A dive bomber is a bomber aircraft that dives directly at its targets in order to provide greater accuracy for the bomb it drops. Diving towards the target simplifies the bomb's trajectory and allows the pilot to keep visual contact throughout the bomb run; this allows attacks on point targets and ships, which were difficult to attack with conventional level bombers en masse. Glide bombing is a similar technique using shallower dive angles that does not require a sharp pull-up after dropping the bombs; this can be performed by larger aircraft and fighter bombers but does not confer the same level of accuracy as a steep dive from a dedicated aircraft. A dive bomber dives at a steep angle between 45 and 60 degrees or up to a near vertical dive of 80 degrees with the Junkers Ju 87, thus requires an abrupt pull-up after dropping its bombs; this puts great strains on both aircraft. It demands an aircraft of strong construction; this limited the class to light bomber designs with ordnance loads in the range of 1,000 lb although there were larger examples.
The most famous examples are the Junkers Ju 87 Stuka, used during the opening stages of World War II, the Aichi D3A "Val" dive bomber, which sank more Allied warships during the war than any other Axis aircraft, the Douglas SBD Dauntless, which sank more Japanese shipping than any other allied aircraft type. The SBD Dauntless helped win the Battle of Midway, was instrumental in the victory at the Battle of the Coral Sea, fought in every US battle involving carrier aircraft. An alternative technique, glide-bombing, allowed the use of heavier aircraft, which faced far greater difficulties in recovering from near-vertical approaches and allowed greater use of sophisticated bombsights and aiming techniques, by a specialised member of aircrews, namely a bombardier/bomb aimer; the crews of multi-engined dive-bombers, such as variants of the Junkers Ju 88 and Petlyakov Pe-2 used this technique. The heaviest aircraft to have dive-bombing included in its design and development, the four-engined Heinkel He 177 utilised a glide-bombing approach.
Dive bombing was most used before and during World War II. In the post-war era, this role was replaced with a combination of improved and automated bombsights, larger weapons and nuclear warheads that reduced the need for accuracy, by precision guided weapons as they became available in the 1960s. Most tactical aircraft today allow bombing in shallow dives to keep the target visible, but true dive bombers have not been a part of military forces since the start of the jet age; when released from an aircraft, a bomb carries with it the aircraft's velocity. In the case of a bomber flying horizontally, the bomb will only be travelling forward; this forward motion is opposed by the drag of the air, so the forward motion decreases over time. Additionally, gravity causes the bomb to accelerate; the combination of these two forces and gravity, results in a complex pseudo-parabolic trajectory. The distance that the bomb moves forward while it falls is known as its range. If the range for a given set of conditions is calculated, simple trigonometry can be used to find the angle between the aircraft and the target.
By setting the bombsight to this "range angle", the aircraft can time the drop of its bombs at the instant when the target is lined up in the sight. This was only effective for "area bombing", since the path of the bomb is only estimated. Large formations could drop bombs on an area hoping to hit a specific target, but there was no guarantee of success, huge areas around the target would be hit; the advantage to this approach, was that it is easy to build such an aircraft and fly it at high altitude, keeping it out of range of ground-based defences. The horizontal bomber was thus ill-suited for tactical bombing in close support. Attempts at using high-altitude bombing in near-proximity to troops ended in tragedy, with bombs both hitting their targets and friendly troops indiscriminately. In attacking shipping, the problems of inaccuracy were amplified by the fact that the target could be moving, could change its direction between the time that the bombs were released and the time that they arrived.
Successful strikes on marine vessels by horizontal bombers were rare. An example of this problem can be seen in the attempts to attack the Japanese carriers using B-17s and B-26s at altitude early in the Battle of Midway, with no hits scored; the German battleship Tirpitz was subjected to countless attacks, many while in dock and immobile, but was not sunk until the British brought in enormous 12,000 lb Tallboy bombs to ensure that a near miss would be effective. An aircraft diving vertically minimizes its horizontal velocity component; when the bomb is dropped, the force of gravity increases its speed along its nearly vertical trajectory. The bomb travels a straight line between release and impact, eliminating the need for complex calculations; the aircraft aims at the target and releases its bombs. The primary source of error is the effect of wind on the bomb's flight path after release; as bombs are streamlined and heavy, wind has only a slight effect on them and the bomb is to fall within its lethal radius of the target.
Bomb sighting becomes trivial. This was simplified as the aircraft was pointed directly at the target, making sighting over the nose m
Silvana Campos is a Brazilian former professional tennis player. Born in Ribeirão Preto, Campos competed on tour in the 1980s and represented Brazil in international events, including the Olympics and Pan American Games, she was fourth in the singles tournament at the 1983 Pan American Games and featured at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, where tennis was a demonstration sport. At the Olympics she was beaten in the first round by France's Pascale Paradis. Campos won all four of her singles rubbers. On the WTA Tour she had her best performance at the 1984 Brasil Open in Rio de Janeiro, winning her way through to the semi-finals. Campos appeared in the main draw of the women's doubles at the 1985 French Open and reached the second round with partner Luciana Corsato. Campos was the second of four wives of Brazilian footballer Sócrates, whom she married in 1990, they had Sócrates Júnior. She took part in the torch relay for the 2016 Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, carrying the torch through the streets of Ribeirão Preto.
