The Illyrians were a group of Indo-European tribes in antiquity, who inhabited part of the western Balkans. The territory the Illyrians inhabited came to be known as Illyria to Greek and Roman authors, who identified a territory that corresponds to Croatia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, part of Serbia and most of central and northern Albania, between the Adriatic Sea in the west, the Drava river in the north, the Morava river in the east and the mouth of the Aoos river in the south; the first account of Illyrian peoples comes from the Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax, an ancient Greek text of the middle of the 4th century BC that describes coastal passages in the Mediterranean. The name "Illyrians", as applied by the ancient Greeks to their northern neighbors, may have referred to a broad, ill-defined group of peoples; the Illyrian tribes never collectively regarded themselves as'Illyrians', it is unlikely that they used any collective nomenclature for themselves. In fact, Illyrians seems to be the name of a specific Illyrian tribe, among the first to come in contact with the ancient Greeks during the Bronze Age, with the Greeks applying pars pro toto the name Illyrians to all people with similar language and customs.
At present it is unclear to what extent the Illyrians were linguistically and culturally homogeneous. In fact, Illyric origin was and still is attributed to a few ancient peoples residing in Italy: the Iapyges and Messapi, who are thought to have most followed Adriatic shorelines to the Italian peninsula from the geographic "Illyria"; the term "Illyrians" last appears in the historical record in the 7th century, referring to a Byzantine garrison operating within the former Roman province of Illyricum. In Greek mythology, Illyrius was the son of Cadmus and Harmonia who ruled Illyria and became the eponymous ancestor of the whole Illyrian people. Illyrius had multiple daughters. From these, sprang the Taulantii, Dardani, Autariates and the Daors. Autareius had a son Pannonius or Paeon and these had sons Scordiscus and Triballus. A version of this mythic genealogy gives as parents Polyphemus and Galatea, who gave birth to Celtus and Illyrius, three brothers, progenitors of Celts and Illyrians expresses perceived similarities to Celts and Gauls on the part of the mythographe.
Scholars have long recognized a "difficulty in producing a single theory on the ethnogenesis of the Illyrians" given their heterogeneous nature. Modern scholarship is unable to refer to the Illyrians as a unique and compact people and agrees that they were a sum of ill-defined communities without common origins that never merged to a single ethnic entity. Older Pan-Illyrian theories are now dismissed by scholars, based as they were on racialistic notions of Nordicism and Aryanism; the specific theories have found little archaeological corroboration, as no convincing evidence for significant migratory movements from the Luzatian culture into the west Balkans have been found. Rather, archaeologists from the former Yugoslavia highlighted the continuity between the Bronze and succeeding Iron Age developing the so-called "autochthonous theory" of Illyrian genesis; the "autochthonous" model was most elaborated upon by Alojz Benac and B. Čović. They argued that the'proto-Illyrians' had arrived much earlier, during the Bronze Age as nomadic Indo-Europeans from the steppe.
From that point, there was a gradual Illyrianization of the western Balkans leading to historic Illyrians, with no early Iron Age migration from northern Europe. He did not deny a minor cultural impact from the northern Urnfield cultures, however "these movements had neither a profound influence on the stability.. of the Balkans, nor did they affect the ethnogenesis of the Illyrian ethnos". Aleksandar Stipčević raised concerns regarding Benac's all-encompassing scenario of autochthonous ethnogenesis, he points out "can one negate the participation of the bearers of the field-urn culture in the ethnogenesis of the Illyrian tribes who lived in present-day Slovenia and Croatia" or "Hellenistic and Mediterranean influences on southern Illyrians and Liburnians?". He concludes that Benac's model is only applicable to the Illyrian groups in Bosnia, western Serbia and a part of Dalmatia, where there had indeed been a settlement continuity and'native' progression of pottery sequences since the Bronze Age.
