Glogovac or Gllogoc, is a town and municipality located in the Pristina District in central Kosovo. According to the 2011 census, the town of Glogovac had 6,143 inhabitants, while the municipality had 58,531 inhabitants. Glogovac municipality is located in central Kosovo, between the Čičavica mountains in the east and the Drenica hills in the north and west; the main road from Pristina to Peć crosses the municipality. At a junction at Komorani village, a smaller road extends north from the highway, passing through Glogovac town and continuing to Skenderaj. There are a total including the town of Glogovac; the municipality's population prior to the 1999 bombing was 58,579 made up entirely of Albanians, with a small number of Serbs and others only in the Glogovac town. No minorities remained in the municipality, thus Glogovac today reflects a mono-ethnic environment; the municipality of Glogovac was established before World War II. During Yugoslavia economic growth was low. There has been a gradual improvement in economic, educational and industrial growth.
Municipal development has affected the construction of network-educational system and service network intensifying agricultural development has become after the construction of the irrigation system "Iber Lepenci", while a positive movement for the economy of Glogovac is marked by complex building "Ferronikeli". Prior and during the Kosovo War, the ethnic Albanian separatist Kosovo Liberation Army had a strong level of influence and during the war controlled large areas of the municipality. Drenica, including the Glogovac municipality was badly affected. During the war, there were instances of massacres carried out by Yugoslav forces. Mass graves were exhumed in an attempt to conceal crimes; the strongest local Internet providing company at the area at the time is KUJTESA. Other companies like:Sky Net,Galaktika and others were established after the war at 2002 and are some of leading companies at the region; the presence of the international non-governmental organizations in the municipality remains unchanged.
The number of international NGOs is reduced. Only the International Committee of Red Cross continues to be based in Glogovac while the few other international NGOs working in Glogovac are based in Pristina; these include the Danish Refugee Council. The most prominent local NGOs are Mother Theresa Society, the ‘Council for Defense of Human Rights and Freedoms’, Aureola, Gresa and Handikos; the KLA War Veterans Association, KLA Invalids Association, Friends of KPC, Pensioners Association, Glogovac Hearing Impaired Association, Union Fund of the Republic of Kosova or the so- called "Bukoshi Fund" are active in the municipality as well. There are no local newspapers, except two temporary magazines "Realiteti" and "Spektri". However, there are four correspondents residing in Glogovac working for major newspapers based in Pristina. There are two Radio Stations, "Radio Drenasi 92.1" broadcasting on a regional coverage, "Radio Dodona" of which at the moment is not operating for unknown reasons, there is a local TV station "Star TV" broadcasting on cable only.
Police in Glogovac is under the KPS management since July 2003. 15 UNMIK International police officers are assisting and advising. The number of KPS is 99, they are all Kosovo Albanians. The Norwegian Kosovo Force contingent was taken over by the Finnish Battalion of KFOR in July 2003; the Finnish team enjoy the support of the community and has excellent co-operation with UNMIK Police, UN Civil Administration, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and other members of international and local communities. The Kosovo Protection Corps, a civilian defence unit and the successor of the KLA, numbers 60 members and is still dependent on the Regional Training Group 1 Zone located in Skenderaj. UNMIK, KFOR and NGOs are the main employers in the municipality, while the majority of the population is employed in family-owned, small sized, non-productive, private businesses like shops, car washes, petrol stations. Most businesses have registered with UNMIK. Glogovac is an rural municipality with wheat and maize as the primary crops.
Before the conflict, a owned agricultural enterprise dominated the production but was destroyed. As a result, a large portion of the arable land is not cultivated as of today; the cattle farm in Krajkovo is now utilised as the temporary community shelter. The Ferronikel Factory provided jobs for more than 2,000 people at the peak of its production in 1988. Heavy damages were inflicted on the facility during the 1999 conflict; the privatised factory is still contributing to the infrastructure of Glogovac town with power, including water supply and an electric grid. A major development is the building of the Trade Centre in Glogovac town, completed by mid-2004; the municipality played a central role in the whole process by co-ordinating the financing and management of the project. The Trade Centre contains 134 offices for small businesses. Two quarries at Korrotice e Ulet and Cikatove e Vjeter have become operational since the conflict. There are four nickel mines operating at the territory of Glogovac: Čikatovo, Dushkaja and Suke.