Silvana Campos at the Women's Tennis Association Silvana Campos at the International Tennis Federation Silvana Campos at the Fed Cup Silvana Campos at the International Olympic Committee
Hillsborough County is the most populous county in the U. S. state of New Hampshire. As of the 2010 census, the population was 400,721; the population was estimated at 415,247 in 2018. Its county seats are Nashua. Hillsborough is northern New England's most populous county as well as its most densely populated. Hillsborough County comprises the Manchester-Nashua, NH Metropolitan Statistical Area, which in turn constitutes a portion of the Boston-Worcester-Providence, MA-RI-NH-CT Combined Statistical Area. Hillsborough was one of the five original counties identified for New Hampshire in 1769, was named for Wills Hill, the Earl of Hillsborough, British Secretary of State for the Colonies at the time; the county was organized at Amherst on March 19, 1771. In 1823 a number of towns were removed to become part of Merrimack County. Over several years ending in 1869, county administrative functions were moved from Amherst first to Milford in 1866 to the current seats of Manchester and Nashua. According to the U.
S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 892 square miles, of which 876 square miles is land and 16 square miles is water; the highest point in Hillsborough county is Pack Monadnock Mountain at 2,290 feet. Merrimack County Rockingham County Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Worcester County, Massachusetts Cheshire County Sullivan County Wapack National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 400,721 people, 155,466 households, 103,959 families residing in the county; the population density was 457.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 166,053 housing units at an average density of 189.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 90.4% white, 3.2% Asian, 2.1% black or African American, 0.2% American Indian, 2.1% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 5.3% of the population. Of the 155,466 households, 33.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.6% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.1% were non-families, 25.3% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.05. The median age was 39.3 years. For the period 2011–2015, 24.8% of the county's population had French ancestry, 20.9% had Irish, 13.1% had English, 10.2% had Italian, 8.2% had German ancestry. For the same time period, the estimated median annual income for a household in the county was $71,244, the median income for a family was $85,966. Male full-time workers had a median income of $60,349 versus $44,270 for females; the per capita income for the county was $35,242. About 5.8% of families and 8.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.7% of those under age 18 and 5.9% of those age 65 or over. Long the most populated county in New Hampshire, Hillsborough County has played a vital role in shaping the state's politics as a whole, although it has shifted in its own leanings over the years. A Republican county going back to the 19th century, the county's more urban population made it receptive to Democrats in the early 20th century at a time when much of New England was solidly Republican.
The county- and the state as a whole- voted Republican in every election since the founding of the Republican Party in 1856 until 1912, when both the county and the state were won by Democrat Woodrow Wilson. Four years Wilson's margin of victory in Hillsborough County enabled him to narrowly win the state as a whole despite losing the majority of counties, making New Hampshire the only state to vote Democratic in New England and the entire Northeast in 1916. In 1928, Hillsborough was the only county in New Hampshire to vote for Democrat Al Smith over Republican Herbert Hoover, in the 1930s Franklin Roosevelt would solidify Democratic dominance there. In 1936, FDR would carry only 3 of New Hampshire's 10 counties, but his strong win in Hillsborough allowed him to narrowly win the state while neighboring Vermont and Maine were the only states in the nation to vote against him. In the 1940s, Roosevelt would take over 60% of the vote Hillsborough County, allowing him to win the state of New Hampshire by more comfortable margins in 1940 and 1944.
The county would vote Democratic in every presidential election that followed until the 1970s, except for a win by Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1956, although it was still the only county in the state where Eisenhower failed to break 60% of the vote. In the 1970s, shifting partisan allegiances and the growth of conservative Boston exurbs in southern New Hampshire caused a dramatic shift in Hillsborough County's politics, which caused the state as a whole to become more conservative. Beginning in 1972, the county became reliably Republican in presidential elections, peaking in 1984, when Ronald Reagan would take over 70% of the vote there. Although still one of the more Republican regions of the state, in the following years Democrats have made inroads and today it is an important swing county. Both Republicans George H. W. Bush and George W. Bush would win it twice each, but Democrat Bill Clinton won it in 1996, Barack Obama has won it twice in both 2008 and 2012, bolstering his wins of the state's electoral votes each time.
In the 2012 presidential election, Time had listed Hillsborough as one of five critical counties affecting the outcome in the swing state of New Hampshire. Obama ended up winning with a margin of 50%-49%. Donald Trump narrowly carried the county in 2016; the executive power of Hillsborough County's government is held by three