Following prevailing trends in discourse on identity in Iron Age Europe, current anthropological perspectives reject older theories of a longue duree ethnogenesis of Illyrians where'archaeological continuity' can be demonstrated to Bronze Age times. They rather see the emergence of historic Illyrians tribes as a more recent phenomenon - just prior to their first attestation; the impetus behind the emergence of larger regional groups, such as "Iapodes", "Liburnians", "Pannonians" etc. is traced to increased contacts with the Mediterranean and La Tène'global worlds'. This catalyzed "the development of more complex political institutions and the increase in differences between individual communities". Emerging local elites selectively adopted either La Tène or Hellenistic and Roman cultural templates "in order to legitimise and strengthen domination within their communities, they were competing fiercely through either conflict and resistance to Roman expansion. Thus, they established more complex political alliances, which convinced
The Vinča culture known as Turdaș culture or Turdaș–Vinča culture, was a Neolithic archaeological culture in present-day Serbia and smaller parts of Bulgaria and Romania, dated to the period 5700–4500 BC or 5300–4700/4500 BC. Named for its type site, Vinča-Belo Brdo, a large tell settlement discovered by Serbian archaeologist Miloje Vasić in 1908, it represents the material remains of a prehistoric society distinguished by its settlement pattern and ritual behaviour. Farming technology first introduced to the region during the First Temperate Neolithic was developed further by the Vinča culture, fuelling a population boom and producing some of the largest settlements in prehistoric Europe; these settlements maintained a high degree of cultural uniformity through the long-distance exchange of ritual items, but were not politically unified. Various styles of zoomorphic and anthropomorphic figurines are hallmarks of the culture, as are the Vinča symbols, which some conjecture to be the earliest form of proto-writing.
Although not conventionally considered part of the Chalcolithic or "Copper Age", the Vinča culture provides the earliest known example of copper metallurgy. The Vinča culture occupied a region of Southeastern Europe corresponding to modern-day Serbia, but parts of Romania, Bosnia, North Macedonia, Greece; this region had been settled by farming societies of the First Temperate Neolithic, but during the Vinča period sustained population growth led to an unprecedented level of settlement size and density along with the population of areas that were bypassed by earlier settlers. Vinča settlements were larger than any other contemporary European culture, in some instances surpassing the cities of the Aegean and early Near Eastern Bronze Age a millennium later. One of the largest sites was Vinča-Belo Brdo, it had up to 2,500 people. Early Vinča settlement population density was 50–200 people per hectare, in phases an average of 50–100 people per hectare was common; the Divostin site was occupied twice between 4900–4650 B.
C. and an estimate based on 17 houses suggests that given a lifespan per house of 56 years 1028 houses were built on the site during that period with a final population size estimated to be between 868 and 2864. Another large site was Stubline from 4850/4800 BC. it may have contained a maximum population of 4,000. The settlement of Parţa maybe had 1,575 people living there at the same time; the origins of the Vinča culture are debated. Before the advent of radiocarbon dating it was thought, on the basis of typological similarities, that Vinča and other Neolithic cultures belonging to the'Dark Burnished Ware' complex were the product of migrations from Anatolia to the Balkans; this had to be reassessed in light of radiocarbon dates which showed that the Dark Burnished Ware complex appeared at least a millennium before Troy I, the putative starting point of the westward migration. An alternative hypothesis where the Vinča culture developed locally from the preceding Starčevo culture—first proposed by Colin Renfrew in 1969—is now accepted by many scholars, but the evidence is not conclusive.
The Vinča culture can be divided into two phases linked with those of its type site Vinča-Belo Brdo: In its phase the centre of the Vinča network shifted from Vinča-Belo Brdo to Vršac, the long-distance exchange of obsidian and Spondylus artefacts from modern-day Hungary and the Aegean became more important than that of Vinča figurines. The network lost its cohesion altogether and fell into decline, it is that, after two millennia of intensive farming, economic stresses caused by decreasing soil fertility were responsible for this decline. According to Marija Gimbutas, the Vinča culture was part of Old Europe – a homogeneous and matrifocal culture that occupied Europe during the Neolithic. According to this hypothesis its period of decline was followed by an invasion of warlike, horse-riding Proto-Indo-European tribes from the Pontic-Caspian steppe. Most people in Vinča settlements would have been occupied with the provision of food, they practised a mixed subsistence economy where agriculture, animal husbandry and hunting and foraging all contributed to the diet of the growing Vinča population.
