80th of a pound, 0.1823 troy oz. The diameter is 0.955 inches, the width of 0.069 inches. The coin has a 0.069-inch reeded edge. Owing to the introduction of the clad quarter in 1965, it was called a "Johnson Sandwich" after Lyndon B. Johnson, the US President at the time; as of 2011, it cost 11.14 cents to produce each coin.
The U. S. Mint began producing silver quarters again in 1992 for inclusion in the annual Silver Proof set. Early quarters were larger in diameter and thinner than the current coin; the current regular issue coin is the George Washington quarter, showing George Washington on the front. The reverse featured an eagle prior to the 1999 50 State Quarters Program; the Washington quarter was designed by John Flanagan. It was issued as a circulating commemorative, but was made a regular issue coin in 1934. In 1999, the 50 State Quarters program of circulating commemorative quarters began; these have a modified Washington obverse and a different reverse for each state, ending the former Washington quarter's production completely. On January 23, 2007, the House of Representatives passed H. R. 392 extending the state quarter program one year to 2009, to include the District of Columbia and the five inhabited US territories: Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the United States Virgin Islands, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
The bill passed through the Senate and was signed into legislation by President George W. Bush as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, Pub. L. 110–161, on December 27, 2007. The typeface used in the state quarter series varies a bit from one state to another, but is derived from Albertus. On June 4, 2008, a bill titled America's Beautiful National Parks Quarter Dollar Coin Act of 2008, H. R. 6184, was introduced to the House of Representatives. On December 23, 2008, President Bush signed the bill into law as Pub. L. 110–456. The America the Beautiful Quarters program will continue for 12 years. Silver quartersWright 1792 Draped Bust 1796–1807 Draped Bust, Small Eagle 1796 Draped Bust, Heraldic Eagle 1804–1807 Capped Bust 1815–1838 Capped Bust, With Motto 1815–1828 Capped Bust, No Motto 1831–1838 Seated Liberty 1838–1891 Seated Liberty, No Motto 1838–1865 Seated Liberty, With Motto 1866–1891 Barber 1892–1916 Standing Liberty 1916–1930Standing Liberty 1916–1917 Standing Liberty 1917–1924 Standing Liberty 1925-1930 Washington Quarter 1932–1964, 1992–1998 Washington Bicentennial 1975–1976 Washington U.
S. Statehood Series 1999–2008 Washington District of Columbia and U. S. Territories 2009 Washington America the Beautiful Quarters 2010–2021 Copper-nickel quartersWashington Quarter 1965–1974, 1977–1998 Washington Bicentennial 1975–1976 Washington U. S. Statehood Series 1999–2008 Washington District of Columbia and U. S. Territories 2009 Washington America the Beautiful Quarters 2010–2021 Non-clad silver quarters weigh 6.25 grams and are composed of 90% silver, 10% copper, with a total silver weight of 0.1808479 troy ounce pure silver. They were issued from 1932 through 1964; the current rarities for the Washington Quarter silver series are: Branch Mintmarks are D = Denver, S = San Francisco. Coins without mintmarks are all made at the main Mint in Philadelphia; this listing is for Business strikes, not Proofs 1932-D 1932-S 1934 – with Doubled Die Obverse 1935-D 1936-D 1937 – with Doubled Die Obverse 1937-S 1938-S 1939-S 1940-D 1942-D – with Doubled Die Obverse 1943 – with Doubled Die Obverse 1943-S – with Doubled Die Obverse 1950-D/S Over mintmark 1950-S/D Over mintmark The 1940 Denver Mint, 1936 Denver mint and the 1935 Denver Mint coins, as well as many others in the series, are more valuable than other coins.
This is not due to their mintages. Many of these coins are worth only melt value in low grades. Other coins in the above list are expensive because of their low mintages, such as the 1932 Denver and San Francisco issues; the overstruck mintmark issues are scarce and expensive in the higher grades. The 1934 Philadelphia strike appears in two versions: one with a light motto, the same as that used on the 1932 strikings, the other a heavy motto seen after the dies were reworked. Except in the highest grades, the difference in value between the two is minor; the Silver Series of Was
Puerto Rico the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea 1,000 miles southeast of Miami, Florida. An archipelago among the Greater Antilles, Puerto Rico includes the eponymous main island and several smaller islands, such as Mona and Vieques; the capital and most populous city is San Juan. The territory's total population is 3.4 million. Spanish and English are the official languages. Populated by the indigenous Taíno people, Puerto Rico was colonized by Spain following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1493, it was contested by French and British, but remained a Spanish possession for the next four centuries. The island's cultural and demographic landscapes were shaped by the displacement and assimilation of the native population, the forced migration of African slaves, settlement from the Canary Islands and Andalusia. In the Spanish Empire, Puerto Rico played a secondary but strategic role compared to wealthier colonies like Peru and New Spain.
