2007 Australian federal election
Federal elections were held in Australia on 24 November 2007. All 150 seats in the House of Representatives and 40 of the seats in the 76-member Senate were up for election; the election featured a 39-day campaign, with 13.6 million Australians enrolled to vote. The centre-left Australian Labor Party opposition, led by Kevin Rudd and deputy leader Julia Gillard, defeated the incumbent centre-right Coalition government, led by Liberal Party leader and Prime Minister, John Howard, Nationals leader and Deputy Prime Minister, Mark Vaile, by a landslide; the Coalition had been in power since the 1996 election. Future Prime Minister Scott Morrison and future opposition leader Bill Shorten entered parliament at this election. Independents: Tony Windsor, Bob Katter At 8.00 pm, the first personality to call the election was former Labor Prime Minister Bob Hawke on Sky News. At 10.29 pm AEST two hours after the last polls in Western Australia closed, Liberal deputy leader Peter Costello conceded that the Coalition had lost government.
At 10.36 pm, John Howard delivered a speech at the Sofitel Wentworth Hotel in Sydney to concede defeat. At 11.05 pm, Kevin Rudd delivered his victory speech. Labor won 83 of the 150 seats in the incoming House of Representatives; this represented a 23-seat swing to Labor. The Liberals won 55. Labor finished with a 52.70 per cent two-party-preferred vote, a 5.44-point swing from 2004. On preferences, 79.7 per cent of Green votes flowed to Labor, 60.3 per cent of Family First votes flowed to the Coalition, with 62.5 per cent of Democrat votes flowing to Labor. Considering two-party estimates going back to the 1949 election, the swing to Labor in 2007 was the fourth-largest two-party-preferred swing, behind John Curtin and Labor in 1943 on 7.9 per cent, Malcolm Fraser and the Coalition in 1975 on 7.4 per cent, Gough Whitlam and Labor in 1969 on 7.1 per cent. The swing was the largest since 1983, when full preference counting was introduced to create an exact two-party figure, the largest swing to occur in the absence of a recession, political or military crisis.
Western Australia went against the national trend, with the Liberals suffering only a 2.14-point swing against them – lower than all except Tasmania and the ACT – but yet gaining one net seat. The weaker Labor performance was attributed to the strong economy and voters' unwillingness to do anything which might risk their present prosperity – a sentiment played to by Liberal campaigning strategies – and the behaviour of union officials Kevin Reynolds and Joe McDonald who had made headlines during the campaign. Independents: Nick Xenophon Labor and the Coalition won 18 seats each in the half-Senate election; the Greens won three seats, with Independent Nick Xenophon being elected on primary votes alone. This took the 76-member Senate total to 37 Coalition, 32 Labor, 5 Green, 1 Family First, 1 Independent. With a majority being 39 senators, when the new Senate met after 1 July 2008, the balance of power was shared between Xenophon, Family First's Steve Fielding and the five Greens. Xenophon, although reported as left-of-centre, indicated plans to work with the renegade National, Senator Barnaby Joyce.
If sufficient Coalition senators voted for government legislation, support from the crossbench was not required. Xenophon's election was at the expense of a Liberal candidate, without his presence the Coalition would have held enough Senate seats to block legislation. Compared to the previous Senate, the Greens gained one, a new Independent was elected, Labor gained four seats; the Coalition lost two, the Democrats lost all four of their seats. The informal rate of 2.55 per cent ties with the 1993 election as the lowest informal rate in the Senate since federation. The introduction of the group voting ticket at the 1984 election saw the number of informal votes drop dramatically. Prime Minister John Howard lost his own seat of Bennelong, in the Sydney area, to Labor candidate and former journalist Maxine McKew, becoming the second sitting prime minister, the third party leader, since Federation to be defeated in his own electorate. Prime Minister Stanley Bruce and National Party leader Charles Blunt lost their seats in 1929 and 1990 respectively.
Howard had held the seat since 1974, it had been in Liberal hands since its creation in 1949. However, successive redistributions, along with demographic change, had made the once safe Liberal seat much friendlier to Labor. Howard's two-party majority was four percent, putting it right on the edge of seats that Labor would take in the event it won. Late on election night, when conceding Labor had won government, Howard acknowledged the likelihood he had lost Bennelong to McKew, though he and McKew agreed the margin was "very tight", he had been ahead by thin margins for most of the night, never leading by more than 0.2 percentage points. Howard had been 206 votes ahead of McKew on the first count, finished 2.8 percentage points behind McKew on the estimated two-party vote. McKew declined to claim victory at first, saying that the seat was on "a knife edge," while the Australian Broadcasting Corporation listed Bennelong as a Labor gain on election night, ABC election analyst Antony Green said there was "no doubt" McKew had won.