Compared to earlier cultures of the First Temperate Neolithic these practices were intensified, with increasing specialisation on high-yield cereal crops and the secondary products of domesticated animals, consistent with the increased population density. Vinča agriculture introduced common wheat and flax to temperate Europe, made greater use of barley than the cultures of the FTN; these innovations increased crop yields and allowed the manufacture of clothes made from plant textiles as well as animal products. There is indirect evidence that Vinča farmers made use of the cattle-driven plough, which would have had a major effect on the amount of human labour required for agriculture as well as opening up new area of land for farming. Many of the largest Vinča sites occupy regions dominated by soil types that would have required ploughing. Areas with less arable potential were exploited through transhumant pastoralism, where groups from the lowland villages moved their livestock to nearby upland areas on a seasonal basis.
Cattle were more important than sheep and goats in Vinča herds and, in comparison to the cultures of the FTN, livestock was kept for milk, leather and as draft animals, rather than for meat. Seasonal movement to upland areas was motivated by the exploitation of stone and mineral resources. Where these were rich permanen
Ferizaj, or Uroševac, is a city and municipality located in the Ferizaj District of Kosovo. According to the 2011 census, the city has 42,628 inhabitants, while the municipality has 108,610 inhabitants; the city has been populated since the prehistoric era by the Vinča and Baden culture. During the Ottoman period, Ferizaj served as a trading center on the route between Belgrade and Thessaloniki. Ferizaj has always been considered as a city where tolerance and coexistence in terms of religion and culture has been part of the society in the last centuries. In 1999, a base of the United States Army was established in the City, it is the largest and the most expensive foreign military base built by the Americans in South Eastern Europe, since the Vietnam War. Ferizaj is located in the south-eastern part of Kosovo, about halfway between the cities of Pristina and Skopje, Macedonia, it is some 230 kilometres north-east of Tirana, 55 kilometres north of Skopje, 300 kilometres west of Sofia, 35 kilometres south of Pristina and 300 kilometres east of Podgorica.
Ferizaj is famous for a geographic phenomenon known as river bifurcation. The Nerodimka river is divided in two branches and they end up on two different seas. Ferizaj is located in the south-eastern part of Kosovo, about halfway between the cities of Pristina and Skopje, it is some 230 kilometres north-east of Tirana, 55 kilometres north of Skopje, 300 kilometres west of Sofia, 35 kilometres south of Pristina and 300 kilometres east of Podgorica. The town, was named Ferızovık when it was part of the Ottoman Empire, was little more than a village until 1873, when the Belgrade-Thessaloniki railway was opened, passing through the town; the name derives from a pre-1873 hotel owned by a local named Feriz Shasivari. The oldest ethno-cultural group who lived in the 6th and 5th millenniums BC in the territory of Kosovo was the Starčevo culture. Members of this group constructed their homes near rivers and the river terraces, they made their homes of willows and mud, while their main profession was farming.
Another group, which took the place of Starčevo culture, is the Vinča culture. These population shifts were made around 4300 BC; the newcomers built their habitats near rivers. These habitats were unfortified, with dense rows of willows and mud houses. Remnants of their material culture different forms of ceramic vessels and the large numbers of baked clay figures, testify on higher cultural level. After Starčevo and Vinča, the Bubanj-Hum culture followed; this cultural group expanded from the territory of today's Bulgaria. When carriers of this ethno-cultural group reached the region before the end of the 6th millennium BC, they destroyed Vinča habitats. Remnants of their material culture have not survived. After Bubanj-Hum, the Baden culture arrived from the Danube, representing its southernmost influence in Kosovo. Baden culture ended before the end of the 3rd millennium BC. Starting from the 8th century BC and during the next centuries, until the Roman conquest, can transmit continuously development of a new culture in the region, the Dardanian tribe.
The Dardanian bury their remnants in tumuli tombs. In the city, two necropolis have been found, one in the locality of Kuline near the railway station in Gërlicë, the other in region of Mollopolc, along the Ferizaj-Shtime road. Around 280 BC some episodes from the life of Dardania reaches historical records as a political community ruled by a king. Most of the information on the Dardanians are about their wars against the Macedons; the first contact between the Dardania and the Romans came in 200 BC when they offered military assistance in the fight against Macedonia. In 96 BC the Roman Emperor Sulla subdued the Dardani. Numerous Roman settlements were established on the old lake terraces; these settlements accompanied a road network. A part of the road was discovered on the river bed of the Lepenac, one near the village of Doganaj, the other near the village of Reka, its suburb at the time, it has been of great importance for traffic. Thence passing one of the most important roads, which lead from the north from Slovenia and Croatia through Sarajevo, to Vučitrn, Pristina and passed through the present Ferizaj to Skopje in the south.
