The Yorke Peninsula is a peninsula located north-west and west of Adelaide in South Australia, between Spencer Gulf on the west and Gulf St Vincent on the east. The peninsula is separated from Kangaroo Island to the south by Investigator Strait; the most populous town in the region is Kadina. Prior to European settlement, which commenced around 1840, Yorke Peninsula was the home to the Narungga people. Today the descendants of these people still live on Yorke Peninsula, supported by the Narungga Aboriginal Progress Association in Maitland, in the community at Point Pearce. Yorke Peninsula was named by Captain Matthew Flinders, R. N. after the Right Honourable Charles Philip Yorke, narrowly beating French navigator Captain Nicolas Baudin. Principal towns include the Copper Coast towns of Kadina and Wallaroo. A number of smaller coastal towns are popular destinations for fishing and holidays for people from Adelaide; the south-western tip is occupied by Innes National Park. Yorke Peninsula is a major producer of grain barley and the Peninsula's grain crops are worth more than $290 million annually.
This has been sent out by sea because there are no rail services. Most coastal towns on the peninsula have substantial jetties. In the past these were used by ketches and steamships, to collect the grain in bags, deliver fertiliser and other supplies; as roads in the region improved, freight-handling techniques changed from bags to bulk, this became obsolete. A deep-water port was opened in 1970 near the south-eastern tip at Port Giles to export grain in bulk, all the other ports ceased to be used for freight in the 1950s and 1960s; the only other ports with bulk-handling facilities are Wallaroo at the north-western side, Ardrossan at the top of Gulf St Vincent used to ship dolomite from a nearby mine for OneSteel. Maitland has a grain-receiving depot operated by AWB, serviced only by road. Wine production commenced on the Peninsula during the 1990s taking advantage of the rich grey, limestone-based soil. Acknowledged as Australia's oldest Field Days, the Yorke Peninsula Field Days have been held since 1894.
The Field Days site just outside Paskeville is a hive of agricultural activity every 2 years, at the end of September. The area is known as the Yorke Horst, distinct physiographic section of the larger South Australian Shatter Belt province, which in turn is part of the larger West Australian Shield physiographic division. Along with Cape Eyre the peninsula is part of the Eyre Yorke Block bioregion. Most of Yorke Peninsula is prime agricultural land, with small rolling hills and flat plains; the southern end of the Hummocks Range extends down the top of the Peninsula, flattening out near Clinton. The highest point on the Peninsula is 5km north-east of Maitland, although there is some debate as to where the Peninsula borders the Mid North, part of the steep Hummocks terrain may be considered part of the Peninsula. A series of shallow valleys line the interior of the Peninsula, with the main one called the Yorke Valley extending from Sunnyvale, south of Paskeville through to Ramsey, between Minlaton and Stansbury.
The predominant Yorke Valley area lies in the area between Arthurton, Maitland and Curramulka. Typical of the southern coastal areas of the state and influenced by the surrounding bodies of water, Yorke Peninsula has a Mediterranean climate, with some areas bordering a Semi Arid Climate, with hot, dry summer and cool, wet winter seasons. Maximum temperatures in summer average around 30 degrees and in winter average around 12-15. Due to surrounding bodies of water, winter temperatures are moderated and milder than most of the state, with overnight temperatures falling below 0, making frost uncommon in the region but not unheard of. Northerly winds from the desert can bring temperatures well upwards of 40 degrees in summer and bring warm winter days well into the 20's. Average precipitation is 4-600mm, most of which falls from mid April through to September, though total and seasonal rainfall can vary from year to year. Along with most of southern Australia, monsoonal lows from the north bring heavy storm events during spring and summer, rainfall is otherwise light and unreliable due to high pressure systems dominating the area.