Spain's distant administrative control continued up to the end of the 19th century, producing a distinctive creole Hispanic culture and language that combined indigenous and European elements. In 1898, following the Spanish–American War, the United States acquired Puerto Rico under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Puerto Ricans have been citizens of the United States since 1917, enjoy freedom of movement between the island and the mainland; as it is not a state, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the United States Congress, which governs the territory with full jurisdiction under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. However, Puerto Rico does have one non-voting member of the House called a Resident Commissioner; as residents of a U. S. territory, American citizens in Puerto Rico are disenfranchised at the national level and do not vote for president and vice president of the United States, nor pay federal income tax on Puerto Rican income. Like other territories and the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico does not have U.
S. senators. Congress approved a local constitution in 1952, allowing U. S. citizens on the territory to elect a governor. Puerto Rico's future political status has been a matter of significant debate. In early 2017, the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis posed serious problems for the government; the outstanding bond debt had climbed to $70 billion at a time with 12.4% unemployment. The debt had been increasing during a decade long recession; this was the second major financial crisis to affect the island after the Great Depression when the U. S. government, in 1935, provided relief efforts through the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration. On May 3, 2017, Puerto Rico's financial oversight board in the U. S. District Court for Puerto Rico filed the debt restructuring petition, made under Title III of PROMESA. By early August 2017, the debt was $72 billion with a 45% poverty rate. In late September 2017, Hurricane Maria made landfall in Puerto Rico; the island's electrical grid was destroyed, with repairs expected to take months to complete, provoking the largest power outage in American history.
Recovery efforts were somewhat slow in the first few months, over 200,000 residents had moved to the mainland State of Florida alone by late November 2017. Puerto Rico is Spanish for "rich port". Puerto Ricans call the island Borinquén – a derivation of Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, which means "Land of the Valiant Lord"; the terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen and are used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is popularly known in Spanish as la isla del encanto, meaning "the island of enchantment". Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, while the capital city was named Ciudad de Puerto Rico. Traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and the capital city; the island's name was changed to "Porto Rico" by the United States after the Treaty of Paris of 1898. The anglicized name was used by the U.
S. government and private enterprises. The name was changed back to Puerto Rico by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila in 1931; the official name of the entity in Spanish is Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, while its official English name is Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The ancient history of the archipelago, now Puerto Rico is not well known. Unlike other indigenous cultures in the New World which left behind abundant archeological and physical evidence of their societies, scant artifacts and evidence remain of the Puerto Rico's indigenous population. Scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish accounts from the colonial era constitute all, known about them; the first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico was written by Fray Íñigo Abbad y Lasierra in 1786, nearly three centuries after the first Spaniards landed on the island. The first known settlers were the Ortoiroid people, an Archaic Period culture of Amerindian hunters and fishermen who migrated from the South American mainland.
Some scholars suggest their settlement dates back about 4,000 years. An archeological dig in 1990 on the island of Vieques found the remains of a man, designated as the "Puerto Ferro Man", dated to around 2000 BC; the Ortoiroid were displaced
The bananaquit is a species of passerine bird of uncertain relation. It is tentatively placed in the tanager family, its classification is debated, it is placed in its own family: Coerebidae. It has been suggested the bananaquit should be split into three species, but this has yet to receive widespread recognition; this small, active nectarivore is found in warmer parts of the Americas, is common. The bananaquit was first described by Linnaeus in his Systema Naturae in 1758 as Certhia flaveola, it was reclassified as the only member of the genus Coereba by Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot in 1809. Prior to 2005, the bananaquit was assigned to the monotypic family Coerebidae. Since recent studies have shed some light on the bananaquit's affinities, many authorities consider Coerebidae an obsolete taxon; the Coerebidae used to contain other nectar-eating birds from the tropical Americas, but these have since been moved. The bananaquit is part of a group that includes Darwin's finches, Loxigilla, etc.—most of which were placed in Emberizidae, but are now known to be part of the Thraupidae.