With this main northern line traffic crucified Shkodër to Prizren road. In the library of St Mark Basilica in Venice, there was found a manuscript of an anonymous traveler, from 1559 to 1560, registered with Latin Anonimo sign a Costatinopoli viaggio da Venezia. During the continental trip from Venice to Istanbul this marked: "On July 3 set off and came to a place named Villa Negra... The valley is surrounded on all sides by hills." This further writes that reached Sopotnice village that comes to today's village with the same name, located near Kaçanik. He writes that continued on that path and arrived in Skopje on July 5. Kosovo province becomes the center of a comprehensive activity, the suburb of Ferizaj, with cities and capitals in the Nerodimë e Poshtme, Štimlje and others except Prizren and Pristina remain for a long time the main center of political and cultural of that time. In the 1455 census, by the Turkish authorities in the province of Brankovic, most villages belonging to the municipality of Ferizaj belonging to the province of Morava, 646 villages of this province villages of Ferizaj were larger than others.
According to sources about 90% of the population were of Slavic origin, 10% Albanians, Vlachs and Bulgarians. Agriculture was th
Štrpce or Shtërpca, is a town and municipality located in the Ferizaj District in Kosovo. As of 2015, it has an estimated population of 13,630 inhabitants. After the 2013 Brussels Agreement, the municipality has been included to be part of a yet to be formed Community of Serb Municipalities. In Medieval Serbia, the župa of Sirinić, first mentioned in a 13th-century charter, covered the whole of modern Štrpce municipality, having the towns of Gradište and Zidinac. Several remains of Byzantine forts exist in the region. At the top of the Čajlije hill, above the mouth of the Piljevac creek of the Lepenac river, there exists the remains of the Gradište fort, which has two layers, the first from the 6th century, the second from the 13th century; the fort is in ruins, of which a donjon tower, outlines of other buildings, can be identified. The entrance to the city, at the north, was protected by a tower. From that tower, a rampart continued, with another tower, from where a defensive wall stretched to the foot of the hill, towards the Lepenac.
On June 28, 1944, during World War II, Bulgarian soldiers executed 46 locals on the Rakanovac site in Brezovica, after the death of one of their soldiers. According to the 2011 census done by the Government of Kosovo, the municipality of Štrpce had 6,949 inhabitants. However, these results should be taken with caution, due to the partial boycott by Kosovo Serbs. According to the Municipal Office for Communities and Returns, the total population is estimated at 13,630 inhabitants. ECMI calculated in 2013; the ethnic composition of the municipality of Štrpce: Staja Marković, after whom the primary school is named, was a guerrilla fighter in the 20th century. The municipality encompasses an area of 247.36 square kilometers on the northeast part of the Šar Mountains, the upper part of the Lepenac river valley, well known as Sirinić Valley. Its municipal borders overlap with the borders of Sirinić Valley. Border lines are made of the mountain massive of the north-east part of the Šar Mountains and its branches: Ošljak, Kodža Balkan, Žar and Jezerska Mountain.
The Štrpce municipality is a mountainous area, comprising regions from 900 meters above sea level in the Lepenac river valley up to 2,500 meters above sea level at its highest peak, Ljuboten. Dominant mountain massifs create a natural isolation for this municipality towards north and south, meanwhile, by Brod canyon the municipality is open towards Kosovo Valley, through Prevalac toward Prizren Valley; the bordering municipalities are Ferizaj, Kaçanik, Suva Reka and Prizren, while the municipality is bordered by the Republic of Macedonia to the south. Štrpce has a favorable location in comparison to other cities and administrative, economic centers of Kosovo, as well as the north and northwest part of Macedonia. The distance from the Štrpce municipality to the Ferizaj municipality is 30 kilometers, to the Pristina municipality 61 kilometers, to the Prizren municipality 34 kilometers. Štrpce municipality is situated at the center of the aforementioned cities, important for further municipal economic development.
