Balaclava is an inner suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 7 km south from Melbourne's Central Business District. Its local government area is the City of Port Phillip. At the 2011 Census, Balaclava had a population of 5,383. Balaclava is located in the south-east of the city, in the St Kilda East area and is bounded by Inkerman Street to the north, Chapel Street to the west, Hotham Street to the east and Oak Grove and Los Angeles Court to the south. In terms of its cadastral division, Balaclava is in the parish of Prahran, within the County of Bourke The suburb was named after the Battle of Balaclava that took place on 25 October 1854, during the Crimean War. Well known television celebrity Graham Kennedy spent part of his childhood in the Balaclava area. After his death, the local council placed a commemorative plaque on the house. Balaclava is home to much of Melbourne's Orthodox Jewish Community, consisting of both Hasidim and non-Hasidim Jews. Within its confines are a number of kosher restaurants and shops that cater to the local and broader Melbourne Haredi communities.
Many streets in Balaclava and its vicinity are named after Crimean War battles. One street, Crimea Street, is named after the war itself. Other streets in the district are named after people connected with the Crimean War. Caulfield Campus of Caulfield Grammar School – the suburb's largest school. St Colman's Carlisle Street -- designed to complement the church next door. There are many churches in Balaclava, with many of the modern places of worship serving the Jewish Faith, but many of the older buildings have at some point served various Christian religions. Many of the church buildings in Balaclava are historic and heritage registered and form various religious precincts. Historic church buildings include: St Colman's Catholic Church, Carlisle Street. St George's Chapel Street. Built in 1877–80 to the design of Albert Purchas. Listed on the Victorian Heritage Register. Holy Trinity Anglican Church, Chapel Street. Designed by Joseph Reed and built in 1878, the building is Victorian Heritage listed.<http://www.holytrinitybalaclava.com.au>
Former Balaclava Corps Hall. Balaclava is served by several forms of public transport; the main railway station, Balaclava, is on the Sandringham railway line. Major tram routes operate on Chapel Street, Balaclava Road, Carlisle Street, Dandenong Road and St Kilda Road. Bus routes 216 and 219 operate along Hotham Street; the importance of these routes has declined in recent years and are subject to change in 2017. A taxi rank operates outside the Coles Supermarket. Graham Kennedy John Safran Judith Lucy City of St Kilda – A former local government area of which Balaclava was a part. Monash University – Australian Places City of Port Phillip Heritage Register Balaclava/East St Kilda Council overview
United Australia Party
The United Australia Party was an Australian political party, founded in 1931 and dissolved in 1945. The party won four federal elections in that time governing in coalition with the Country Party, it provided two Prime Ministers of Australia -- Robert Menzies. The UAP was created in the aftermath of the 1931 split in the Australian Labor Party. Six economically conservative Labor MPs left the party to protest the Scullin Government's financial policies during the Great Depression. Led by Joseph Lyons, a former Premier of Tasmania, the defectors sat as independents, but agreed to merge with the Nationalist Party and form a united opposition. Lyons was chosen as the new party's leader due to his popularity among the general public, with former Nationalist leader John Latham becoming his deputy, he led the UAP to a landslide victory at the 1931 federal election, where the party secured an outright majority in the House of Representatives and was able to form government in its own right. After the 1934 election, the UAP entered into a coalition with the Country Party.
After Lyons' death in April 1939, the UAP elected Robert Menzies as its new leader. This resulted in the Country Party leaving the coalition, but a new coalition agreement was reached in March 1940; the 1940 election resulted in a hung parliament and the formation of a minority government with support from two independents. In August 1941, Menzies was forced to resign as prime minister in favour of Arthur Fadden, the Country Party leader. Fadden continued on with Billy Hughes replacing Menzies as UAP leader. Hughes resigned after the 1943 election, Menzies subsequently returned as UAP leader and Leader of the Opposition; the UAP ceased to exist as a parliamentary party in February 1945, when its members joined the new Liberal Party of Australia. Joseph Lyons began his political career as an Australian Labor Party politician and served as Premier of Tasmania. Lyons was elected to the Australian Federal Parliament in 1929 and served in Prime Minister James Scullin's Labor Cabinet. Lyons became acting Treasurer in 1930 and helped negotiate the government's strategies for dealing with the Great Depression.
With Scullin temporarily absent in London and acting Prime Minister James Fenton clashed with the Labor Cabinet and Caucus over economic policy, grappled with the differing proposals of the Premier's Plan, Lang Labor, the Commonwealth Bank and British adviser Otto Niemeyer. While Health Minister Frank Anstey supported Premier of New South Wales Jack Lang's bid to default on debt repayments, Lyons advocated orthodox fiscal management; when Labor reinstated the more radical Ted Theodore as Treasurer in 1931, Lyons and Fenton resigned from Cabinet. The UAP was formed in 1931 by Labor dissidents and a conservative coalition as a response to the more radical economic proposals of Labor Party members to deal with the Great Depression in Australia. Lyons and Fenton's opposition to the economic policies of the Scullin Labor Government had attracted the support of prominent Australian conservatives, known as "the Group", whose number included future prime minister Robert Menzies. In parliament on 13 March 1931, though still a member of the ALP, Lyons supported a no confidence motion against the Scullin Labor government.