As such this species is tentatively placed in the family Thraupidae unless a study suggests more accurate placement. Its precise relations remain unresolved, so the American Ornithologists' Union classes it as a species incertae sedis, it is still unclear if any of the island subspecies should be elevated to species, but phylogenetic studies have revealed three clades: the nominate group from Jamaica and the Cayman Islands, the bahamensis group from the Bahamas and Quintana Roo, the bartholemica group from South and Central America, the Lesser Antilles and Puerto Rico. Several taxa were not sampled, but most of these are placed in the above groups based on zoogeography alone. Exceptions are oblita and tricolor, their placement is therefore uncertain. In February 2010, the International Ornithological Congress listed bahamensis and bartholemica as proposed splits from C. flaveola. There are 41 recognized subspecies: The bananaquit is a small bird, although there is some degree of size variation across the various subspecies.
Length can range from 4 to 5 in. Weight ranges from 5.5 to 19 g. Most subspecies of the bananaquit have dark grey upperparts, black crown and sides of the head, a prominent white eyestripe, grey throat, white vent, yellow chest and rump; the sexes are alike, but juveniles are duller and have a yellow eyebrow and throat. In the subspecies bahamensis and caboti from the Bahamas and Cozumel the throat and upper chest are white or pale grey, while ferryi from La Tortuga Island has a white forehead; the subspecies laurae and melanornis from small islands off northern Venezuela are overall blackish, while the subspecies aterrima and atrata from Grenada and Saint Vincent have two plumage morphs, one "normal" and another blackish. The pink gape is very prominent in the subspecies from islands in the Caribbean Sea; the bananaquit has curved bill, adapted to taking nectar from flowers. It sometimes pierces flowers from the side, it feeds on sweet juices by puncturing fruit with its beak, will eat small insects on occasion.
While feeding, the bananaquit must always perch. The bananaquit is known for its ability to adjust remarkably to human environments, it visits gardens and may become tame. Its nickname, the sugar bird, comes from its affinity for bowls or bird feeders stocked with granular sugar, a common method of attracting these birds; the bananaquit builds a spherical lined nest with a side entrance hole, laying up to three eggs, which are incubated by the female. It may build its nest in human-made objects, such as lampshades and garden trellises; the birds build new nests throughout the year. It is resident in tropical South America north to the Caribbean, it is found except Cuba. Birds from the Bahamas are rare visitors to Florida, it occurs in a wide range of open to semi-open habitats, including gardens and parks, but it is rare or absent in deserts, dense forests and at altitudes above 2,000 m. "Bananaquit media". Internet Bird Collection. Bananaquit Stamps at bird-stamps.org Audio recordings of the Bananaquit on Xeno-canto.
Bananaquit photo gallery at VIREO Bananaquit species account at Neotropical Birds Interactive range map of Coereba flaveola at IUCN Red List maps
107th United States Congress
The One Hundred Seventh United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from January 3, 2001 to January 3, 2003, during the final weeks of the Clinton presidency and the first two years of the George W. Bush presidency; the apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Twenty-first Census of the United States in 1990. The House of Representatives had a Republican majority, the Senate switched majorities from Democratic to Republican and back to Democratic. By the end of term, Republicans had regained the majority in the Senate, but since the body was out of session reorganization was delayed till the next Congress. A rare split in the United States Senate, the defection of a single Senator, the inauguration of a new Vice President, led to three changes in majorities. Major security events occurred; the September 11 attacks were disruptive.
Some Senators were targeted by anthrax attacks. The Congress voted to allow the President to invade Iraq. January 3, 2001: Senate was evenly split between the two parties. Democrat Al Gore — the out-going Vice President — gave the Democrats the tie-breaker and majority control for the 17 days between the January 3 swearing-in of the new Congress and the January 20 inauguration of Republican Vice President Dick Cheney. First Lady Hillary Clinton, wife of President Bill Clinton, became the first presidential spouse to serve in Congress. January 20, 2001: George W. Bush became President of the United States. May 24, 2001: Senator Jim Jeffords a Republican, declared himself an independent and announced he would join the Democratic caucus, giving the Democrats majority control, effective June 6, 2001. September 11, 2001: September 11 attacks September 20, 2001: George W. Bush reported to a joint session of Congress on the investigation into the September 11 attacks and announces the War on Terrorism October 7, 2001: Operation Enduring Freedom began October 9, 2001: Anthrax attacks were executed against members of the Senate, including Senate Majority Leader Tom Daschle.
