Prudence is the ability to govern and discipline oneself by the use of reason. It is classically considered to be a virtue, and in one of the four Cardinal virtues. Prudentia is a female personification of the virtue, whose attributes are a mirror and snake, who is frequently depicted as a pair with Justitia. The word derives from the 14th-century Old French word prudence, which, in turn, derives from the Latin prudentia meaning foresight and it is often associated with wisdom and knowledge. In this case, the virtue is the ability to judge between virtuous and vicious actions, not only in a sense, but with regard to appropriate actions at a given time. Although prudence itself does not perform any actions, and is concerned solely with knowledge, distinguishing when acts are courageous, as opposed to reckless or cowardly, for instance, is an act of prudence, and for this reason it is classified as a cardinal virtue. In modern English, the word has become synonymous with cautiousness. More recently ϕρονησιϛ has been translated by such terms as practical wisdom, prudence was considered by the ancient Greeks and on by Christian philosophers, most notably Thomas Aquinas, as the cause and form of all virtues.
It is considered to be the auriga virtutum or the charioteer of the virtues, for instance, a person can live temperance when he has acquired the habit of deciding correctly the actions to take in response to his instinctual cravings. Its function is to point out which course of action is to be taken in any concrete circumstances and it has nothing to do with directly willing the good it discerns. Prudence has a directive capacity with regard to the other virtues and it lights the way and measures the arena for their exercise. Without prudence bravery becomes foolhardiness, mercy sinks into weakness, and its office is to determine for each in practice those circumstances of time, manner, etc. which should be observed, and which the Scholastics comprise under the term medium rationis. So it is that while it qualifies the intellect and not the will, prudence is considered the measure of moral virtues since it provides a model of ethically good actions. The work of art is true and real by its correspondence with the pattern of its prototype in the mind of the artist, in similar fashion, the free activity of man is good by its correspondence with the pattern of prudence.
For instance, a stockbroker using his experience and all the data available to him decides that it is beneficial to sell stock A at 2PM tomorrow and buy stock B today. The content of the decision is the product of an act of prudence, while the carrying out of the decision may involve other virtues like fortitude. The actual acts goodness is measured against that decision made through prudence. In Greek and Scholastic philosophy, form is the characteristic of a thing that makes it what it is
Protestantism is a form of Christianity which originated with the Reformation, a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. It is one of the three divisions of Christendom, together with Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy. The term derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical. Although there were earlier breaks from or attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, Protestants reject the notion of papal supremacy and deny the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist. The Five solae summarize the reformers basic differences in theological beliefs, in the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Sweden, the Baltic states, and Iceland. Reformed churches were founded in Germany, the Netherlands, Scotland and France by such reformers as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, the political separation of the Church of England from Rome under King Henry VIII brought England and Wales into this broad Reformation movement.
Protestants developed their own culture, which made major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts, some Protestant denominations do have a worldwide scope and distribution of membership, while others are confined to a single country. A majority of Protestants are members of a handful of families, Anglicanism, Baptist churches, Reformed churches, Methodism. Nondenominational, charismatic and other churches are on the rise, and constitute a significant part of Protestant Christianity. Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities, the edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V three years earlier. During the Reformation, the term was used outside of the German politics. The word evangelical, which refers to the gospel, was more widely used for those involved in the religious movement. Nowadays, this word is still preferred among some of the historical Protestant denominations in the Lutheran and Calvinist traditions in Europe, above all the term is used by Protestant bodies in the German-speaking area, such as the EKD.
In continental Europe, an Evangelical is either a Lutheran or a Calvinist, the German word evangelisch means Protestant, and is different from the German evangelikal, which refers to churches shaped by Evangelicalism. The English word evangelical usually refers to Evangelical Protestant churches, and it traces its roots back to the Puritans in England, where Evangelicalism originated, and was brought to the United States. Protestantism as a term is now used in contradistinction to the other major Christian traditions, i. e. Roman Catholicism. Initially, Protestant became a term to mean any adherent to the Reformation movement in Germany and was taken up by Lutherans. Even though Martin Luther himself insisted on Christian or Evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ and Swiss Protestants preferred the word reformed, which became a popular and alternative name for Calvinists
Total depravity is a theological doctrine derived from the Augustinian concept of original sin. It is advocated to various degrees by many Protestant confessions of faith and catechisms, including those of some Lutheran synods, such as Methodists and teach total depravity, but with distinct difference. The key distinction between the total depravity embraced by Calvin and the total depravity taught by Arminius is the distinction between irresistible grace and prevenient grace. In opposition to Pelagius, who believed that after the people are able to choose not to sin. All people are predisposed to evil prior to any actual choice. Free will is not taken away in the sense of the ability to choose between alternatives, but people are unable to make choices in service to God rather than self. Thomas Aquinas taught that people are not able to avoid sin after the fall, duns Scotus, modified this interpretation and only believed that sin entailed a lack of original righteousness. Martin Luther, John Calvin and other Reformers used the total depravity to articulate what they claimed to be the Augustinian view that sin corrupts the entire human nature.