It is worth mentioning that within a radius of 100 kilometers from Štrpce there are a number of industrial and mining centers like Trepča – Kosovo mining-energetic basin Skopje, Prizren and Peć industrial basins. In the past few years a number of asphalt roads were constructed within the municipal territory, so that all settlements are connected with the center of the municipality. Relief features and potential for using agricultural land are prerequisites for the bloodstream of the settlements' network which are the valley's predominant type. Most of the settlements are not urbanized and not functionally integrated, with the exception of Brezovica settlement where tourism assets are located and Štrpce as the center of the municipality; the diversity and attractive natural resources represent good potential for a faster economic development of the municipality. The most valuable natural potentials of the municipality are its environment values, climate features and untouched nature. Mountains with so called Alpine mountain relief, in the upper part of the mountain where there is snow up to 280 days during the year are just some of the advantages for the development of winter tourism.
The Šar Mountains offer the possibility of preparing ski slopes for all types of winter sports fans, from novices to top professional skiers. The lower parts with characteristics of the valley climate are rich with a variety of flora, caves etc. and offer possibilities for development of summer tourism as well. Besides tourism, there are opportunities and natural resources for the development of agriculture and cattle-breading. Agricultural land takes 55% of the municipal territory —13,651 hectares. Pastures cover 38.8%, meadows 25% of the total agricultural land. Cultivable soil covers 18%, a small area is orchard. Forests take 42% of the territory of the municipality —11,372 hectares. Beech is the most spread tree, but one can come across Turkey oak, white ash and some other types of trees as well. Above 1,600 meters there are mixed and coniferous forests: pine, spruce, juniper, as well as endemic trees like Pinus peuce, Pinus heldreichii, Pinus mugo, Taxus baccata and some others; the whole territory of the
Culture in Ferizaj
Ferizaj, in southeastern Kosovo, is its third-largest city and has a number of cultural attractions and activities. Composer Lorenc Antoni worked in the city during the early 1940s. Ferizaj has an Orthodox church in close proximity. Nearby are the city library, a park and a number of coffee shops. In 1950, the District of Ferizaj council founded the Miladin Popovic Library, which became Ferizaj's main library. Reading rooms opened in Talinovc Muhaxherve and Tankosiq in 1930, in the Old Village in 1934 and in Pojatisht and Kosine. During the Kosovo War, many libraries were destroyed. After the war, there were 8,334 books in the Anton Qeta Library before renovations. Ten computers were donated, an internet network was installed. In 2005, the library had a total of 17,441 books; the Sadik Tafarshiku Library, which opened on January 10, 2001, was funded by the city and the United States Agency for International Development and Save the Children. The library, which features exhibitions, scientific debates and literary hours, had 17,722 books and 1,252 members in 2005.
Nika’s Mill, built during the 16th century, was demolished in the 1990s. At this location is a restaurant. Ferizaj's first mosque, built in 1894 during the Ottoman period, was destroyed by German aerial bombing in April 1941; the construction of a new mosque began in 1942, was completed the following year. The first minaret was built in 1957, the second in 2003. Construction of the Orthodox church began in 1928 by the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, was completed in 1931, it was decided to build the church in the courtyard of the mosque. This antique figure is found in a prehistoric village in Ferizaj; the sun-baked ceramic figure, dating to the sixth millennium BC, indicates a cult of womanhood. The Hotel Luboten mural was painted in 1960 by a Macedonian artist; the mural, in the city center, has become identified with Ferizaj. Tonic and Trix are bands from Ferizaj. Trix was formed in spring 1974 with Muhamet Bislimi and Nuredin Azemi. Other members are drummer Gjergj Prenk Palaj. Sahiti, the leader of the group, is the only member to remain in Kosovo.
Activities in Ferizaj were organized into cultural artistic associations. The Ferizaj Theater in operation since 1928, featured Lorenc Antoni in 1941. In 1943 Hasan Dyngjeri directed plays by Kristo Floqi, in 1946 the Mustaf Bakija CAA was formed; the theater had a dance troupe with over 40 members. In 1955, a group of intellectuals founded Ferizaj's amateur theatre. Ferizaj is noted for its nightclubs, the best-known are the Diamonds Club and the Coco Club. About 100 meters apart, DJs who have appeared there include DJ Tarkan, DJ Daddy K, David Vendetta and DJ Whoo Kid. Ferizaj's museum was founded in June 2011, a director was appointed in August. Thanks to donations, the museum has over 800 exhibits, it has two sections: ethnology. Ferizaj has had a number of festivals, including Ferfilm, the Festival of Theaters in Kosovo and the Kosovarja Sings Festival. Ferfilm, an international film festival, was held in 2013; the Festival of Theaters in Kosovo has been held in Ferizaj since 1970. In 1967, Kastriotet was founded.
Professor and journalist Rexhep Rifati was its first president. During the spring of 1979, the group toured France and Germany; the group reunited in 1993 with Shukri Hoxha. Kosovarja Sings began in 1972 to highlight feminine concerns
Skopje is the capital and largest city of North Macedonia. It is the country's political, cultural and academic center; the territory of Skopje has been inhabited since at least 4000 BC. A Paeonian city, Scupi became the capital of Dardania in the second century BC. On the eve of the 1st century AD, the settlement was seized by the Romans and became a military camp; when the Roman Empire was divided into eastern and western halves in 395 AD, Scupi came under Byzantine rule from Constantinople. During much of the early medieval period, the town was contested between the Byzantines and the Bulgarian Empire, whose capital it was between 972 and 992. From 1282, the town was part of the Serbian Empire and acted as its capital city from 1346 to 1371. In 1392, Skopje was conquered by the Ottoman Turks who called it Üsküb, with this name being in use in English for a time; the town stayed under Ottoman control for over 500 years, serving as the capital of pashasanjak of Üsküp and the Vilayet of Kosovo.
At that time the city was famous for its oriental architecture. In 1912, it was annexed by the Kingdom of Serbia during the Balkan Wars. During the First World War the city was seized by the Bulgarian Kingdom, after this war, it became part of the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes becoming the capital of the Vardarska banovina. In the Second World War the city was conquered by the Bulgarian Army, part of the Axis powers. In 1944, it became the capital city of Democratic Macedonia, a federal state, part of Democratic Federal Yugoslavia; the city developed after World War II, but this trend was interrupted in 1963 when it was hit by a disastrous earthquake. In 1991, it became the capital city of an independent Macedonia. Skopje is located on the upper course of the Vardar River, is located on a major north-south Balkan route between Belgrade and Athens, it is a center for metal-processing, timber, textile and printing industries. Industrial development of the city has been accompanied by development of the trade and banking sectors, as well as an emphasis on the fields of transportation and sport.
According to the last official count from 2002, Skopje had a population of 506,926 inhabitants. Skopje is located in the north of the country, in the center of the Balkan peninsula, halfway between Belgrade and Athens; the city was built in the Skopje valley, oriented on a west-east axis, along the course of the Vardar river, which flows into the Aegean Sea in Greece. The valley is 20 kilometres wide and it is limited by several mountain ranges to the North and South; these ranges limit the urban expansion of Skopje, which spreads along the Vardar and the Serava, a small river which comes from the North. In its administrative boundaries, the City of Skopje stretches for more than 33 kilometres, but it is only 10 kilometres wide. Skopje is 245 m above sea level and covers 571.46 km2. The urbanised area only covers 337 km2, with a density of 65 inhabitants per hectare. Skopje, in its administrative limits, encompasses many villages and other settlements, including Dračevo, Gorno Nerezi and Bardovci.
According to the 2002 census, the City of Skopje comprised 506,926 inhabitants. The City of Skopje reaches the Kosovo border to the North-East. Clockwise, it is bordered by the Macedonian municipalities of Čučer-Sandevo, Aračinovo, Studeničani, Sopište, Želino and Jegunovce; the Vardar river, which flows through Skopje, is at 60 kilometres from its source near Gostivar. In Skopje, its average discharge is 51 m3/s, with a wide amplitude depending on seasons, between 99.6 m3/s in May and 18.7 m3/s in July. The water temperature is comprised between 18.1 °C in July. Several rivers meet the Vardar within the city boundaries; the largest is the Treska, 130 kilometres long. It crosses the Matka Canyon before reaching the Vardar on the western extremity of the City of Skopje; the Lepenec, coming from Kosovo, flows into the Vardar on the northwestern end of the urban area. The Serava coming from the North, had flowed through the Old Bazaar until the 1960s, when it was diverted towards the West because its waters were polluted.