Soon afterward, Lyons and four other right-wing Labor MPs--Moses Gabb, Allan Guy, Charles McGrath and John Price—resigned from the ALP in protest of the Scullin government's economic policies. Five of the six Labor dissidents–all except Gabb–formed the All for Australia League and crossed over to the opposition benches. On 7 May, the All for Australia League, the Nationalist opposition and former Prime Minister Billy Hughes' Australian Party, merged to form the UAP. Although the new party was dominated by former Nationalists, Lyons was chosen as the new party's leader, thus became Leader of the Opposition, with Latham as his deputy; the Western Australia branch of the Nationalists, retained the Nationalist name. Claiming that the Scullin government was incapable of managing the economy, it offered traditional deflationary economic policies in response to Australia's economic crisis. Though it was an upper- and middle-class conservative party, the presence of ex-Labor MPs with working-class backgrounds allowed the party to present a convincing image of national unity transcending class barriers.
This was true of the party leader, Lyons. Indeed, he had been chosen as the merged party's leader because he was thought to be more electorally appealing than the aloof Latham, was thus better suited to win over traditional Labor supporters to the UAP, its slogan was "All for Australia and the Empire". A further split, this time of left-wing NSW Labor MPs who supported the unorthodox economic policies of NSW Premier Jack Lang, cost the Scullin government its parliamentary majority. In November 1931, Lang Labor dissidents broke with the Scullin government and joined with the UAP opposition to pass a no-confidence motion, forcing an early election. With the Labor Party split between Scullin's supporters and Langites, with a popular leader, the UAP won the elections in December 1931 in a massive landslide which saw the two wings of the Labor Party cut down to 18 seats between them, Lyons became Prime Minister in January 1932, he took office at the helm of a UAP majo
Sandringham is an affluent, beachside suburb of Melbourne, Australia, located 19 km southeast of Melbourne's central business district. Its local government area is the City of Bayside and its federal division is the Division of Goldstein. At the 2011 Census, Sandringham had a population of 9,309. Sandringham formed part of the early estates in the parish of Moorabbin purchased by Josiah Holloway in 1852. Named Gipsy Village, lots were sold between 1852 and 1854 notwithstanding little settlement taking place at the time. Bluff Town Post Office opened on 1 April 1868, closed in 1871, reopened in 1873 and was renamed Sandringham in 1887. Sandringham is one of Melbourne's bayside suburbs, located beside Port Phillip at the end of the Sandringham railway line. Sandringham is a popular location for beachgoers, walkers, photographers and shoppers, it has a quaint village atmosphere with a number of cafes, coffee shops and restaurants, take-away food outlets, gourmet food outlets, clothing stores, boutique homewares, professional offices, multi-story apartments, real estate agents, bakeries, a modern bookshop, a news agency, Coles supermarket, a health food store, a chemist, an award-winning library, a historical society, a large modern police station, a medical centre, a Life Saving club, a video store, a hardware store, a wine store, a bank, a large modern hotel with a balcony overlooking the bay, a bike track and a coastal walking track.
The trip by train to and from Melbourne city takes 27 minutes. Buses travel between the Sandringham railway station and St Kilda, Westfield's Southland, Chadstone shopping centre and other places; the Sandringham Yacht Club is host to a number of Sydney to Hobart yacht race winners. The main streets are home including the railway station. In the 2011 census the most common ancestries in Sandringham were English 29.3%, Australian 25.8%, Irish 9.7%, Scottish 9.3% and German 3.1%. Sandringham Primary School, that opened in 1855, is one of the oldest schools in Victoria. Sandringham College - a State secondary college - has two campuses in east Sandringham, one on Bluff Road and one on Holloway Road. Private schools in the area include Firbank Girls' Grammar School junior school and Sacred Heart Parish School. Another school in the area is Sandringham East Primary, which celebrated its 80th anniversary in 2011. Former Mayor Brighton Mayor and Brighton Icebergs Founder John Locco once taught at Sandringham East Primary.