This did not, mean the loss of the imago Dei, even after regeneration, every human action is mixed with evil. Arminianism accepts a doctrine of total depravity, although not identical to the Calvinist position, the Methodist Quarterly Review states that It is not sufficiently known, we opine, that Methodists--the genuine Arminians of the present--do not entirely agree with this view of depravity. To what has been said, as being the Calvinist view of the depravity of our nature, we do heartily assent, with the following exceptions. We do not think that all men continue totally depraved until their regeneration and we think man, under the atonement, is not, properly speaking, in a state of nature. He is not left to the evils of total depravity. In particular, prevenient grace is viewed by some as giving back the freedom to follow God in one way or another. The term total depravity, as understood in colloquial English, obscures the theological issues involved, one cannot simply look at the two words and conjecture upon the extent of the depravity of humanity.
For example and Lutheran theologians have never considered humans to be absent of goodness or unable to do good outwardly as a result of the fall, people retain the imago Dei, though it has been distorted. Total depravity is the state of human beings as a result of original sin. Even religion and philanthropy are wicked to God because they originate from a human desire and are not done to the glory of God
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther, a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian. Luthers efforts to reform the theology and practice of the Catholic Church launched the Protestant Reformation in the German-speaking territories of the Holy Roman Empire. Lutheranism advocates a doctrine of justification by grace alone through faith alone on the basis of Scripture alone and this is in contrast to the belief of the Catholic Church, defined at the Council of Trent, concerning authority coming from both the Scriptures and Tradition. In addition, Lutheranism accepts the teachings of the first seven ecumenical councils of the undivided Christian Church, unlike Calvinism, Lutherans retain many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-Reformation Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist, or Lords Supper. Lutheran theology differs from Reformed theology in Christology, the purpose of Gods Law, the grace, the concept of perseverance of the saints.
Today, Lutheranism is one of the largest denominations of Protestantism, with approximately 80 million adherents, it constitutes the third most common Protestant denomination after historically Pentecostal denominations and Anglicanism. The Lutheran World Federation, the largest communion of Lutheran churches, Other Lutheran organizations include the International Lutheran Council and the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference, as well as independent churches. The name Lutheran originated as a term used against Luther by German Scholastic theologian Dr. Johann Maier von Eck during the Leipzig Debate in July 1519. Eck and other Catholics followed the practice of naming a heresy after its leader. Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term Evangelical, which was derived from euangelion, the followers of John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, and other theologians linked to the Reformed tradition began to use that term. To distinguish the two groups, others began to refer to the two groups as Evangelical Lutheran and Evangelical Reformed.
As time passed by, the word Evangelical was dropped, Lutherans themselves began to use the term Lutheran in the middle of the 16th century, in order to distinguish themselves from other groups such as the Philippists and Calvinists. In 1597, theologians in Wittenberg defined the title Lutheran as referring to the true church, Lutheranism has its roots in the work of Martin Luther, who sought to reform the Western Church to what he considered a more biblical foundation. Lutheranism spread through all of Scandinavia during the 16th century, as the monarch of Denmark–Norway, through Baltic-German and Swedish rule, Lutheranism spread into Estonia and Latvia. Since 1520, regular Lutheran services have been held in Copenhagen, under the reign of Frederick I, Denmark-Norway remained officially Catholic. Although Frederick initially pledged to persecute Lutherans, he adopted a policy of protecting Lutheran preachers and reformers. During Fredericks reign, Lutheranism made significant inroads in Denmark, at an open meeting in Copenhagen attended by the king in 1536, the people shouted, We will stand by the holy Gospel, and do not want such bishops anymore.