The roads in the municipality range from good to poor. The main road has been redone. Local roads in the town and roads in the majority of villages remain a primary concern. During rainy or icy weather conditions it is difficult
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate known as a number plate or a license plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction; the registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. There are electronic license plates. Most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorboats, require only one plate, attached to the rear of the vehicle.
National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle, such as the make, colour, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, mileage recorded, vehicle identification number, the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Either a government agency or a private company with express contractual authorization from the government makes plates as needed, which are mailed to, delivered to, or picked up by the vehicle owners. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates, because such unauthorized private manufacturing is equivalent to forging an official document. Alternatively, the government will assign plate numbers, it is the vehicle owner's responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be permanently assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime.
If the vehicle is either destroyed or exported to a different country, the plate number is retired or reissued. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as for overland tourist visits, regardless of the length of time it is due to remain there. Other jurisdictions follow a "plate-to-owner" policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyer's name and plate number. A person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the local laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them, or may be permitted to keep them; some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with "personal" plates. In some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, may have to pay a fee to exercise this option. Alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration, periodic safety and/or emissions inspections or vehicle taxation. Other jurisdictions have replaced the decal requirement through the use of computerization: a central database maintains records of which plate numbers are associated with expired registrations, communicating with automated number plate readers to enable law-enforcement to identify expired registrations in the field. Plates are fixed directly to a vehicle or to a plate frame, fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the vehicle service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames. In some jurisdictions registration plate frames have design restrictions.
For example, many states, like Texas, allow plate frames but prohibit plate frames from covering the name of the state, district, Native American tribe or country that issued of license plate. Plates are designed to conform to standards with regard to being read by eye in day or at night, or by electronic equipment; some drivers purchase clear, smoke-colored or tinted covers that go over the registration plate to prevent electronic equipment from scanning the registration plate. Legality of these covers varies; some cameras incorporate filter systems that make such avoidance attempts unworkable with infra-red filters. Vehicles pulling trailers, such as caravans and semi-trailer trucks, are required to display a third registration plate on the rear of the trailer. An engineering study by the University of Illinois published in 1960 recommended that the state of Illinois adopt a numbering system and plate design "composed of combinations of characters which can be perceived and are legible at a distance of 125 feet under daylight conditions, are adapted to filing and administrative procedures".
It recommended that a standard plate size of 6 inches by 14 inches be adopte
Lipljan or Lipjan is a town and municipality located in the Pristina District of Kosovo. According to the 2011 census, the town of Lipljan has 6,870 inhabitants, while the municipality has 57,605 inhabitants; the name of the town, Lipljan, is derived from the Serbian lipa, "linden tree", referring to the local foliage. The name lipa is used in South Slavic toponyms; the Roman city of Ulpiana was located near Lipljan and it was named in honor of the Roman Emperor Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus. In the early Middle Ages in was part of the Bulgarian Empire and a diocese of the Bulgarian Patiarchate; the neo-Latin form Lypenion for the city occurs for the first time in a Byzantine text from 1018 AD that confirmed the town as an episcopal seat of the Bulgarian Archbishopric of Ohrid following the Byzantine conquest of Bulgaria in the same year. Ulpiana played an important role in the development of the most important cities in the Roman province of Dardania. Lipljan was the seat of medieval Eparchy of Lipljan.
The Gračanica monastery was built on the ruins of two older churches. According to the last official census done in 2011, the municipality of Lipljan has 57,605 inhabitants; the ethnic composition of the municipality: Municipalities of Kosovo Cities and towns in Kosovo Populated places in Kosovo Staro Gracko massacre Notes References OSCE Profile of Lipjan
District of Mitrovica
Mitrovica District is one of the unified seven districts of Kosovo. Its administrative center and the largest city is Mitrovica; the district borders on the District of Peć to the south-west, the District of Pristina to the south-east and east, the Republic of Serbia to the north. The first human habitations here can be traced back to the Prehistoric period; some Neolithic sites have been discovered in the Mitrovica District, for example in Runik and Karagac, Vallac and Fafos. This region was populated by Dardanians, an Illyrian tribe that lived in the territory of today's Kosovo. By the end of the 1st century BC, the Romans invaded the region. At the time, one of the most important centres in the region was Municipium Dardanorum, localized in the village of Socanica, Municipality of Leposavic. Archeological sites from the Roman period were found in the territory of Vushtrri, for example the ruins in the village Pestova and the Rashan Fortress. After the Romans, the territory of Mitrovica Region was occupied by Byzantium.