December 2001: Corporate financial scandals, including Enron and MCI June 12, 2002: Prime Minister of Australia John Howard addressed a joint session of Congress. The address was scheduled for September 12, 2001, but was interrupted by the September 11 attacks. In Washington at the time, he sat in on Congressional sessions on September 12 instead. November 25, 2002: Jim Talent takes Senate seat in Missouri giving Republicans a majority. Reorganization delayed until the convening of the 108th United States Congress. June 7, 2001: Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act, Pub. L. 107–16, 115 Stat. 38 October 26, 2001: Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act, Pub. L. 107–56, 115 Stat. 272 January 8, 2002: No Child Left Behind Act, Pub. L. 107–110, 115 Stat. 1425 January 11, 2002: Small Business Liability Relief and Brownfields Revitalization Act, Pub. L. 107–118, 115 Stat. 2356 March 9, 2002: Job Creation and Worker Assistance Act, Pub.
L. 107–147, 116 Stat. 21 March 27, 2002: Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act, Pub. L. 107–155, 116 Stat. 81 May 13, 2002: Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002, Pub. L. 107–171, 116 Stat. 134 July 30, 2002: Sarbanes-Oxley Act, Pub. L. 107–204, 116 Stat. 745 August 6, 2002: Trade Act of 2002, Pub. L. 107–210, 116 Stat. 933 October 16, 2002: Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq, Pub. L. 107–243, 116 Stat. 1497 October 21, 2002: Sudan Peace Act, Pub. L. 107–245, 116 Stat. 1504 October 29, 2002: Help America Vote Act, Pub. L. 107–252, 116 Stat. 1666 November 25, 2002: Homeland Security Act, Pub. L. 107–296, 116 Stat. 2135 December 17, 2002: E-Government Act of 2002, Pub. L. 107–347, 116 Stat. 2899 President of the Senate: Al Gore, until January 20, 2001 Dick Cheney, from January 20, 2001 President pro tempore: Robert Byrd, until January 20, 2001 Strom Thurmond, January 20 – June 6, 2001 Robert Byrd, from June 6, 2001 Majority Leader: Tom Daschle, until January 20, 2001 Trent Lott, January 20 – June 6, 2001 Tom Daschle, from June 6, 2001 Majority Whip: Harry Reid, until January 20, 2001 Don Nickles, January 20 – June 6, 2001 Harry Reid, from June 6, 2001 Minority Leader: Trent Lott, until January 20, 2001 Tom Daschle, January 20 – June 6, 2001 Trent Lott, from June 6, 2001 Minority Whip: Don Nickles, until January 20, 2001 Harry Reid, January 20 – June 6, 2001 Don Nickles, from June 6, 2001 Republican Conference Chairman: Rick Santorum Republican Conference Secretary: Kay Bailey Hutchison Republican Campaign Committee Chair: Bill Frist Republican Policy Committee Chairman: Larry Craig Democratic Policy Committee Chairman: Byron Dorgan Democratic Conference Secretary: Barbara Mikulski Democratic Campaign Committee Chairman: Patty Murray Democratic Chief Deputy Whip: John Breaux Speaker: Dennis Hastert Majority Leader: Dick Armey Majority Whip: Tom DeLay Chief Deputy Whip: Roy Blunt Conference Chair: J. C. Watts Conference Vice-Chair: Deborah Pryce Conference Secretary: Barbara Cubin Policy Committee Chairman: Christopher Cox Campaign Committee Chairman: Thomas M. Davis Minority Leader: Dick Gephardt Minority Whip: David E. Bonior, until January 15, 2002 Nancy Pelosi, from January 15, 2002 Chief Deputy Minority Whips: John Lewis, Ed Pastor, Max Sandlin & Maxine Waters Democratic Caucus Chairman: Martin Frost Democratic Caucus Vice Chairman: Bob Menendez Democratic Campaign Committee Chairman: Nita Lowey Skip to House of Representatives, below Senators are listed by their class.
