A dividend is a payment made by a corporation to its shareholders as a distribution of profits. When a corporation earns a profit or surplus, the corporation is able to re-invest the profit in the business and pay a proportion of the profit as a dividend to shareholders. Distribution to shareholders may be in cash or, if the corporation has a dividend reinvestment plan, the amount can be paid by the issue of further shares or share repurchase; when dividends are paid, shareholders must pay income taxes, the corporation does not receive a corporate income tax deduction for the dividend payments. A dividend is allocated as a fixed amount per share with shareholders receiving a dividend in proportion to their shareholding. Dividends can raise morale among shareholders. For the joint-stock company, paying dividends is not an expense. Retained earnings are shown in the shareholders' equity section on the company's balance sheet – the same as its issued share capital. Public companies pay dividends on a fixed schedule, but may declare a dividend at any time, sometimes called a special dividend to distinguish it from the fixed schedule dividends.

Cooperatives, on the other hand, allocate dividends according to members' activity, so their dividends are considered to be a pre-tax expense. The word "dividend" comes from the Latin word "dividendum". In financial history of the world, the Dutch East India Company was the first recorded company to pay regular dividends; the VOC paid annual dividends worth around 18 percent of the value of the shares for 200 years of existence. Cash dividends are the most common form of payment and are paid out in currency via electronic funds transfer or a printed paper check; such dividends are a form of investment income and are taxable to the recipient in the year they are paid. This is the most common method of sharing corporate profits with the shareholders of the company. For each share owned, a declared amount of money is distributed. Thus, if a person owns 100 shares and the cash dividend is 50 cents per share, the holder of the stock will be paid $50. Dividends paid are not classified as an expense, but rather a deduction of retained earnings.

Dividends paid does appear on the balance sheet. Stock or scrip dividends are those paid out in the form of additional stock shares of the issuing corporation, or another corporation, they are issued in proportion to shares owned. Nothing tangible will be gained if the stock is split because the total number of shares increases, lowering the price of each share, without changing the market capitalization, or total value, of the shares held. Stock dividend distributions do not affect the market capitalization of a company. Stock dividends are not includable in the gross income of the shareholder for US income tax purposes; because the shares are issued for proceeds equal to the pre-existing market price of the shares. Property dividends or dividends in specie are those paid out in the form of assets from the issuing corporation or another corporation, such as a subsidiary corporation, they are rare and most are securities of other companies owned by the issuer, however they can take other forms, such as products and services.

Interim dividends are dividend payments made before a company's Annual General Meeting and final financial statements. This declared dividend accompanies the company's interim financial statements. Other dividends can be used in structured finance. Financial assets with a known market value can be distributed as dividends. For large companies with subsidiaries, dividends can take the form of shares in a subsidiary company. A common technique for "spinning off" a company from its parent is to distribute shares in the new company to the old company's shareholders; the new shares can be traded independently. The most popular metric to determine the dividend coverage is the payout ratio. Most the payout ratio is calculated based on dividends per share and earnings per share: Payout ratio = dividends per share/earnings per share × 100A payout ratio greater than 100 means the company is paying out more in dividends for the year than it earned. Dividends are paid in cash. On the other hand, earnings are an accountancy measure and do not represent the actual cash-flow of a company.

Hence, a more liquidity-driven way to determine the dividend’s safety is to replace earnings by free cash flow. The free cash flow represents the company’s available cash based on its operating business after investments: Payout ratio = dividends per share/free cash flow per share × 100 A dividend, declared must be approved by a company's board of directors before it is paid. For public companies, four dates are relevant regarding dividends:Declaration date — the day the board of directors announces its intention to pay a dividend. On that day, a liability is created and the company records that liability on its books. In-dividend date — the last day, one trading day before the ex-dividend date, where the stock is said to be cum dividend. In other words, existing holders of the stock and anyone who buys it on this day will receive

Social Democratic Party (Serbia 2001–10)

The Social Democratic Party was a social democratic political party in Serbia. The SDP was founded in April 2002 as a merger between Social Democracy and the Social Democratic Union. In the same year, the SDP joined the DOS governing coalition. A year the SDP withdrew its support of the government resulting in its fall and an early election. Inner-party disagreements resulted in a split in the SDP. A group of members, led by Žarko Korać, left the SDP and re-founded the SDU in 2003. In the 2003 parliamentary election, the SDP ran in a coalition with the G17 Plus, which received 11.46% of the popular vote and 34 seats, 3 of which went to the SDP. Slobodan Lalović became the Minister of Labour and Social Policy in the minority government of Vojislav Koštunica. In August 2005 the SDP refused to support oil industry laws; as a result two of its deputies stopped supporting the government. Ljilja Nestorović and Meho Omerović went into opposition, while the third, Slobodan Lalović kept his post, subsequently withdrawing from the party and becoming an independent deputy.

In 2004 the Democratic Alternative, led by Nebojša Čović, merged into the SDP and assumed leadership over the party. The SDP competed in the 2007 parliamentary election together with the Party of United Pensioners of Serbia; the PUPS-SDP coalition included the Socialist People's Party. The coalition received 3.11% of the popular vote, thus failing to pass the 5% minimum threshold to enter parliament. The SDP ceased to exist in January 2010, which resulted in the bitter words between former party leadership members Nebojša Čović and Oliver Ivanović

Harry W. Griswold

Harry Wilbur Griswold was a member of the United States House of Representatives from Wisconsin. Born in West Salem, Wisconsin, he was educated in the public schools and took courses in the agricultural college at University of Wisconsin–Madison. Griswold was in the agriculture profession specializing in cattle breeding, he served on the West Salem Board of Education and was in the Wisconsin State Senate 1933-1937. In 1938, Griswold was elected as a Republican to serve in the 76th United States Congress as the representative of Wisconsin's 3rd congressional district and served until he died in office in Washington, D. C. a few months later. List of United States Congress members who died in office United States Congress. "Harry W. Griswold". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress