A division is a large military unit or formation consisting of between 10,000 and 25,000 soldiers. In most armies, a division is composed of several brigades; the division has been the default combined arms unit capable of independent operations. Smaller combined arms units, such as the American regimental combat team during World War II, were used when conditions favored them. In recent times, modern Western militaries have begun adopting the smaller brigade combat team as the default combined arms unit, with the division they belong to being less important. While the focus of this article is on army divisions, in naval usage, "division" has a different meaning, referring to either an administrative/functional sub-unit of a department aboard naval and coast guard ships, shore commands, in naval aviation units, to a sub-unit of several ships within a flotilla or squadron, or to two or three sections of aircraft operating under a designated division leader; some languages, like Russian, Serbo-Croatian and Polish use a similar word, divizion/dywizjon, for a battalion-size artillery or cavalry unit.
In administrative/functional sub-unit usage, unit size varies though divisions number far fewer than 100 people and are equivalent in function and organizational hierarchy/command relationship to a platoon or flight. In the West, the first general to think of organising an army into smaller combined-arms units was Maurice de Saxe, Marshal General of France, in his book Mes Rêveries, he died without having implemented his idea. Victor-François de Broglie put the ideas into practice, he conducted successful practical experiments of the divisional system in the Seven Years' War. The first war in which the divisional system was used systematically was the French Revolutionary War. Lazare Carnot of the Committee of Public Safety, in charge of military affairs, came to the same conclusion about it as the previous royal government, the army was organised into divisions, it made the armies more flexible and easy to maneuver, it made the large army of the revolution manageable. Under Napoleon, the divisions were grouped together because of their increasing size.
Napoleon's military success spread the corps system all over Europe. The divisional system reached its numerical height during the Second World War; the Soviet Union's Red Army consisted of more than a thousand division-sized units at any one time, the number of rifle divisions raised during the Great Patriotic War is estimated at 2,000. Nazi Germany had hundreds of numbered and/or named divisions, while the United States employed up to 91 divisions. A notable change to divisional structures during the war was completion of the shift from square divisions to triangular divisions that many European nations started using in World War I; this was done to pare down chain of command overhead. The triangular division allowed the tactic of "two forward, one back", where two of the division's regiments would be engaging the enemy with one regiment in reserve. All divisions in World War II were expected to have their own artillery formations the size of a regiment depending upon the nation. Divisional artillery was seconded by corps level command to increase firepower in larger engagements.
Regimental combat teams were used by the US during the war as well, whereby attached and/or organic divisional units were parceled out to infantry regiments, creating smaller combined-arms units with their own armor and artillery and support units. These combat teams would still be under divisional command but have some level of autonomy on the battlefield. Organic units within divisions were units which operated directly under Divisional command and were not controlled by the Regiments; these units were support units in nature, include signal companies, medical battalions, supply trains and administration. Attached units were smaller units that were placed under Divisional command temporarily for the purpose of completing a particular mission; these units were combat units such as tank battalions, tank destroyer battalions and cavalry reconnaissance squadrons. In modern times, most military forces have standardized their divisional structures; this does not mean that divisions are equal in size or structure from country to country, but divisions have, in most cases, come to be units of 10,000 to 15,000 soldiers with enough organic support to be capable of independent operations.
The direct organization of the division consists of one to four brigades or battle groups of its primary combat arm, along with a brigade or regiment of combat support and a number of direct-reporting battalions for necessary specialized support tasks, such as intelligence, logistics and combat engineers. Most militaries standardize ideal organization strength for each type of division, encapsulated in a Table of Organization and Equipment which specifies exact assignments of units and equipment for a division; the modern division became the primary identifiable combat unit in many militaries during the second half of the 20th century, supplanting the brigade. The peak use of the division as the primary combat unit occurred during World War II, when the belligerents
Candace Robb is an English historical novelist, whose works are set in medieval England. She has written under the pen name Emma Campion; the author was born in North Carolina, grew up in Ohio, now lives in Seattle, Washington with her husband. After an education in Catholic schools, Robb researched medieval history for many years. In an interview, she said, "I did my graduate work in English literature with a strong concentration in medieval and Anglo-Saxon literature and history". After completing her master's degree at the University of Cincinnati in Ohio, she began the Ph. D. programme but did not complete her dissertation. Before becoming a novelist, she worked as an editor of scientific publications, she strives for accuracy of historical events. Kirkus Reviews said that "Robb puts the history back into historical mystery". Robb divides her time between the American Pacific Northwest and the UK spending time in Scotland and in York to research her books; the Apothecary Rose The Lady Chapel The Nun's Tale The King's Bishop The Riddle of St. Leonard's A Gift of Sanctuary A Spy for the Redeemer The Cross-Legged Knight The Guilt of Innocents A Vigil of Spies The Bone Jar A Conspiracy of Wolves A Trust Betrayed The Fire in the Flint A Cruel Courtship The King's Mistress A Triple Knot The Service of the Dead A Twisted Vengeance A Murdered Peace
The Balmoral is a luxury five-star property and landmark in Edinburgh, Scotland. It is located in the heart of the city at the east end of Princes Street, the main shopping street beneath the Edinburgh Castle rock, the southern edge of the New Town. Resulting from a competition in 1895, the hotel opened as the North British Station Hotel on 15 October 1902; the building's architecture is Victorian, influenced by the traditional Scottish baronial style. It was designed by architect William Hamilton Beattie and for most of the twentieth century was known as the North British Hotel or the N. B. A traditional railway hotel built for the North British Railway Company adjacent to their newly rebuilt Waverley station. While under railway ownership, the hotel had porters in red jackets who would take passengers and their luggage directly into the hotel via a lift. Ownership passed into the hands of the London & North Eastern Railway in 1923. After nationalisation of the railways in 1948, the hotel became part of British Transport Hotels until it was privatised and purchased by The Gleneagles Hotel Company in 1983.