On 29 November, Rudd named McKew as a parliamentary secretary to be appointed on 3 December, on 1 December, McKew claimed victory. Although counting was incomplete at the time, with several postal and absentee ballots outstanding, it was expected that Howard would not win enough of the votes to retain his seat. McKew finish
Liberal Party of Australia
The Liberal Party of Australia is a major centre-right political party in Australia, one of the two major parties in Australian politics, along with the centre-left Australian Labor Party. It was founded in 1944 as the successor to the United Australia Party; the Liberal Party is the largest and dominant party in the Coalition with the National Party of Australia. In two states and territories of Australia the parties have merged, forming the Country Liberal Party of the Northern Territory and the Liberal National Party of Queensland. Except for a few short periods, the Liberal Party and its predecessors have operated in similar coalitions since the 1920s; the party's leader is Scott Morrison and its deputy leader is Josh Frydenberg. The pair were elected to their positions at the August 2018 Liberal leadership ballot, with Frydenberg and Morrison as replacements for Julie Bishop and Malcolm Turnbull the latter of whom Morrison succeeded as Prime Minister of Australia. Now the Morrison Government, the party had been elected at the 2013 federal election as the Abbott Government which took office on 18 September 2013.
At state and territory level, the Liberal Party is in office in three states: Will Hodgman, Premier of Tasmania since 2014, Gladys Berejiklian, Premier of New South Wales since 2017 and Steven Marshall, Premier of South Australia since 2018. The party is in opposition in the states of Victoria and Western Australia, in both the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory; the party's ideology has been referred to as conservative, liberal-conservative, conservative-liberal, classical liberal. The Liberal Party tends to promote economic liberalism. Two past leaders of the party, Sir Robert Menzies and John Howard, are Australia's two longest-serving Prime Ministers; the Liberal Party has spent more time in government than any other federal political party in Australian history. The Liberals' immediate predecessor was the United Australia Party. More broadly, the Liberal Party's ideological ancestry stretched back to the anti-Labor groupings in the first Commonwealth parliaments; the Commonwealth Liberal Party was a fusion of the Free Trade Party and the Protectionist Party in 1909 by the second prime minister, Alfred Deakin, in response to Labor's growing electoral prominence.
The Commonwealth Liberal Party merged with several Labor dissidents to form the Nationalist Party of Australia in 1917. That party, in turn, merged with Labor dissidents to form the UAP in 1931; the UAP had been formed as a new conservative alliance in 1931, with Labor defector Joseph Lyons as its leader. The stance of Lyons and other Labor rebels against the more radical proposals of the Labor movement to deal the Great Depression had attracted the support of prominent Australian conservatives. With Australia still suffering the effects of the Great Depression, the newly formed party won a landslide victory at the 1931 Election, the Lyons Government went on to win three consecutive elections, it avoided Keynesian pump-priming and pursued a more conservative fiscal policy of debt reduction and balanced budgets as a means of stewarding Australia out of the Depression. Lyons' death in 1939 saw. Menzies served as Prime Minister from 1939 to 1941 but resigned as leader of the minority World War II government amidst an unworkable parliamentary majority.
The UAP, led by Billy Hughes, disintegrated after suffering a heavy defeat in the 1943 election. Menzies called a conference of conservative parties and other groups opposed to the ruling Australian Labor Party, which met in Canberra on 13 October 1944 and again in Albury, New South Wales in December 1944. From 1942 onward Menzies had maintained his public profile with his series of "The Forgotten People" radio talks—similar to Franklin D. Roosevelt's "fireside chats" of the 1930s—in which he spoke of the middle class as the "backbone of Australia" but as having been "taken for granted" by political parties. Outlining his vision for a new political movement in 1944, Menzies said:... hat we must look for, it is a matter of desperate importance to our society, is a true revival of liberal thought which will work for social justice and security, for national power and national progress, for the full development of the individual citizen, though not through the dull and deadening process of socialism.