Fredericks son Christian was openly Lutheran, which prevented his election to the throne upon his fathers death, following his victory in the civil war that followed, in 1537 he became Christian III and advanced the Reformation in Denmark-Norway
Names of God
A number of traditions have lists of many names of God, many of which enumerate the various qualities of a Supreme Being. The English word God is used by multiple religions as a noun or name to refer to different deities, Ancient cognate equivalents for the word God include proto-Semitic El, biblical Hebrew Elohim, Arabic ilah, and biblical Aramaic Elah. The personal or proper name for God in many of these languages may either be distinguished from such attributes, for example, in Judaism the tetragrammaton is sometimes related to the ancient Hebrew ehyeh. In Christian theology the word must be a personal and a name of God. On the other hand, the names of God in a different tradition are sometimes referred to by symbols, the question whether divine names used by different religions are equivalent has been raised and analyzed. Exchange of names held sacred between different religious traditions is typically limited, Guru Gobind Singhs Jaap Sahib, which contains 950 names of God. The attitude as to the transmission of the name in many cultures was surrounded by secrecy, in Judaism, the pronunciation of the name of God has always been guarded with great care.
It is believed that, in ancient times, the sages communicated the pronunciation only once every seven years, the nature of a holy name can be described as either personal or attributive. In many cultures it is difficult to distinguish between the personal and the attributive names of God, the two divisions necessarily shading into each other. El comes from a word meaning might, power. A common title of God in the Hebrew Bible is Elohim, the root Eloah is used in poetry and late prose and ending with the masculine plural suffix -im ים creating a word like baalim (owner and adonim that may indicate a singular identity. In the Book of Exodus, God commands Moses to tell the people that I AM sent him, and this is revered as one of the most important names of God according to Mosaic tradition. Moses said to God, “Suppose I go to the Israelites and say to them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you, ’ and they ask me, ‘What is his name. ’ Then what shall I tell them. ”God said to Moses, “I am who I am.
This is what you are to say to the Israelites, ‘I am has sent me to you. In Exodus 6,3, when Moses first spoke with God, God said, I used to appear to Abraham and Jacob as El Shaddai, YHWH is the proper name of God in Judaism. Neither vowels nor vowel points were used in ancient Hebrew writings, commentaries additionally suggested that the true pronunciation of this name is composed entirely of vowels, such as the Greek Ιαουε. However, this is put into question by the fact that vowels were distinguished in the time-period by their very absence due to the lack of explicit vowels in the Hebrew script. The resulting substitute made from semivowels and glottals, known as the tetragrammaton, is not ordinarily permitted to be pronounced aloud, the prohibition on misuse of this name is the primary subject of the command not to take the name of the Lord in vain
Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and interferes in the world. Another, more broad definition of monotheism, is the belief in one god, a distinction may be made between exclusive monotheism, and both inclusive monotheism and pluriform monotheism which, while recognising various distinct gods, postulate some underlying unity. There are monotheistic parody religions, such as Pastafarianism, the word monotheism comes from the Greek μόνος meaning single and θεός meaning god. The English term was first used by Henry More, according to Jewish and Islamic tradition, monotheism was the original religion of humanity. Scholars of religion largely abandoned that view in the 19th century in favour of a progression from animism via polytheism to monotheism. Austrian anthropologist Wilhelm Schmidt had postulated an Urmonotheismus, original or primitive monotheism in the 1910s and it was objected that Judaism and Islam had grown up in opposition to polytheism as had Greek philosophical monotheism.
Some writers believe that the concept of monotheism sees a gradual development out of notions of henotheism and monolatrism, quasi-monotheistic claims of the existence of a universal deity date to the Late Bronze Age, with Akhenatens Great Hymn to the Aten. A possible inclination towards monotheism emerged during the Vedic period in Iron-Age South Asia, the Rigveda exhibits notions of monism of the Brahman, in particular, in the comparatively late tenth book, dated to the early Iron Age, e. g. in the Nasadiya sukta. While all adherents of the Abrahamic religions consider themselves to be monotheists, Judaism does not consider Christianity to be monotheistic, Judaism is one of the oldest monotheistic religions in the world. God in Judaism is strictly monotheistic, a one, indivisible. The Babylonian Talmud references other, foreign gods as non-existent entities to whom humans mistakenly ascribe reality, One of the best-known statements of Rabbinical Judaism on monotheism is the Second of Maimonides 13 Principles of faith, the Cause of all, is one.