In this Congress, Class 2 meant their
Northern Mariana Islands
The Northern Mariana Islands the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, is an insular area and commonwealth of the United States consisting of 14 islands in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. The CNMI includes the 14 northernmost islands in the Mariana Archipelago except the southernmost island of the chain, a separate U. S. territory. The CNMI and Guam are the westernmost territory of the United States; the United States Department of the Interior cites a landmass of 183.5 square miles. According to the 2010 United States Census, 53,883 people were living in the CNMI at that time; the vast majority of the population resides on Saipan and Rota. The other islands of the Northern Marianas are sparsely inhabited; the administrative center is a village in northwestern Saipan. However, most publications consider Saipan to be the capital because the island is governed as a single municipality; the first people of the Mariana Islands immigrated at some point between 4000 BC and 2000 BC from Southeast Asia.
After first contact with Spaniards, they became known as the Chamorros, a Spanish word similar to Chamori, the name of the indigenous caste system's higher division. The ancient people of the Marianas raised colonnades of megalithic capped pillars called latte stones upon which they built their homes; the Spanish reported that by the time of their arrival, the largest of these were in ruins, that the Chamorros believed the ancestors who had erected the pillars lived in an era when people possessed supernatural abilities. Archeologists in 2013 posited that the first people to settle in the Marianas may have made what was at that point the longest uninterrupted ocean-crossing voyage in human history, that archeological evidence indicates that Tinian might have been the first Pacific island outside of Asia to be settled; the first European explorer of the area, the Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan, arrived in 1521. He landed on Guam, the southernmost island of the Marianas, claimed the archipelago for Spain.
The Spanish ships were met offshore by the native Chamorros, who delivered refreshments and helped themselves to a small boat belonging to Magellan's fleet. This led to a cultural clash: in Chamorro tradition, little property was private and taking something one needed, such as a boat for fishing, did not count as stealing; the Spanish did not understand this custom, fought the Chamorros until the boat was recovered. Three days after he had been welcomed on his arrival, Magellan fled the archipelago. Spain regarded the islands as annexed and made them part of the Spanish East Indies. In 1734, the Spanish built a royal palace in Guam for the governor of the islands, its remains are visible in the 21st century. Guam operated as an important stopover between Manila and Mexico for galleons carrying gold between the Philippines and Spain; some galleons sunk in Guam remain. In 1668, Father Diego Luis de San Vitores renamed the islands Las Marianas in honor of his patroness the Spanish regent Mariana of Austria, widow of Felipe IV.
Most of the islands' native population died from Spanish diseases or married non-Chamorro settlers under Spanish rule. New settlers from the Philippines and the Caroline Islands, were brought to repopulate the islands; the Chamorro population recovered, Chamorro and Refaluwasch languages and other ethnic differences remain in the Marianas. During the 17th century, Spanish colonists forcibly moved the Chamorros to Guam, to encourage assimilation and conversion to Roman Catholicism. By the time they were allowed to return to the Northern Marianas, many Carolinians from present-day eastern Yap State and western Chuuk State had settled in the Marianas. Both languages, as well as English, are now official in the commonwealth; the Northern Marianas experienced an influx of immigration from the Carolines during the 19th century. Both this Carolinian subethnicity and Carolinians in the Carolines archipelago refer to themselves as the Refaluwasch; the indigenous Chamoru word for the same group of people is gu'palao.
They are referred to as "Carolinians", though unlike the other two monikers, this can mean those who live in the Carolines and who may have no affiliation with the Marianas. The conquering Spanish did not focus attempts at cultural suppression against Carolinian immigrants, whose immigration they allowed during a period when the indigenous Chamoru majority was being subjugated with land alienation, forced relocations and internment. Carolinians in the Marianas continue to be fluent in the language, have maintained many of the cultural distinctions and traditions of their ethnicity's land of ancestral origin. Following its loss during the Spanish–American War of 1898, Spain ceded Guam to the United States and sold the remainder of the Marianas, along with the Caroline Islands, to Germany under the German–Spanish Treaty of 1899. Germany administered the islands as part of its colony of German New Guinea and did little in terms of development. Early in World War I, Japan invaded the Northern Marianas.