In 1988, the hotel closed for a major refurbishment and the building was purchased in 1990 by Balmoral International Hotels. On 12 June 1991, Edinburgh-born actor Sean Connery re-opened the hotel as The Balmoral, Gaelic for'majestic dwelling', following a £23,000,000 refurbishment. A plaque to commemorate the occasion appears in the hotel lobby beside the lifts; the hotel became part of the Forte Group forming part of their "Forte Grand" collection of international high-end hotels. Following a hostile takeover of Forte Group in 1996 by Granada plc, The Balmoral was put up for sale by its new owners and in a twist of irony, became the first hotel purchased by the newly formed Rocco Forte Hotels created by Sir Rocco Forte in 1997, following the takeover of their former business by Granada plc repurchasing one of Forte Group's hotels. It's traditional rival has always been The Caledonian Hotel at the west end of Princes Street. Since 1902, the hotel's clock has been set three minutes fast to ensure that the people of Edinburgh wouldn't miss their trains.
This is still the case today. The only day that the clock runs on time is on 31 December for the city's New Year celebrations; the clock tower, at 190 feet high, forms a prominent landmark in Edinburgh's city centre. In July 1932, American comedy duo Laurel and Hardy visited the North British Station Hotel as part of their visit to Edinburgh. Crowds gathered outside the hotel to catch a glimpse of the famous pair, their visit was one of the earliest videos of the hotel captured on film. Michael Palin stayed at the hotel in 1980, as part of his "Confessions of a Trainspotter" journey from London Euston to Kyle of Lochalsh for the BBC show Great Railway Journeys of the World. At this time the hotel was known as the North British. In February 2007 it was confirmed that author J. K. Rowling finished the Harry Potter series, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows at this hotel. Rowling left a signed statement written on a marble bust of Hermes in her room saying; the room has since been renamed the "J.
K. Rowling Suite," and the marble bust has been placed in a glass display case to protect it; the suite, priced at nearly £1,000 per night, is a pilgrimage site for Harry Potter fans. In October 2010, Oprah Winfrey filmed a one-hour episode of Oprah at The Balmoral, she interviewed J. K. Rowling from the Scone & Crombie Royal Suite. Oprah asked Rowling: "Is there anything here at this hotel where we are, that you thought would be stimulating to your creative process?", to which Rowling replied: It turned out to be stimulating. As I was finishing Deathly Hallows there came a day where the window cleaner came, the kids were at home, the dogs were barking and I could not work and this light bulb went on over my head and I thought, I can throw money at this problem. I can now solve this problem. For years and years and years I would just go to a cafe and sit in a different kind of noise and work. I thought I can go to a quiet place so I came to this hotel because it's a beautiful hotel but I didn't intend to stay here but they were so nice to me here and, I think writers can be a little bit superstitious and the first day of writing went well so I kept coming back to this hotel and I ended up finishing the last of the Harry Potter books in this hotel.
The hotel is the fictional setting for a large portion of the 2007 Scottish film Hallam Foe, where the principal character beds down in the clock tower, spies on his love interest in Cockburn Street. In May 2009, The Balmoral Bar was the finishing point for the Top Gear 1949 themed race from London King's Cross to Edinburgh Waverley. Jeremy Clarkson travelled on LNER Peppercorn Class A1 60163 Tornado steam train, James May in a Jaguar XK120 and Richard Hammond on a Vincent Black Shadow motorbike. May won the race, with Clarkson coming second; the Balmoral Hotel's Official Website