This does not mean one as in one of a pair, nor one like a species, nor one as in an object that is made up of many elements, God is a unity unlike any other possible unity. Judaism and Islam reject the Christian idea of monotheism, Judaism uses the term shituf to refer to the worship of God in a manner which Judaism does not deem to be monotheistic. During the 8th century BCE, the worship of YHWH in Israel was in competition with other cults. Some scholars hypothesize that Judaism was originally a form of monolatrism or henotheism, in this hypothesis both the Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah had YHWH as their state god, while acknowledging the existence of other gods. Shema Yisrael are the first two words of a section of the Torah, and is the title of a prayer that serves as a centerpiece of the morning and evening Jewish prayer services. Observant Jews consider the Shema to be the most important part of the service in Judaism. It is traditional for Jews to say the Shema as their last words, despite at least one earlier local synod rejecting the claim of Arius, this Christological issue was to be one of the items addressed at the First Council of Nicaea
Love of God in Christianity
‹See Tfd› The love of God is a prevalent concept both in the Old Testament and the New Testament. Love is a key attribute of God in Christianity, even if in the New Testament the expression God is love explicitly occurs only twice, the love of God has been the center of the spirituality of a number of Christian mystics such as Teresa of Avila. The Old Testament uses a rich vocabulary to express the love of God, for example, the prophet Hosea saw Gods love as the basis for the election of Israel. In Isaiah 38, God expresses his love for individuals as well, many Christians see Solomon as symbolizing Christs relation to his church. According to Psalms 5, God hates all workers of iniquity For thou art not a God that hath pleasure in wickedness, the foolish shall not stand in thy sight, thou hatest all workers of iniquity. Thou shalt destroy them that speak leasing, the Lord will abhor the bloody, but as for me, I will come into thy house in the multitude of thy mercy, and in thy fear will I worship toward thy holy temple.
Psalms 5, 4-7 Both the terms love of God and love of Christ appear in the New Testament, in cases such as in Romans 8,35 and Romans 8,39 their use is related in the experience of the believer, without asserting their equality. In John 14,31 Jesus expresses his love for God the Father and this verse includes the only direct statement by Jesus in the New Testament about Jesus love for the God the Father. The love of the Father for his Son is expressed in Matthew 3,17 by a voice from Heaven during the Baptism of Jesus. The same sentiment is expressed during the Transfiguration of Jesus in Mark 9,7. Love is a key attribute of God in Christianity,1 John 4,8 and 16 state that God is love, and he who abides in love abides in God, and God abides in him. John 3,16 states, God so loved the world, in the New Testament, Gods love for humanity or the world is expressed in Greek as agape. The experience of Gods love is a part in most traditions of Christian mysticism. This experience of Gods love plays a role in the Spiritual Exercises.
Gods love plays an important part in the writings of Medieval German mystics, such as Mechthild of Magdeburg and Hildegard von Bingen, julian of Norwich expresses the same sentiment in her Sixteen Revelations of Divine Love. Thomas Aquinas taught that the essence of sanctity lies in love of God, agape Love of Christ Love of God WELS Topical Q&A, God in Old Testament / God in New Testament, by Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod God Is Love, His Love in Action
Réginald Marie Garrigou-Lagrange, O. P. was a French Catholic theologian. He has been noted as a leading neo-Thomist of the 20th century, along with Jacobus Ramírez, Édouard Hugon and he taught at the Dominican Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum in Rome from 1909 to 1960. Here he wrote his magnum opus, The Three Ages of the Interior Life in 1938, while studying medicine at Bordeaux he experienced what he described as a religious conversion after reading Life and Art by the Breton writer Ernest Hello. He joined the French Dominicans and taught at Le Saulchoir, before moving to Rome, in 1917 a special professorship in ascetical and mystical theology was created for him at the Angelicum, the first of its kind anywhere in the world. He is best known for his spiritual theology and this influenced the section entitled Chapter V, The Universal Call to Holiness in the Church in the Second Vatican Councils Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, Lumen gentium. He is said to be the drafter of Pope Pius XIIs 1950 encyclical Humani generis, the Osservatore Romano, Dec.
9-10,1950 lists Garrigou-Lagrange among the names of the preparatory commission for the definition of the Assumption of Mary. Garrigou-Lagrange taught many eminent Catholic theologians during his career at the Angelicum. In the period between World War II and the Cold War Garrigou-Lagrange was the torchbearer of orthodox Thomism against Modernism, in 1926 he served as the definitive consulter to Pope Pius XI in declaring John of the Cross a doctor of the church. Later, Congars methodology was suspected of Modernism because it seemed to more from religious experience than from syllogistic analysis. Garrigou-Lagrange supervised the research of Maurice Zundel who completed his dissertation in 1927 with a dissertation entitled LInfluence du nominalisme sur la pensée chrétienne. He died February 15,1964 in Rome and he produced 28 books and hundreds of articles. Among the most famous works are, Commentaries on the Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas The One God, the Trinity and God the Creator, commentary on Summa Theologica I. 27-119.