It met the Vardar close to the seat of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Nowadays, it flows into the Vardar near the ruins of Scupi; the Markova Reka, the source of, on Mount Vodno, meets the Vardar at the eastern extremity of the city. These three rivers are less than 70 kilometres long; the city of Skopje comprises two artificial lakes, located on the Treska. The lake Matka is the result of the construction of a dam in the Matka Canyon in the 1930s, the Treska lake was dug for leisure purpose in 1978. Three small natural lakes can be found on the northeastern edge of the urban area; the river Vardar caused many floods, such as in 1962, when its outflow reached 1110 m3/s−1. Several works have been carried since Byzantine times to limit the risks, since the construction of the Kozjak dam on the Treska in 1994, the flood risk is close to zero; the subsoil contains a large water table, alimented by
Human Development Index
The Human Development Index is a statistic composite index of life expectancy and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores a higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, the GNI per capita is higher, it was developed by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq, with help from Gustav Ranis of Yale University and Meghnad Desai of the London School of Economics, was further used to measure a country's development by the United Nations Development Program's Human Development Report Office. The 2010 Human Development Report introduced an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index. While the simple HDI remains useful, it stated that "the IHDI is the actual level of human development", "the HDI can be viewed as an index of'potential' human development"; the index does not take into account several factors, such as the net wealth per capita or the relative quality of goods in a country. This situation tends to lower the ranking for some of the most advanced countries, such as the G7 members and others.
The index is based on the human development approach, developed by ul Haq framed in terms of whether people are able to "be" and "do" desirable things in life. Examples include—Being: well fed, healthy; the freedom of choice is central—someone choosing to be hungry is quite different from someone, hungry because they cannot afford to buy food, or because the country is in a famine. The origins of the HDI are found in the annual Human Development Reports produced by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme; these were devised and launched by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq in 1990, had the explicit purpose "to shift the focus of development economics from national income accounting to people-centered policies". To produce the Human Development Reports, Mahbub ul Haq formed a group of development economists including Paul Streeten, Frances Stewart, Gustav Ranis, Keith Griffin, Sudhir Anand, Meghnad Desai. Nobel laureate Amartya Sen utilized Haq's work in his own work on human capabilities.
Haq believed that a simple composite measure of human development was needed to convince the public and politicians that they can and should evaluate development not only by economic advances but improvements in human well-being. Published on 4 November 2010, the 2010 Human Development Report calculated the HDI combining three dimensions: A long and healthy life: Life expectancy at birth Education index: Mean years of schooling and Expected years of schooling A decent standard of living: GNI per capita In its 2010 Human Development Report, the UNDP began using a new method of calculating the HDI; the following three indices are used: 1. Life Expectancy Index = LE − 20 85 − 20 LEI is 1 when Life expectancy at birth is 85 and 0 when Life expectancy at birth is 20.2. Education Index = MYSI + EYSI 2 2.1 Mean Years of Schooling Index = MYS 15 Fifteen is the projected maximum of this indicator for 2025. 2.2 Expected Years of Schooling Index = EYS 18 Eighteen is equivalent to achieving a master's degree in most countries.3.
Income Index = ln − ln ln − ln II is 1 when GNI per capita is $75,000 and 0 when GNI per capita is $100. The HDI is the geometric mean of the previous three normalized indices: HDI = LEI ⋅ EI ⋅ II 3. LE: Life expectancy at birth MYS: Mean years of schooling EYS: Expected years of schooling GNIpc: Gross national income at purchasing power parity per capita The HDI combined three dimensions last used in its 2009 Report: Life expectancy at birth, as an index of population health and longevity to HDI Knowledge and education, as measured by the adult literacy rate and the combined primary and tertiary gross enrollment ratio. Standard of living, as indicated by the natural logarithm of gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity; this methodology was used by the UNDP until their 2011 report. The formula defining the HDI is promulgated by the United Nations Development Programme. In general, to transform a raw variable, say x, into a unit-free index between 0 and 1 (which allo