The formation of the party was formally announced at Sydney Town Hall on 31 August 1945. It took the name "Liberal" in honour of the old Commonwealth Liberal Party; the new party was dominated by the remains of the old UAP. The Australian Women's National League, a powerful conservative women's organisation merged with the new party. A conservative youth group Menzies had set up, the Young Nationalists, was merged into the new party, it became the nucleus of the Young Liberals. By September 1945 there were more than 90,000 members, many of whom had not been members of any political party. After an initial loss to Labor at the 1946 election, Menzies led the Liberals to victory at the 1949 election, the party stayed in office for a record 23 years— the longest unbroken run in government at the federal level. Australia experienced prolonged economic growth during the post-war boom period of the Menzies Government and Menzies fulfilled his promises at the 1949 election to end rationing of butter and petrol and provided a five-shilling endowment for first-born children, as well as for others.
While himself an unashamed anglophile, Menzies' government
Charles Cameron Kingston was an Australian politician. He was an early radical liberal Premier of South Australia serving from 1893 to 1899 with the support of Labor led by John McPherson from 1893 and Lee Batchelor from 1897 in the House of Assembly, winning the 1893, 1896 and 1899 colonial elections against the conservatives, he was a leading proponent of and contributed extensively on the Federation of Australia, was elected to the federal House of Representatives with the most votes amongst the seven elected in the single statewide Division of South Australia at the 1901 election, serving under the Protectionist Party, going on to represent the Division of Adelaide at the 1903 election. A radical liberal in state politics, his government introduced such progressive measures as: electoral reform including the first law to give votes to women in Australia, a legitimation Act, the first conciliation and arbitration Act in Australia, establishment of a state bank, a high protective tariff, regulation of factories, a progressive system of land and income taxation, a public works programme, more extensive workers’ compensation.
Kingston was born in Adelaide, the son of Sir George Kingston, a Protestant Irish-born surveyor and landowner in the early days of British settlement in South Australia and a member of the first Parliament of South Australia. His mother, Ludovina Cameron, was of Portuguese descent. George Kingston boasted that he was "the first Irishman to set foot in the colony" and it is true that the Kingstons were among Adelaide's founding families. Charles was educated at the Adelaide Educational Institution and served his articles with Sir Samuel Way, Adelaide's leading lawyer and Attorney-General of South Australia, he was called to the bar in 1873, despite the objection of the elder brother of his future wife, Lucy May McCarthy on the grounds of Kingston's alleged seduction of her. He became a QC in 1889. In 1873 Kingston married Lucy McCarthy. Lucy was an invalid for much of her life and they had no children. In a remarkable gesture, Lucy took in a child, Kevin Kingston, whom Kingston had fathered with another woman, Elizabeth Watson, in 1883.
As a result of this scandal, Kingston was ostracised by Adelaide "society," his contempt for whom he never troubled to conceal. Kevin died in 1902. Kingston and his older brother Strickland Gough "Pat" Kingston formed a business partnership Kingston & Kingston in 1879 which they dissolved in July 1884. S. G. Kingston unstable, he was jailed for the gunshot wounding of a cabdriver in June 1884 and killed himself after losing an important case in Port Augusta. Kingston had a passion for Australian rules football in South Australia. In April 1881 Kingston was elected to the South Australian House of Assembly as a radical liberal for the seat of West Adelaide, he favoured reform of other radical reforms. He was described by William Maloney as the originator of the White Australia Policy, although this policy was supported by all Australian politicians at the time of federation. Kingston was Attorney-General of South Australia 1884-85 in the government of John Colton and again in 1887-89 in the government of Tom Playford.
In 1893 he succeeded Playford as leader of the South Australian liberals and defeated conservative Premier John Downer to become Premier 1893-99, a record at the time of six and a half years, not to be broken until Thomas Playford IV, as well as Chief Secretary and Attorney-General, Minister for Industry 1895-99. Kingston came to office with the support of a new third party, the South Australian division of the Labor Party led by John McPherson, which held the balance of power. A big, imposing man with a full beard, a booming voice and a violent, cutting debating style, Kingston dominated the small world of South Australian colonial politics in the 1890s, he was a great hero to liberals and working class voters, much hated by conservatives. In 1892, Richard Baker called him a "coward, a bully and a disgrace to the legal profession" in the Legislative Council and Kingston replied by calling Baker "false as a friend, treacherous as a colleague, mendacious as a man, utterly untrustworthy in every relationship of public life".