During the Justinian I period, the Old Fortress in Vushtrri was built, which remains the city center today. By the end of the 9th century, the Region of Mitrovica became part of the Bulgarian state of Samuel; the area was conquered by the Nemanjić dynasty in 1185. During the Serbian rule, the region and Kosovo in general became a political and spiritual centre of the Serbian Kingdom; the Ottomans stayed until the 17th century. During the Ottoman invasion, Islam spread in this area and many mosques, Turkish baths, madrasah and Ottoman houses were built; the cities of Vushtrri and Zvecan became some of the largest cities in the region and some of the most important in the Ottoman Empire. In 1912, after the Ottoman capitulation, Serbia acquired the territory of Kosovo. In the first World War, the region was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire part of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. In World War II, Germany conquered most of territory of the Mitrovica Region, while the Skenderaj were under Italians.
After World War II, under Yugoslavia the economy in the Mitrovica region was on its culmination. The terrain of the Mitrovica District is rugged and mountainous, comprising the south portion of Kopaonik mountain on the north-east, with the highest point Pančić's Peak 2,017 meters above sea level; the mountain ranges of Rogozna and Mokra Gora extend on the north-west by Zubin Potok with the peak of Berim, 1,731 meters. The northern part of Drenica and Qyqavica mountain occupies the south-west part of region, while in the south east the boundary extends on the Plain of Kosovo. In the center of the region is the Ibar valley, where Mitrovica lies. Regarding hydrography, Mitrovica District constitutes one of the richest regions in Kosovo. While a mountainous area, there are many small river sources in the region, two of the most important rivers in Kosovo and Sitnica, flow here. Ibar originates in Rožaje, eastern Montenegro, passes through Sandžak and enters Kosovo by the town of Zubin Potok. Near this town, the river is dammed by the Gazivoda Dam.
As the largest lake in Kosovo, Gazivoda Lake represents one of the most important assets of Kosovo's economy. Below Gazivode, another reservoir is created, Lake Pridvorice. In Mitrovica, the Ibar receives Lushta river and Sitnica, which consist of the longest river in Kosovo. Sitnica passes through the town of Vushtrri what makes an important element for agriculture in this area. In Mitrovica it receives Trepça river, of Kopaonik range. According to the results of 2011 census and Kosovo Agency of Statistics 2008-2009 data for the municipalities with Serbian majority: Zveçan, Leposaviç, Zubin Potok and North part of Mitrovica, in this region live 232,833 inhabitants or 13.38% of total population of Kosovo. Note:Northern part of Mitrovica is included into Mitrovica; the municipalities of Mitrovica, Vučitrn and Skenderaj have an Albanian majority, whilst the municipalities of Zubin Potok, Zvečan and Leposavić have an ethnic Serb majority. Serbs form the majority of population in the northern part of Mitrovica, their cultural and political center in Kosovo.
Data on municipalities of South Mitrovica, Vučitrn and Skenderaj according to 2011 population census. As it is known, municipalities with Serbian majority: Zvečan, Leposavić, Zubin Potok and North part of Mitrovica did not participate in the population census conducted in April, 2011. For this part-municipalities the data is taken from the update 2008-2009. In the municipalities of Mitrovica Region and Serbian languages are official languages; until 2012 Mitrovica region was divided into six municipalities. In 2013, after November elections in Kosovo, North Mitrovica became a separate municipality; the largest city is municipality of South Mitrovica. This is the list of 48 settlements in the municipality of Mitrovica; this is the list of 67 settlements in the municipality of Vushtrri. Subdivisions of Kosovo
Romanization of Serbian
The romanization of Serbian or latinization of Serbian is the representation of the Serbian language using Latin letters. Serbian is written in two alphabets, the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, a variation of Cyrillic and the Serbian Latin alphabet, a variation of the Latin alphabet; the Serbian language is an example of Digraphia. However, Gaj's Latin alphabet is very used in Serbia as the second alphabet; the two are directly and interchangeable. Romanization can be done with no errors, but in some cases knowledge of Serbian is required to do proper transliteration from Latin back to Cyrillic. Standard Serbian uses both alphabets currently. A survey from 2014 showed that 47% of the Serbian population favors the Latin alphabet whereas 36% favors the Cyrillic one. Apart from Serbian, Gaj's Latin alphabet is used in Bosnian and Croatian standards of Serbo-Croatian. Another standard of Serbo-Croatian, uses a modified version of it. Serbo-Croatian was regarded as a single language since the 1850 Vienna Literary Agreement, to be written in two forms: one in the adapted Serbian Cyrillic alphabet.