Beatitude, commentary on Summa Theologica I-II. 1-54, commentary on Summa Theologica I-II. 109-114. The Theological Virtues - Vol.1, commentary on Summa Theologica II-II. 1-16 Christ the Saviour, commentary on Summa Theologica III. 1-26, principles of Catholic Apologetics and rearranged by Thomas Joseph Walshe from Fr. The Essence & Topicality of Thomism, reason with piety, Garrigou-Lagrange in the service of Catholic thought. Naples, FL, Sapientia Press of Ave Maria University, the sacred monster of Thomism, an introduction to the life and legacy of Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange. Thomas Crean, O. P. Audiobook of his Reality, digitally read at a fast pace Complete bibliography of all his works The Last Battle of Lagrange by Fr
The New Church (Swedenborgian)
Swedenborg claimed to have received a new revelation from Jesus Christ through continuous heavenly visions which he experienced over a period of at least twenty-five years. In his writings, he predicted that God would replace the traditional Christian Church, establishing a New Church, the New Church doctrine is that each person must actively cooperate in repentance and regeneration of ones life. The movement was founded on the belief that God explained the meaning of the Scriptures to Swedenborg as a means of revealing the truth of the Second Coming of Jesus Christ. Swedenborg claimed divine inspiration for his writings and followers believe that Swedenborg witnessed the Last Judgment in the spiritual world, therefore, it is thought that any Christian holding these beliefs is part of this New Church movement. Other names for the movement include Swedenborgian, New Christians, Neo-Christians, Church of the New Jerusalem, Swedenborg spoke of a New Church that would be founded on the theology in his works, but he himself never tried to establish an organization.
In 1768, a trial was initiated in Sweden against Swedenborgs writings. It essentially concerned whether Swedenborgs theological writings were consistent with the Christian doctrines, a royal ordinance in 1770 declared that Swedenborgs writings were clearly mistaken and should not be taught even though his system of theological thought was never examined. Swedenborg begged the King for grace and protection in a letter from Amsterdam, a new investigation against Swedenborg stalled and was eventually dropped in 1778. At the time of Swedenborgs death, few efforts had made to establish an organized church, but on May 7,1787,15 years after Swedenborgs death. It was a country Swedenborg had often visited and where he died, by 1789 a number of Churches had sprung up around England, and in April of that year the first General Conference of the New Church was held in Great Eastcheap, London. New Church ideas were carried to United States by missionaries, one famous missionary was John Chapman, known as Johnny Appleseed.
Early missionaries traveled to parts of Africa, at the time these concepts of African enlightenment were judged highly liberal, Swedenborgians accepted freed African converts to their homes as early as 1790. Several of them were involved in abolitionism. In the 19th century, occultism became increasingly popular especially in France, some followers blended Swedenborgs writings with theosophy and divination. What fascinated these followers most was Swedenborgs mystical side and they concentrated on his work Heaven and Hell which tells of Swedenborgs visit to Heaven and Hell to experience and report the conditions there. In structure, it was related to Dantes The Divine Comedy, some continue to combine the theology of the New Church with ideas from other systems, including Jungian psychology and Spiritualism. In the U. S. the church was organized in 1817 with the founding of the General Convention of the New Church now known as the Swedenborgian Church of North America, the movement in the United States grew stronger until the late 19th century.
There was a New-Church Theology School in Cambridge, a controversy about doctrinal issues and the authority of Swedenborgs writings caused a faction to split off to form the Academy of the New Church
High Middle Ages
The High Middle Ages or High Medieval Period was the period of European history around the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. The High Middle Ages were preceded by the Early Middle Ages and followed by the Late Middle Ages, by 1250 the robust population increase greatly benefited the European economy, reaching levels that would not be seen again in some areas until the 19th century. This trend was checked in the Late Middle Ages by a series of calamities, notably the Black Death but including numerous wars, from about the year 780 onwards, Europe saw the last of the barbarian invasions and became more socially and politically organized. The Carolingian Renaissance led to scientific and philosophical revival of Europe, the first universities were established in Bologna, Paris and Modena. The Vikings had settled in the British Isles and elsewhere, the Magyars had ceased their expansion in the 10th century, and by the year 1000, a Christian Kingdom of Hungary was recognized in Central Europe, forming alliances with regional powers.