Kingston arranged for a duel but Baker had him arrested and as a result Kingston was bound over to keep the peace for a year. Kingston had not supported votes for women at the 1893 elections but he was subsequently persuaded by his ministerial colleagues, John Cockburn and Frederick Holder of its political advantages and lobbied by the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. Women's suffrage in Australia took a leap forward – enacted in 1895 and taking effect from this election, South Australia was the first in Australia and only the second in the world after New Zealand to allow women to vote, the first in the world to allow women to stand for election. Kingston's government established the state bank of South Australia, regulated factories, imposed death duties and increased land tax and progressive income taxes; when Tom Buxton was appointed Governor of South Australia, Kingston was angry that the government had not been involved in the decision about who should be the new Governor, so made life as hard as possible for Buxton and his family.
The governor's allowance was reduced and customs duty was charged on their household items. A leading supporter of Federation, Kingston was a delegate to the Constitutional Conventions of 1891 and 1897-98 w
Christies Beach, South Australia
Christies Beach is a seaside suburb in the southern Adelaide metropolitan area, within the City of Onkaparinga. The area is scenic and hence popular with photographers as Witton Bluff provides a natural vantage point over the entire suburb and beyond. Christies Beach boasts a unique commercial strip running the entire length of Beach Road and is identified as a primary coastal node in the Adelaide Metropolitan area. Christies Beach features one of the few remaining main road classified Esplanades in Metropolitan Adelaide, providing direct access to the beach on Gulf St Vincent. Christies Beach has its own postcode of 5165, is adjacent to the suburbs of Christie Downs and Noarlunga Centre to the east, Port Noarlunga to the south, O'Sullivan Beach to the north; the first development to occur along the coast of Christies Beach can be traced back to pre-colonization times 40,000 years ago. The indigenous Kaurna people used the coastal area of Christies Beach as a place for seasonal residence, they constructed structures known as a ‘Wodli’, which are small shelters made of branches and leaves.
These structures were semi-permanent, only lasting the length of the summer period, after which they were disassembled. The first European development along the Christies Beach coastline was constructed in the 1830s. A whaling station was constructed along the coast, influenced by the rising price of whale bone overseas, the abundant Southern Right Whale population during the summer breeding season and the vantage point of Gulf St Vincent from Witton Bluff. By the 1840s the seasonal whale population dwindled down to unprofitable levels with the whales changing their migration route, the whalers left the area to pursue other activities. An area of surveyed land covering Glenelg to Witton Bluff known as District B, was made available for settlement in 1838. Many farmers took plots of land along the Anderson Creek. In 1895 Lambert Christie and his wife Rosa established a farm that covered the area where Christies Beach is now situated; the entire area remained a land of farming communities until 1923.
This is when Rosa Christie created the first subdivision in the area, it was named Christie Beach. With this subdivision and other such residential allocations in the area road and rail transportation was improved; the improvement in transportation south of Adelaide gave Christies Beach an increase in tourists and holiday makers who were looking for a coastal experience. Many tourists decided to build cottages and holiday shacks on Witton Bluff and down onto the beach itself. With the influx of visitors and new residents to the area the Christies Beach Progressive Association was formed to provide good foreshore amenities, such as beach access, showers, etc. Foreshore developments led to the creation of new shops and services on the Esplanade and nearby Gulfview and Beach Roads. By the late 1950s demand for residence in the area skyrocketed, this propelled commercial and industrial developments in the Lonsdale district with the opening of Port Stanvac Oil Refinery and Chrysler engine plant and in Noarlunga with the relocation of the railway line and the construction of Colonnades Shopping Centre.
Christie Beach Post Office opened on 3 April 1945 and was renamed Christies Beach around 1961. Christies Beach North office opened on 5 June 1962. Existing foreshore developments include toilet facilities, shelter, barbecue facilities, native vegetation plantations, informational signage, beach access stairs, & paved footpaths on both sides of the Esplanade. All overhead power lines along the Esplanade have been converted to underground power lines to improve the scenic value of the foreshore. Future development plans for the Christies Beach foreshore established under the Metropolitan Coast Park Plan include the allocation of parking areas to remove on the side of the road parking, continued planting of native vegetation and the creation of more open recreation grass spaces, & converting the footpath into a multi-recreational path that can be used by walkers and cyclists alike and is connected to similar coastal paths along coasts further north and south, & changing the flow of traffic along the coast so as to turn it into a recreational road, rather than a thoroughfare.