Locco once locked a class. The Melbourne International School of Japanese, a part-time Japanese education programme, once held its classes at Sandringham East Primary; the Sandringham Football Club, known as the Zebras, of the Victorian Football League, has had a number of players go on to play in the AFL, including Trevor Barker, Ian Cooper, radio personality Rex Hunt, Andrew Krakouer, Paul Dimattina, Matthew Warnock and Tom Langdon. Its games record holder is Nick Sautner; the club's home ground is the Trevor Barker oval on Beach Road. Based at the RG Chisholm Reserve, Duncan Street, the East Sandringham Boys Cricket Club features in suburban competitions throughout the cricket season; the club has developed cricketers at a junior level, notably Shane Warne who has on occasion returned to play for his junior club. The R G Chisholm Reserve is home to the East Sandringham Junior Football Club, which produced future Brownlow Medallists Chris Judd and Jobe Watson; the city hosts the Sandringham Soccer Club, which features both a men's and a women's team.
The city hosts the Sandringham Amateur Athletic Club, founded at a meeting held on 8 April 1930. The first recorded event was an 880 yards handicap at the Beach Oval. Trevor Barker Beach Oval Picnic Point Sandringham Rotunda Tjilatjirrin Reserve Sandringham Yacht Club Chris Judd, two-time AFL Brownlow Medallist, West Coast Eagles premiership captain and former Carlton Blues captain, was born in Sandringham and played football for East Sandringham Junior Football Club and the Sandringham Dragons in the TAC Cup as a junior. Bob Hawke, Prime Minister of Australia from March 1983 to December 1991, lived in Keats Street, from 1958 to 1964. Hawke moved to Royal Avenue, Sandringham in 1964. Tim Flannery and Australian of the Year 2007, grew up in Sandringham in the 1950s. Brad Hodge - Australian Test Cricketer and former captain of the Victorian Bushrangers. Jared Rivers - Geelong Football Club player in the Australian Football League. Lisa McIntosh – Paralympic sprinter and five-time gold medallist was born in Sandringham.
Bayside City Council Website Sandringham Yacht Club
Federal Court of Australia
The Federal Court of Australia is an Australian superior court of record which has jurisdiction to deal with most civil disputes governed by federal law, along with some summary criminal matters. Cases are heard at first instance by single Judges; the Court includes an appeal division referred to as the Full Court comprising three Judges, the only avenue of appeal from which lies to the High Court of Australia. In the Australian court hierarchy, the Federal Court occupies a position equivalent to the Supreme Courts of each of the states and territories. In relation to the other Courts in the federal stream, it is equal to the Family Court of Australia, superior to the Federal Circuit Court, it was established in 1976 by the Federal Court of Australia Act. The Chief Justice of the Federal Court is James Allsop; the Federal Court has no inherent jurisdiction. Its jurisdiction flows from statute; the Court's original jurisdiction include matters arising from Commonwealth legislation such as, for example, matters relating to taxation, trade practices, native title, intellectual property, industrial relations, corporations and bankruptcy.
The Federal Court of Australia has appellate jurisdiction from the Federal Circuit Court of Australia on all matters, with the exception of family law, where the Family Court of Australia has appellate jurisdiction. The Court exercises general appellate jurisdiction in criminal and civil matters on appeal from the Supreme Court of Norfolk Island. Other federal courts and tribunals where the Court exercises appellate jurisdiction include the Australian Sports Anti-Doping Authority and the Australian Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission; the jurisdiction of the Federal Court of Australia includes the jurisdiction exercised by two former federal courts, the Federal Court of Bankruptcy and the Commonwealth Industrial Court. The Federal Court of Bankruptcy had jurisdiction in bankruptcy matters and was created in 1930; the jurisdiction in bankruptcy was transferred to the Federal Court of Australia on its establishment in 1977. The Commonwealth Industrial Court was established in 1956 as a result of the Boilermaker's case, where the High Court held that a Chapter III Court could not exercise a non-judicial power, the arbitral function, because of the constitutional separation of powers in Australia.
The judicial functions were given to the newly created Commonwealth Industrial Court and the arbitral functions were given to Commonwealth Conciliation and Arbitration Commission. The Court was renamed the Australian Industrial Court in 1973. In 1977 the jurisdiction of the Australian Industrial Court was transferred to the Federal Court of Australia. In 1993 the industrial relations jurisdiction of the Federal Court of Australia was transferred to the Industrial Relations Court of Australia, transferred back to the Federal Court of Australia in 1996; the last judge of the Industrial Relations Court, Anthony North, retired in September 2018. Sydney Melbourne Brisbane Perth Adelaide HobartDuncan Kerr List of judges of the Federal Court of Australia List of Federal Court of Australia cases Federal Court of Australia Full text of the Federal Court of Australia Act 1976
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
Division of Goldstein
The Division of Goldstein is an Australian Electoral Division in Victoria. The division was created in 1984, it is located in the bayside suburbs of Melbourne, including Beaumaris, Brighton, Caulfield South, Cheltenham and Sandringham. The division is named after Vida Goldstein, an early feminist parliamentary candidate who contested five separate elections within the first two decades after Federation, it has always been a safe seat for the Liberal Party. When combined, the seat is one of few that has never been held by the Labor Party at any point since 1901, its most prominent members include Ian Macphee, a minister under Malcolm Fraser and prominent Liberal moderate. Division of Goldstein - Australian Electoral Commission
Brighton is an affluent coastal suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 11 km south-east of Melbourne's central business district. Its local government area is the City of Bayside. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics, Brighton had a population of 23,253 people in 2016<. Brighton is named after Brighton in England. Brighton houses some of the wealthiest citizens in Melbourne with grand homes, the development of large residential blocks of land. Brighton is well known for its Dendy Street Beach with its 82 colourful beach boxes; as of June 2016, Brighton has a median house price of AU$2,287,500. In England, on 29 August 1840, Henry Dendy purchased 5,120 acres of Port Phillip land at £1 per acre, site unseen, under the terms of the short-lived Special Survey regulations. Dendy arrived on 5 February 1841 to claim his land; the area was known as Dendy's Special Survey. The area Dendy was compelled to take, called "Waterville", was bound by the coastline to the west and the present day North Road, East Boundary Road and South Road.