In 1919, the League of Nations awarded all of Germany's islands in the Pacific Ocean located north of the Equator, including the Northern Marianas, under mandate to Japan. Under this arrangement, the Jap
George Washington was an American political leader, military general and Founding Father who served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797. He led Patriot forces to victory in the nation's War of Independence, he presided at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 which established the new federal government, he has been called the "Father of His Country" for his manifold leadership in the formative days of the new nation. Washington received his initial military training and command with the Virginia Regiment during the French and Indian War, he was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses and was named a delegate to the Continental Congress, where he was appointed Commanding General of the nation's Continental Army. Washington allied with France, in the defeat of the British at Yorktown. Once victory for the United States was in hand in 1783, Washington resigned his commission. Washington played a key role in the adoption and ratification of the Constitution and was elected president by the Electoral College in the first two elections.
He implemented a strong, well-financed national government while remaining impartial in a fierce rivalry between cabinet members Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. During the French Revolution, he proclaimed a policy of neutrality while sanctioning the Jay Treaty, he set enduring precedents for the office of president, including the title "President of the United States", his Farewell Address is regarded as a pre-eminent statement on republicanism. Washington utilized slave labor and trading African American slaves, but he became troubled with the institution of slavery and freed them in his 1799 will, he was a member of the Anglican Church and the Freemasons, he urged tolerance for all religions in his roles as general and president. Upon his death, he was eulogized as "first in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen." He has been memorialized by monuments, geographical locations and currency, many scholars and polls rank him among the top American presidents. Washington's great-grandfather John Washington immigrated in 1656 from Sulgrave, England to the British Colony of Virginia where he accumulated 5,000 acres of land, including Little Hunting Creek on the Potomac River.
George Washington was born February 22, 1732 at Popes Creek in Westmoreland County and was the first of six children of Augustine and Mary Ball Washington. His father was a justice of the peace and a prominent public figure who had three additional children from his first marriage to Jane Butler; the family moved to Little Hunting Creek to Ferry Farm near Fredericksburg, Virginia. When Augustine died in 1743, Washington inherited ten slaves. Washington did not have the formal education that his older brothers received at Appleby Grammar School in England, but he did learn mathematics and surveying, he was talented in draftsmanship and map-making. By early adulthood, he was writing with "considerable force" and "precision."Washington visited Mount Vernon and Belvoir, the plantation that belonged to Lawrence's father-in-law William Fairfax, which fueled ambition for the lifestyle of the planter aristocracy. Fairfax became Washington's patron and surrogate father, Washington spent a month in 1748 with a team surveying Fairfax's Shenandoah Valley property.
He received a surveyor's license the following year from the College of Mary. He resigned from the job in 1750 and had bought 1,500 acres in the Valley, he owned 2,315 acres by 1752. In 1751, Washington made his only trip abroad when he accompanied Lawrence to Barbados, hoping that the climate would cure his brother's tuberculosis. Washington contracted smallpox during that trip, which immunized him but left his face scarred. Lawrence died in 1752, Washington leased Mount Vernon from his widow. Lawrence's service as adjutant general of the Virginia militia inspired Washington to seek a commission, Virginia's Lieutenant Governor Robert Dinwiddie appointed him as a major in December 1752 and as commander of one of the four militia districts; the British and French were competing for control of the Ohio Valley at the time, the British building forts along the Ohio River and the French doing between Lake Erie and the Ohio River. In October 1753, Dinwiddie appointed Washington as a special envoy to demand that the French vacate territory which the British had claimed.
Dinwiddie appointed him to make peace with the Iroquois Confederacy and to gather intelligence about the French forces. Washington met with Half-King Tanacharison and other Iroquois chiefs at Logstown to secure their promise of support against the French, his party reached the Ohio River in November, they were intercepted by a French patrol and escorted to Fort Le Boeuf where Washington was received in a friendly manner. He delivered the British demand to vacate to French commander Saint-Pierre, but the French refused to leave. Saint-Pierre gave Washington his official answer in a sealed envelope after a few days' delay, he gave Washington's party food and extra winter clothing for the trip back to Virginia. Washington completed the precarious mission in 77 days in difficult winter conditions and achieved a measure of distinction when his report was published in Virginia and London. In February 1754, Dinwiddie promoted Washington to lieutenant colonel and second-in-command of the 300-strong Virginia R
American Samoa is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Samoa. Its location is centered around 14.2710° S, 170.1322° W. It is on the eastern border of the International Date Line. American Samoa consists of two coral atolls; the largest and most populous island is Tutuila, with the Manuʻa Islands, Rose Atoll, Swains Island included in the territory. All islands except for Swains Island are part of the Samoan Islands, located west of the Cook Islands, north of Tonga, some 300 miles south of Tokelau. To the west are the islands of the Wallis and Futuna group; as of April 2019 the population of American Samoa is 55,689 people. Most of them are "nationals but not citizens of the United States at birth". Most American Samoans can speak English and Samoan fluently. Samoan is the same language spoken in neighboring independent Samoa; the total land area is 199 square kilometers more than Washington, D. C. American Samoa is the southernmost territory of the United States and one of two U.