There are plans for a coastal trail from Christies Beach to Port Noarlunga, called The Witton Bluff Base Trail, with the application for funding being considered. The central sporting hub for the Christies Beach area is the John Bice Memorial Oval, home of the Christies Beach Football Club, Southern Districts Cricket Club and the Christies Beach Sports and Social Club; the Morrow Road bridge over Christies Creek, a Local Heritage place, was once the main road bridge linking Christies Beach to O'Sullivan Beach. The structure is thought to be the only remaining example of a wooden road bridge in the former Noarlunga Council area. Situated on Galloway Road between Gulf View Road and Carmichael Road, Lohmann Park is home to "The Rainmakers", a statue of bronze Aboriginal warriors; the sculpture was gifted to the people of Noarlunga City Council by Eugen Lohmann Esq. the Governing Director of Wender and Duerholt, a German building company which had built a number of South Australian Housing Trust homes in the area.
The statue was unveiled by Premier of South Australia, Frank Walsh, on 21 May 1965. Located in the park is a memorial to former City of Onkaparinga councillor Alan Oakes. Citations ReferencesAustralian Bureau of Statistics.. People occupying high or medium density housing - Christies B
Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, the fifth-most populous city of Australia. In June 2017, Adelaide had an estimated resident population of 1,333,927. Adelaide is home to more than 75 percent of the South Australian population, making it the most centralised population of any state in Australia. Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city. Adelaide stretches 20 km from the coast to the foothills, 94 to 104 km from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south. Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for a freely-settled British province in Australia. Colonel William Light, one of Adelaide's founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens, in the area inhabited by the Kaurna people. Light's design set out Adelaide in a grid layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, surrounded by parklands.
Early Adelaide was shaped by wealth. Until the Second World War, it was Australia's third-largest city and one of the few Australian cities without a convict history, it has been noted for early examples of religious freedom, a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties. It has been known as the "City of Churches" since the mid-19th century, referring to its diversity of faiths rather than the piety of its denizens; the demonym "Adelaidean" is used in reference to its residents. As South Australia's seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street and in various districts of the metropolitan area. Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts, its large defence and manufacturing sectors, it ranks in terms of quality of life, being listed in the world's top 10 most liveable cities, out of 140 cities worldwide by The Economist Intelligence Unit.
It was ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Before its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation. Kaurna culture and language were completely destroyed within a few decades of European settlement of South Australia, but extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both. South Australia was proclaimed a British colony on 28 December 1836, near The Old Gum Tree in what is now the suburb of Glenelg North; the event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day. The site of the colony's capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, through the design made by the architect George Strickland Kingston. Adelaide was established as a planned colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield.
Wakefield had read accounts of Australian settlement while in prison in London for attempting to abduct an heiress, realised that the eastern colonies suffered from a lack of available labour, due to the practice of giving land grants to all arrivals. Wakefield's idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers and journeymen. Funds raised from the sale of land were to be used to bring out working-class emigrants, who would have to work hard for the monied settlers to afford their own land; as a result of this policy, Adelaide does not share the convict settlement history of other Australian cities like Sydney, Melbourne and Hobart. As it was believed that in a colony of free settlers there would be little crime, no provision was made for a gaol in Colonel Light's 1837 plan, but by mid-1837 the South Australian Register was warning of escaped convicts from New South Wales and tenders for a temporary gaol were sought.
Following a burglary, a murder, two attempted murders in Adelaide during March 1838, Governor Hindmarsh created the South Australian Police Force in April 1838 under 21-year-old Henry Inman. The first sheriff, Samuel Smart, was wounded during a robbery, on 2 May 1838 one of the offenders, Michael Magee, became the first person to be hanged in South Australia. William Baker Ashton was appointed governor of the temporary gaol in 1839, in 1840 George Strickland Kingston was commissioned to design Adelaide's new gaol. Construction of Adelaide Gaol commenced in 1841. Adelaide's early history was marked by questionable leadership; the first governor of South Australia, John Hindmarsh, clashed with others, in particular the Resident Commissioner, James Hurtle Fisher. The rural area surrounding Adelaide was surveyed by Light in preparation to sell a total of over 405 km2 of land. Adelaide's early economy started to get on its feet in 1838 with the arrival of livestock from Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania.