As of 2015, a daily ferry service operates between Wallaroo and Lucky Bay, near Cowell on Eyre Peninsula. PoliticsHarry Bartlett MHA for Yorke Peninsula 1887–1896, dubbed "Father of the West Coast". Cecil Hincks - MHA for the Electoral district of Yorke Peninsula 1941-63 John Olsen - former Premier of South AustraliaSportsRichard Champion - former AFL Footballer Adam Goodes - former AFL Footballer and dual Brownlow Medal winner George Hewett - Australian Rules Footballer for Sydney Swans Cameron Hewett - Australian Rules Footballer for Port Adelaide Power Malcolm Karpany - West Coast Eagles footballer Sarah Klau - Adelaide Thunderbirds Player Sam Jacobs - Adelaide Crows player Scott McMahon - North Melbourne Kangaroos footballer Fiona Pointon - former Adelaide Thunderbirds netballer Jarrad Redden - former AFL Footballer Jamie Tape - former AFL Footballer Jay Schulz - former AFL Footballer Bernie Vince - Melbourne Demons playerOtherAlby Mangels - adventurer and documentary-maker Fiona O'Loughlin - Comedian Emily Taheny - actress Air Chief Marshal Sir Richard Williams referred to as "Father of the RAAF" was born at Moonta Mines The following reserves are located within the peninsula or adjoin its coastline: National par
Gumeracha, South Australia
Gumeracha is a town in the Adelaide Hills, South Australia, located on the Adelaide-Mannum Road. It is located in the Adelaide Hills Council local government area on the south bank of the upper River Torrens. At the 2006 census, Gumeracha had a population of 731; the region relies on grazing, grape growing and market gardening. Gumeracha is one of South Australia's oldest settled areas; the first Europeans to explore and traverse through the district were Dr George Imlay and John Hill on 24 January 1838. In 1839, the South Australia Company took up a parcel of land, on which the settlements of Gumeracha, Kenton Valley and Forreston developed; the company opened it up for sheep grazing. In 1839, William Beavis Randell built his home, Tinmath, at Kenton Park and built a flour mill in the 1840s; the estate housed his workforce and their families. In 1846, Randell donated land and funds for a church, the Salem Baptist Church was built - the oldest Baptist church still in use in South Australia; the surrounding area, had become an agricultural centre, the Gumeracha Farmers' Society held annual shows.
In 1853 the District Council of Talunga was established to administer the Hundred of Talunga including in large part the early Adelaide Hills pioneering community that would become Gumeracha. In 1855, Randell allocated land for a township and by 1860 the town was laid out. Commercial businesses sprang up on the main street, many fine buildings were erected, including the Post Office, Police Station & Court House, Institute Hall, Town Hall, a butter factory, a school, a hospital, a coach-house, hotels and business houses. Most of the buildings in use at this time still stand today. William Beavis Randell's son, William Richard Randell, would build the first Murray River paddlesteamer in Gumeracha in 1852. In 1935, the District Council of Gumeracha replaced Talunga council to administer a broader area around the town, centred at Gumeracha, the main point of population in that part of the Adelaide Hills. Gumeracha is located between Inglewood and Birdwood along the Adelaide-Mannum Road, north of Lobethal along the Gumeracha-Lobethal Road.