S. territories south of the Equator, along with the uninhabited Jarvis Island. Tuna products are the main exports, the main trading partner is the United States. American Samoa has been a member of the Pacific Community since 1983. During the 1918 flu pandemic, Governor John Martin Poyer quarantined the territory, because of his actions, American Samoa was one of the few places in the world where no flu-related deaths occurred. American Samoa is noted for having the highest rate of military enlistment of any U. S. state or territory. As of September 9, 2014, the local U. S. Army recruiting station in Pago Pago was ranked first in production out of the 885 Army recruiting stations and centers under the United States Army Recruiting Command, which includes the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the U. S. Virgin Islands, the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, South Korea and Europe. Contact with Europeans began in the early 18th century.
Dutchman Jacob Roggeveen was the first known European to sight the Samoan Islands in 1722, calling them the "Baumann Islands" after one of his captains. This visit was followed by French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville who named them the "Îles des Navigateurs" in 1768. British explorer James Cook recorded the island names in 1773, but never visited; the 1789 visit by La Perouse ended in an attack and resulted in the death of his second in command Capt. de Langle and several of his crew on a Tutuila water collection expedition. La Perouse named the island "Massacre Island", the bay near Aasu is still called "Massacre Bay". H. M. S. Pandora, under the command of Edwards, visited the island in 1791 during its search for the H. M. S. Bounty mutineers. Von Kotzebue visited in 1824. Mission work in the Samoas had begun in late 1830 when John Williams of the London Missionary Society arrived from the Cook Islands and Tahiti. By that time, the Samoans had gained a reputation for being savage and warlike, as violent altercations had occurred between natives and European visitors.
By the late nineteenth century, British and American vessels stopped at Samoa, as they valued Pago Pago Harbor as a refueling station for coal-fired shipping and whaling. The US Exploring Expedition visited in 1839. In March 1889, an Imperial German naval force entered a village on Samoa, in doing so destroyed some American property. Three American warships entered the Apia harbor and prepared to engage the three German warships found there. Before any shots were fired, a typhoon wrecked both German ships. A compulsory armistice was called because of the lack of any warships. At the turn of the twentieth century, international rivalries in the latter half of the century were settled by the 1899 Tripartite Convention in which Germany and the United States partitioned the Samoan Islands into two parts: The eastern island group became a territory of the United States and is today known as American Samoa. Forerunners to the Tripartite Convention of 1899 were the Washington Conference of 1887, the Treaty of Berlin of 1889 and the Anglo-German Agreement on Samoa of 1899.
The following year, the U. S. formally annexed its portion, a smaller group of eastern islands, one of which contains the noted harbor of Pago Pago. After the United States Navy took possession of eastern Samoa for the United States government, the existing coaling station at Pago Pago Bay was expanded into a full naval station, known as United States Naval Station Tutuila and commanded by a commandant; the Navy secured a Deed of Cession of Tutuila in 1900 and a Deed of Cession of Manuʻa in 1904 on behalf of the US government. The last sovereign of Manuʻa, the Tui Manuʻa Elisala, signed a Deed of Cession of Manuʻa following a series of U. S. naval trials, known as the "Trial of the Ipu", in Pago Pago, Taʻu, aboard a Pacific Squadron gunboat. The territory became known as the U. S. Naval Station Tutuila. On July 17, 1911, the US Naval Station Tutuila, composed of Tutuila, Aunu'u and Manu'a, was renamed American Samoa. In 1918, during the final stages of World War I, the flu pandemic had taken its toll, spreading from country to country.
American Samoa became on