Wool production provided an early basis for the South Australian economy. By 1860, wheat farms had been established from Encounter Bay in the south to Clare in the north. George Gawler took over from Hindmarsh in late 1838 and, despite being under orders from the Select Committee on South Australia in Britain not to undertake any public works, promptly oversaw construction of a governo
Division of Adelaide
The Division of Adelaide is an Australian electoral division in South Australia and is named for the city of Adelaide, South Australia's capital. At the 2016 federal election, the electorate covered 76 km², is centred on the Adelaide city centre and spanning from Grand Junction Road in the north to Cross Road in the south and from Portrush Road in the east to South Road in the west, taking in suburbs including Ashford, Clarence Park, Goodwood, Kent Town, Kilburn, Northgate, Parkside, Rose Park, St Peters, Toorak Gardens and Walkerville; the division of Adelaide was one of seven single-member seats established when the seven-member statewide Division of South Australia was abolished following the inaugural 1901 election. For the first 40 years after Federation, it was one of the few Federation seats in the state that changed hands between the Australian Labor Party and the conservative parties. Despite the bellwether-like swinging tendency, unusually the only time Adelaide was obtained by an incoming government was in 1931.
However, Labor held it for all but six years from 1943 to 1993, including a 23-year Labor hold during the Robert Menzies era. For most of the time from 1943 to 1987, it was a safe Labor seat. Labor's hold on the seat loosened in the late 1980s due to pro-Liberal demographic change. Similar to the modern-day state-level electoral district of Adelaide the federal-level Division of Adelaide covered only the Adelaide city centre and a few nearby inner north suburbs up to Regency Road in Prospect for most of its first century. A pre-1993 boundary redistribution pushed the seat to the south, adding Liberal-friendly suburbs to the south of the Adelaide city centre for the first time while removing Labor suburbs in the north-east, resulting in Liberal Trish Worth holding the seat for eleven years, albeit on slender margins. Kate Ellis regained Adelaide for Labor in 2004 on a 1.3 percent margin from a two percent two-party swing. Ellis has held the seat since, with the margin increasing to 8.5 percent in 2007, before falling to 7.7 percent in 2010 and to 4.0 percent in 2013, before increasing to 4.7 percent in 2016.
In 2016, the major party vote was suppressed in all eleven state seats in the presence of Nick Xenophon Team candidates in all eleven South Australian seats. Though Labor picked up a two-party swing in all eleven, the NXT presence produced a result where Kingston ended up as the only South Australian seat to record an increase, however small, to the primary vote of a particular major party. Additionally, Adelaide was the only seat of the state's eleven where the Greens vote increased, while producing both the highest Green vote and the lowest NXT vote in the state; this is in contrast to 2007 where the Xenophon Senate ticket polled higher in Adelaide than in most other seats. Labor incumbent Kate Ellis announced in March 2017 that she would step down from the Labor shadow cabinet in the following months and would not re-contest her seat at the end of the parliamentary term; the 2018 South Australian federal redistribution saw the seat of Adelaide lose all of its inner-eastern suburbs and a couple of its southern suburbs, while gaining a long strip of western suburbs spanning the entire north-south length of the seat.
These changes saw the Labor margin increase from 4.7 percent to a notional 9.0 percent. In July 2018, neighbouring Labor incumbent Steve Georganas was preselected to contest the seat of Adelaide at the 2019 election. ABC profile for Adelaide: 2016 Poll Bludger profile for Adelaide: 2016 AEC profile for Adelaide: 2016 SA boundary map, 2001: AEC SA boundary map, 1984: Atlas SA
Port Noarlunga, South Australia
Port Noarlunga is a suburb in the City of Onkaparinga, South Australia. It is a small sea-side suburb, population 2,632, about 30 kilometres to the south of the Adelaide city centre and was created as a sea port; this area is now popular as a holiday destination or for permanent residents wishing to commute to Adelaide or work locally. There is a jetty that connects to a 1.6 kilometres long natural reef, exposed at low tide. The beach is large and long and has reasonable surfing in the South Port area whose name is taken from its location -'South of the Port'; the suburb is bounded to the south including a tidal estuary. It is bounded to the west by the coastline with Gulf St Vincent, by Christies Beach to the north and by Noarlunga Centre and Noarlunga Downs to the east.< In pre-European times, this area along with most of the Adelaide plains was inhabited by the Kaurna tribe. The first record of the area was provided by Captain Collet Barker who explored the Onkaparinga River on 15 April 1831 in his search for a Gulf outlet from Lake Alexandrina.