A town was surveyed in mid-1841, defined by the crescent-shaped street layout which remains today, subdivided allotments were offered for sale. The area soon became the "Brighton Estate", Dendy's site for his own home was named "Brighton Park"; the land did not have any ready sources of water. Sales were slow at first, the financial depression came and Dendy's scheme for emigration and land sales failed; the family of his agent Jonathan Binns Were who had arrived in Melbourne in 1839, bought the land. All of Dendy's business ventures failed, he died a pauper. After the depression, sales of land resulted in Brighton becoming the third most populated town in the Port Phillip District, by 1846. Brighton attracted wealthy residents who wanted generous building sites and the prospect of sea bathing. By the late 1840s stately homes were built in an area known as'The Terrace', now called the Esplanade, overlooking Dendy Street Beach; the Brighton Post Office opened on 19 April 1853. St Andrew's Anglican Church, one of the earliest churches in Victoria, was founded in 1842.
Wesleyan and Catholic churches followed by 1848, a Methodist church in 1851. Schools were opened by the Catholic Church in Centre Road. Another was opened in the Wesleyan Church in 1855. In 1854, Brighton had a census population of 2,731. An railway connection to Melbourne was built in stages: Windsor to North Brighton was completed in 1859 and connected to the loop line to St Kilda station. A single line railway-tram from St Kilda to Brighton Beach was completed in 1906; the railway tramline was duplicated in 1914. In 1919 the railway was electrified. A tram ran down Hawthorn Road; the noted bathing boxes in Brighton are known to have existed as far back as 1862, although the earliest ones were at the water's edge at the end of Bay St rather than their present location on Dendy Street Beach just south of Middle Brighton. In 1906, the completion of a tram line from St Kilda to Brighton led to an increase in applications for bathing box permits and significant construction between 1908 and 1911; as part of capital works programs during the Depression to help relieve unemployment, the City of Brighton, backed by State Government funding, relocated all bathing boxes to the high-water mark on Dendy Street Beach, or removed them completely.
The boxes were relocated again in 1934 to their present position at the rear of this beach. Two years after the opening of the railway line to Brighton Beach in 1861, Captain Kenny’s Brighton Beach Baths opened. At the time, bathing in the open during daylight hours was prohibited, as was mixed bathing: separate sections of the beach were designated for men and for women; the baths were built off shore and were accessed by a wooden bridge, so that bathers would not have to cross the sand clad only in bathing costumes, but could gain entry straight into the water. Brighton Beach Baths had been destroyed several times, were demolished in 1979; the Middle Brighton Municipal Baths were opened in 1881. The Baths are one of the only remaining caged open water sea baths in Australia. In 1992 former Mayor of Brighton John Locco had a fist fight with former Baths Manager Mark Greene which resulted in Greene's sacking. On 18 January 1859, the municipality of Brighton was proclaimed extending eastwards between Dendy's survey boundaries to Thomas Street and Nepean Highway.
Brighton became a borough in October 1863, in 1870 parts of Elwood and Elsternwick were added. Brighton became a town on 18 March 1887, it annexed 13.8 hectares from the City of Moorabbin on 3 April 1912 and became the City of Brighton on 12 March 1919. On 14 December 1994, the City of Brighton was incorporated in a new municipality called City of Bayside. On the beach, Beach Road is a popular cycling route, with the Bay Trail off-road walking/cycling tracks following the coastline. Dendy Street Beach, just south of Middle Brighton, features 82 colourful bathing boxes, which are one of the tourist icons of Melbourne; the boxes share a uniformity of size and build, a regular arrangement along the beach, are the only surviving such structures close to the Melbourne CBD. A Planning Scheme Heritage Overlay on the boxes by the Bayside City Council restricts alterations, all retain their Victorian era architecture, such as timber frames, weatherboard