The Latin alphabet, was not taught in schools in Serbia when it became independent in the 19th century. After a series of efforts by Serbian writers Ljubomir Stojanović and Jovan Skerlić, it became part of the school curriculum after 1914. During World War I, Austria-Hungary banned the Cyrillic alphabet in Bosnia and its use in occupied Serbia was banned in schools. Cyrillic was banned in the Independent State of Croatia in World War II; the government of socialist Yugoslavia made some initial effort to promote romanization, use of the Latin alphabet in the Orthodox Serbian and Montenegrin parts of Yugoslavia, but met with resistance. The use of latinica did however become more common among Serbian speakers. Still, in 1993 the authorities of Republika Srpska under Radovan Karadžić and Momčilo Krajišnik decided to proclaim Ekavian and Serbian Cyrillic to be official in Republika Srpska, considered grotesque both by native Bosnian Serb writers at the time and the general public, that decision was rescinded in 1994.
It was reinstated in a milder form in 1996, today still the use of Serbian Latin is discouraged in Republika Srpska, in favor of Cyrillic. Article 10 of the Constitution of Serbia adopted by a referendum in 2006 defined Cyrillic as the official script in Serbia, while Latin was given the lower status of "Script in official use". Today Serbian is more to be romanized in Montenegro than in Serbia. Exceptions to this include Serbian websites where use of Latin alphabet is more convenient, increasing use in tabloid and popular media such as Blic and Svet. More established media, such as the state-run Politika, Radio Television of Serbia, or foreign Google News, Voice of Russia and Facebook tend to use Cyrillic script; some websites offer the content in both scripts, using Cyrillic as the source and auto generating Romanized version. In 2013 in Croatia there were massive protests against official Cyrillic signs on local government buildings in Vukovar. Serbian place names are spelled in latinica using the mapping that exists between the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet and Gaj's Latin alphabet.
Serbian personal names are romanized the same way as place names. This is the case with consonants which are common to other Slavic Latin alphabets - Č, Ć, Š, Ž, Dž and Đ. A problem is presented by the letter Đ/đ that represents the affricate, still sometimes represented by "Dj"; the letter Đ was not part of the original Gaj's alphabet, but was added by Đuro Daničić in the 19th century. A transcribed "Dj" is still sometimes encountered in rendering Serbian names into English, though Đ should be used. In Serbian, foreign names are phonetically transliterated into both Latin and Cyrillic, a change that does not happen in Croatian and Bosnian. For example, in Serbian history books George Washington becomes "Džordž Vašington" or Џорџ Вашингтон, Winston Churchill becomes "Vinston Čerčil" or Винстон Черчил and Charles de Gaulle "Šarl de Gol" or Шарл де Гол; this change happens in some European languages that use the Latin alphabet such as Lithuanian and Latvian. The name Catherine Ashton for instance gets transliterated into "Ketrin Ešton" in Serbian.
An exception to this are place names which are so well known as to have their own form: just as English has "Vienna, Austria" so Croatian and romanization of Serbian have "Beč, Austrija." Incomplete romanization of Serbian is written using the English alphabet known as ASCII Serbian, by dropping diacritics. It is used in SMS messages, comments on the Internet or e-mails because users don't have available Serbian keyboard installed. Serbian is a phonetic language with 30 sounds that can be represented with 30 Cyrillic letters, or 27 Gaj's Latin letters and three digraphs. In its ASCII form, the number of used letters drops down to 22, as the letters "q", "w", "x" and "y" are not used; some words morph into the same written form and a good knowledge of Serbian and a sentence context is required for proper understanding of the written text. Using incomplete romanization does not allow for easy transliteration back to Cyrillic without significant manual work. Google tried using machine learning approach to solving this problem and developed an interactive text input tool that enables typing Serbian in ASCII and auto-converting to Cyrillic.