In early 1837, while camped by the Sturt River near Marion, South Australia's only two horses slipped their tether ropes during the night and the overseer of stock, C. W. Stuart led an expedition to recover them. Taking a botanist to record the plants encountered, the expedition searched much of present-day Noarlunga before finding the horses near the Onkaparinga River; the men being on foot were however. In June 1837, Colonel William Light led an overland expedition to arrest whalers, abducting native women at Encounter Bay, 100 km south of Adelaide. Cresting Tapleys Hill they named the valley Morphett Vale after expedition member John Morphett, they reached the southern end of the Mount Lofty Ranges before impenetrable scrub forced them to return to Adelaide. The following year, John McLaren of the Survey Dept. divided the area south of Adelaide into three districts based on the reports made by the Stuart and Light expeditions. B and C districts, the present Noarlunga District, was opened to public selection in February 1839 and by 1841 the population was estimated to be about 150.
A shore-based bay whaling station was established near the mouth of the Onkaparinga River by George Heppenstall in 1841. The operation consisted of two boats, they had a small punt, used as a cutting-in platform. Heppenstall built a house nearby which he called "Whaleview." It is reputed to be the first permanent structure in the area. The fishery ceased operation in 1843; the government town of Port Noarlunga was surveyed and offered for sale on 14 April 1859. The township was settled as a port for the produce from the proposed market town of Noarlunga a few kilometres upstream; the Onkaparinga River mouth proved unsuitable to coastal ketches, so produce was barged down river to the sandhills and taken by horse drawn rail trucks to the jetty. The current jetty was constructed in 1921 and is the second jetty to have been constructed at Port Noarlunga; the original jetty, 30 metres south of the current jetty, was constructed in 1855, but was destroyed in several severe storms in the early 1900s. In the early 20th century Port Noarlunga was a popular coastal holiday destination, with the beach proving an attraction with its natural beauty and in summer amusement fairs were run, as well as row boating on the river estuary.
Port Noarlunga Post Office opened around November 1909. With the gradual incursion of urban sprawl, in particular immigration-fuelled expansion in the 1960s and 1970s, the township became an outer suburb of Adelaide; the South Australian Housing Trust in particular developed housing in the nearby areas of Christies Beach and O'Sullivan Beach and with the extension of the metropolitan rail line to adjacent Noarlunga Centre in 1978 the township of Port Noarlunga had lost its attraction as a holiday destination. It is now occupied by permanent residents, although it still retains much of its early village charm; the City of Onkaparinga council has assisted with maintaining this spirit of the old township, working with the State government in the late 1990s to divert through road traffic around the town centre. The following places within Port Noarlunga are listed as ‘state heritage places’ on the South Australian Heritage Register: Perry Homestead, 80 Murray Road. Dwelling and outbuildings, 53 Old Honeypot Road.
Port Noarlunga Hotel, 29 Saltfleet Street. Sauerbier's 21 Wearing Street. Port Noarlunga beach is popular with tourists and residents with safe swimming areas patrolled by two surf life saving clubs, it features in the 2012 book 101 Best Australian Beaches by Brad Farmer. The first jetty at Port Noarlunga was constructed for coastal trade. Work commenced on its completion the following year it was known as Port Onkaparinga; the first jetty had fallen into disrepair by the turn of the 20th century. Interest was expressed in repairing or replacing the jetty during the 1910s, but work did not commence until the conclusion of World War I due to difficulties obtaining government funding. Plans were made and tenders were called in October 1918. At its official opening in December 1921 it stood 1,250 feet in length and had been constructed at a cost of ₤6000-7000; the present timber jetty extends from the shore over the beach and out towards the reef, which forms a natural breakwater. It is illuminated at night and features three staircases, one that leads down to the beach, two that provide access to the water to swimmers and divers.
It is accessible to wheelchairs and scooters. In November 2018, the stairs at the reef end of the jetty were dislodged from the main structure by strong winds and wave ene