With the brief exception of the Mongol invasions in the 13th century, in the 11th century, populations north of the Alps began to settle new lands, some of which had reverted to wilderness after the end of the Roman Empire. In what is known as the clearances, vast forests. At the same time settlements moved beyond the boundaries of the Frankish Empire to new frontiers in Europe, beyond the Elbe River. The High Middle Ages produced many different forms of intellectual, the rediscovery of the works of Aristotle led Thomas Aquinas and other thinkers of the period to develop Scholasticism, a combination of Catholicism and ancient philosophy. For much of the time period Constantinople remained Europes most populous city, in architecture, many of the most notable Gothic cathedrals were built or completed during this era. The Crisis of the Late Middle Ages, beginning at the start of the 14th century, in England, the Norman Conquest of 1066 resulted in a kingdom ruled by a Francophone nobility. The Normans invaded Ireland by force in 1169 and soon established throughout most of the country.
Likewise and Wales were subdued to vassalage at about the same time, the Exchequer was founded in the 12th century under King Henry I, and the first parliaments were convened. In 1215, after the loss of Normandy, King John signed the Magna Carta into law, from the mid-tenth to the mid-11th centuries, the Scandinavian kingdoms were unified and Christianized, resulting in an end of Viking raids, and greater involvement in European politics. King Cnut of Denmark ruled over both England and Norway, after Cnuts death in 1035, England and Norway were lost, and with the defeat of Valdemar II in 1227, Danish predominance in the region came to an end. Meanwhile, Norway extended its Atlantic possessions, ranging from Greenland to the Isle of Man, while Sweden, under Birger Jarl, the Norwegian influence started to decline already in the same period, marked by the Treaty of Perth of 1266. Also, civil wars raged in Norway between 1130 and 1240, by the time of the High Middle Ages, the Carolingian Empire had been divided and replaced by separate successor kingdoms called France and Germany, although not with their modern boundaries.
Germany was under the banner of the Holy Roman Empire, which reached its mark of unity
Omniscience /ɒmˈnɪʃəns/, mainly in religion, is the capacity to know everything that there is to know. In particular, Dharmic religions and the Abrahamic religions believe that there is a divine being who is omniscient, an omniscient point-of-view, in writing, is to know everything that can be known about a character, including past history, feelings, etc. In Latin, omnis means all and science means knowing, there is a distinction between, inherent omniscience - the ability to know anything that one chooses to know and can be known. Total omniscience - actually knowing everything that can be known, in Jainism, omniscience is considered the highest type of perception. In the words of a Jain scholar, The perfect manifestation of the nature of the self. Jainism views infinite knowledge as an inherent capability of every soul, arihanta is the word used by Jains to refer to those human beings who have conquered all inner passions and possess Kevala Jnana. They are said to be of two kinds, Sāmānya kevali – omniscient beings who are concerned with their own liberation, tirthankara kevali – human beings who attain omniscience and help others to achieve the same.
Omnipotence is sometimes understood to imply the capacity to know everything that will be. Nontheism often claims that the concept of omniscience is inherently contradictory. Whether omniscience, particularly regarding the choices that a human will make, is compatible with free will has been debated by theists, the argument that divine foreknowledge is not compatible with free will is known as theological fatalism. Generally, if humans are free to choose between different alternatives, it is very difficult to understand how God could know what this choice will be. Some theists argue that God created all knowledge and has ready access thereto, alternately if knowledge was not a creation but merely existed in Gods mind for all time there would be no contradiction. In Thomistic thought, which holds God to exist outside of time due to his ability to perceive everything at once, the circular time contradiction can suppose anything concerning God, such as the creation of life, meaning before God created life, he wasnt alive.
These apparent contradictions, presuppose that such attributes are defined and detached from God. It is not a given that attributes which can be assigned to or used to describe mankind, a similar argument could be laid down concerning Gods omniscience. It even eludes the idea a lot more even to assume the concept of nothing or negation was created, assuming that the creator and creation is separate, and not the same one thing, or process. That it is a this or that notion, instead of a this, one verse God created man in his own Image states that God imagined the form of humans, taking image as a root word for imagine, mistakenly understood as man to look like God. [this verse from Genesis 1 is in the Hebrew Scriptures, the word Image is translated from two Hebrew words demuth - likeness or similitude and tselem- an obscure word which translates as image or idol