Pristina or Prishtina, is the capital of Kosovo. The city has a majority Albanian population, alongside other smaller communities. With a municipal population of 204,721 inhabitants, Pristina is the second-largest city in the world with a predominantly Albanian-speaking population, after Albania's capital, Tirana. Within Serbia, it would be the 4th largest. Geographically, it is located in the north-eastern part of Kosovo close to the Goljak mountains. During the Paleolithic Age, what is now the area of Pristina was envolved by the Vinča culture, it was home to several Roman people at the classical times. King Bardyllis brought various tribes together in the area of Pristina in the 4th century BC, establishing the Dardanian Kingdom; the heritage of the classical era is still evident in the city, represented by ancient city of Ulpiana, considered one of the most important Roman cities in the Balkan peninsula. In the Middle Ages, Pristina was an important town in Medieval Serbia and the royal estate of Stefan Milutin, Stefan Uroš III, Stefan Dušan, Stefan Uroš V and Vuk Branković.
Following the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans, Pristina became an important mining and trading center due to its strategic position near the rich mining town of Novo Brdo. The city was known for its trade fairs and items, such as goatskin and goat hair as well as gunpowder; the first mosque in Pristina was built in the late 14th century while under Serbian rule. Tolerance and coexistence of religion and culture has been part of the society for centuries. Pristina is the most important transportation junction of Kosovo, for air and roads; the international airport of Pristina is the largest airport of the country and among the largest in the region. A range of expressways and motorways, such as the R6, R7 and R7.1, radiate out the city and connect it to Albania and the Republic of North Macedonia. Pristina is as well as the most essential economic, financial and trade center of Kosovo due to its significant location in the center of the country, it is the seat of power of the Government of Kosovo, the residences for work of the President and Prime Minister of Kosovo and the Parliament of Kosovo.
The name of the city could be derived from Proto-Slavic dialectal word *pryščina, meaning "spring", attested in the Moravian dialects of Czech. The toponym Priština appears as the name of a hamlet near Teslić in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Marko Snoj proposes the derivation from a Slavic form *Prišьčь, a possessive adjective from the personal name *Prišьkъ, the derivational suffix -ina'belonging to X and his kin'; the name is most a patronymic of the personal name *Prišь, preserved as a surname in Sorbian Priš, Polish Przybysz, a hypocoristic of the Slavic personal name Pribyslavъ. According to Aleksandar Loma, Snoj's etymology would presuppose a rare and late word formation process. A false etymology connects the name Priština with the Serbian word prišt, meaning'ulcer' or'tumour', referring to its'boiling'. However, this explanation cannot be correct, as Slavic place names ending in -ina corresponding either or both to an adjective or the name of an inhabitant lacking this suffix are built from personal names or denote a person and never derive, in these conditions, from common nouns.
The inhabitants of this city call themselves Prishtinali in local Gheg Albanian or Prištevci in the local Serbian dialect. The earliest traces of human life in the area date from the Paleolithic period, with further traces in the Mesolithic and Neolithic; the succeeding Starcevo, Bubanj-Hum and Baden cultures were active in the region. The area what is now Pristina has been inhabited for nearly 10,000 years. Early Neolithic findings were discovered dating as far back as the 8th century BC, in the areas surrounding Pristina, which includes Matiçan, Gracanica and Ulpiana. In the 4th century BC, King Bardyllis brought various Illyrian tribes together in the region, establishing the Dardanian Kingdom. After the Roman conquest of Illyria in 168 BC, Romans colonized and founded several cities in the region which they named Dardania. Ulpiana was one of the most important Roman cities in the Balkans and in the 2nd century BC it became a municipium; the city suffered tremendous damage from an earthquake in 518 AD.
The Byzantine Emperor Justinian I rebuilt the city in great splendor and renamed it Justiniana Secunda, but with the arrival of Slav tribes in the 6th century the city again fell into disrepair. Pristina was an important town in Medieval Serbia; the župe of Sitnica and Lipljan, which had territory around present-day Pristina, are mentioned in Life of Saint Simeon, a text written by the Serbian historical figure Saint Sava between 1201 and 1208. The city was a royal estate of Stefan Milutin, Stefan Uroš III, Stefan Dušan, Stefan Uroš V and Vuk Branković; the medieval fort of Višegrad, whose ruins lie three kilometres east of the city centre, was mentioned in Milutin's time, served as his capital, the nearby Gračanica monastery was founded by him in ca. 1315. The first historical record mentioning Pristina by its name dates back to 1342 when the Byzantine Emperor John VI Kantakouzenos described Pristina as a'village'. In the course of the 14th and 15th centuries, Pristina developed as an important mining and trading center thanks to its proximity to the rich mining town of Novo Brdo, due to its position of the Balkan trade routes.
The old tow
Kosovo the Republic of Kosovo, is a recognized state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe. Defined in an area of 10,908 square kilometres, Kosovo is landlocked in the center of the Balkans and bordered by the uncontested territory of Serbia to the north and east, North Macedonia to the southeast, Albania to the southwest and Montenegro to the west. Geographically, Kosovo possesses varied and opposing landscapes for its size determined by the ideal climate along with the geology and hydrology. Most of central Kosovo is dominated by the vast fields of Dukagjin and Kosovo; the Albanian Alps and Šar Mountains rise in the southwest and southeast respectively. The earliest known human settlements in what is now Kosovo were the Paleolithic Vinča and Starčevo cultures. During the Classical period, it was inhabited by the Celtic people. In 168 BC, the area was annexed by the Romans. In the Middle Ages, it was conquered by the Byzantine and Serbian Empires; the Battle of Kosovo of 1389 is considered to be one of the defining moments in Serbian medieval history.
The region was the core of the Serbian medieval state, the seat of the Serbian Orthodox Church from the 14th century, when its status was upgraded to a patriarchate. Kosovo was part of the Ottoman Empire from the 15th to the early 20th century. In the late 19th century, it became the centre of the Albanian National Awakening. Following their defeat in the Balkan Wars, the Ottomans ceded Kosovo to Montenegro. Both countries joined Yugoslavia after World War I, following a period of Yugoslav unitarianism in the Kingdom, the post-World War II Yugoslav constitution established the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija within the Yugoslav constituent republic of Serbia. Tensions between Kosovo's Albanian and Serb communities simmered through the 20th century and erupted into major violence, culminating in the Kosovo War of 1998 and 1999, which resulted in the withdrawal of the Yugoslav army and the establishment of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo. On 17 February 2008, Kosovo unilaterally declared its independence from Serbia.
It has since gained diplomatic recognition as a sovereign state by 113 UN member states. Serbia does not recognize Kosovo as a sovereign state, although with the Brussels Agreement of 2013, it has accepted its institutions. While Serbia recognizes administration of the territory by Kosovo's elected government, it continues to claim it as the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija. Kosovo has a lower-middle-income economy and has experienced solid economic growth over the last decade by international financial institutions, has experienced growth every year since the onset of the 2008 global financial crisis. Kosovo is a member of the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, Regional Cooperation Council, has applied for membership of Interpol and for observer status in the Organization of the Islamic Cooperation; the entire region that today corresponds to the territory is referred to in English as Kosovo and in Albanian as Kosova or Kosovë or Kosovë. In Serbia, a formal distinction is made between the western areas.
According to one theory, Kosovo is the Serbian neuter possessive adjective of kos "blackbird", an ellipsis for Kosovo Polje,'blackbird field', the name of a plain situated in the eastern half of today's Kosovo and the site of the 1389 Battle of Kosovo Field. The name of the plain was applied to the Kosovo Province created in 1864. Albanians refer to Kosovo as Dardania, the name of a Roman province formed in 165 BC, which covered the territory of modern Kosovo; the name is derived from ancient tribe of Dardani from proto-Albanian word dardha/dardā which means "pear". The former Kosovo President Ibrahim Rugova had been an enthusiastic backer of a "Dardanian" identity and the Kosovan flag and presidential seal refer to this national identity. However, the name "Kosova" remains more used among the Albanian population; the current borders of Kosovo were drawn while part of SFR Yugoslavia in 1945, when the Autonomous Region of Kosovo and Metohija was created as an administrative division of the new People's Republic of Serbia.
In 1963, it was raised from the level of an autonomous region to the level of an autonomous province as the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija. In 1968, the dual name "Kosovo and Metohija" was reduced to a simple "Kosovo" in the name of the Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo. In 1990, the province was renamed the Autonomous Province of Metohija; the official conventional long name of the state is Republic of Kosovo, as defined by the Constitution of Kosovo, is used to represent Kosovo internationally. Additionally, as a result of an arrangement agreed between Pristina and Belgrade in talks mediated by the European Union, Kosovo has participated in some international forums and organisations under the title "Kosovo*" with a footnote stating "This designation is without prejudice to positions on status, is in line with UNSC 1244 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo declaration of independence"; this arrangement, dubbed the "asterisk agreement", was agreed