At the ABS 2001 census, Gumeracha had a population of 599 people living in 266 dwellings. Gumeracha is the regional centre for the area, it contains a primary school, community centre, sports Adelaide Hills Council. There is a golf course in Kenton Valley south of the town. Several wineries, including Guthrie Wines, Unico Zelo and Talunga Premium Wines, operate in Gumeracha and in nearby areas; the most notable attraction of Gumeracha is the "biggest rocking horse in the world" - standing at 18.3 metres, it is just east of the town on Main Road and serves to advertise the toy factory and wildlife park. Gumeracha is home to Applewood Distillery, Australia's highest altitude distillery, specialising in Gin and Amaro showcasing native Australian botanicals like finger limes and strawberry gum; the area is not serviced by Adelaide public transport. A coach is operated from Tea Tree Plaza Interchange to Gumeracha and Mount Pleasant by LinkSA. Media related to Gumeracha, South Australia at Wikimedia Commons
Salisbury, South Australia
Salisbury is a northern suburb in Adelaide, South Australia. It is the seat of the City of Salisbury, in the South Australian Legislative Assembly electoral district of Ramsay and the Australian House of Representatives divisions of Wakefield and Port Adelaide; the suburb is a service area for the City of Salisbury district, with an abundance of parklands, shops and restaurants. Parabanks Shopping Centre is located in Salisbury, which includes Woolworths and Big W as its signature retailers.. Salisbury was founded when John Harvey began selling town allotments in 1848, from land he had purchased along the Little Para River in the previous year; the town was named after Salisbury in the United Kingdom, close to his wife's hometown. There is a Wiltshire Street near Park Terrace in parallel to John Street. Salisbury started its life as a service centre for hay farms. Salisbury Post Office opened around March 1850. Salisbury railway station was built in 1857, is where the standard gauge line to Crystal Brook diverges from the broad gauge line to Gawler.
Until the 1980s, this line was broad gauge.. In 1985 Salisbury station was rebuilt as a major STA bus/rail interchange; this was the second purpose-built transport interchange in the Adelaide metropolitan area. Salisbury grew until 1940 when the establishment of an explosives and filling factory doubled the population overnight; the factory, which covered around 11.6 km², was in production by mid 1942 and by January 1943 employed 6,500 persons producing 135,000 shells and mines weekly. Two South Australian Australian Labor Party leaders, Lynn Arnold and Mike Rann both represented the Salisbury area in the South Australian Parliament. Arnold was elected as the MP for Ramsay, Taylor, Rann was elected as the MP for Briggs and Ramsay. Trains to and from Adelaide and Gawler from Salisbury operate every 15 minutes at off-peak times on Monday to Friday, every 30 minutes during the day on Saturday and Sunday. In the evening, services run every hour. In morning peak hours, there are several trains that run non-stop between Adelaide.
These are used by a significant number of city workers who either park their vehicle or transfer from buses at Salisbury Interchange. Local buses from Salisbury Interchange, scheduled to connect with trains to and from Adelaide, use the Adelaide Metro integrated ticketing system. In May 2012 there are 13 local bus routes providing links to many of the northern suburbs, such as routes 400 and 430 to Elizabeth, route 415V to Golden Grove, routes 224, 225, 411 to Mawson Lakes, routes 225, 500, 502, 560 to Para Hills, routes 401, 411 to Paralowie and routes 404, 405 to Parafield Gardens; the major retail zone in Salisbury is the Parabanks Shopping Centre, a short distance from Salisbury Interchange, was first opened around 1977. The single-floor complex includes 74 stores and 3 anchor stores, with a total floor area of 23,800 m2, around 1,400 parking spaces. In April 2008, property group Stockland sold the shopping centre to the Angaet Group. In 2015, an $18 million redevelopment of the centre was approved by the Salisbury Council's Development Assessment Panel.
The redevelopment consisted of three stages, with five specialty stores added to the eastern side mall, the relocation of the Coles supermarket into the site of the former Harris Scarfe store, external upgrades which were completed in October 2017. List of Adelaide suburbs
Waikerie, South Australia
Waikerie is a rural town in the Riverland region of South Australia on the south bank of the Murray River. At the 2006 census, Waikerie had a population of 1,744; the Sturt Highway passes to the south of the town at the top of the cliffs. There is a cable ferry crossing the river to provide vehicle access from the north side of the river. Before European settlement, the Ngawait tribe inhabited the area; the river and surrounding land provided everything they could need - fish, birds and native fruits. Now, Waikerie is well known for citrus growing and gliding, as the flat dry terrain provides good thermals. Waikerie hosted the 14th World Gliding Championships in 1974; the town of Waikerie derives its name from Weikari, claimed to mean'the rising'. However some linguistic anthropologists argue that the name refers to the spider creator god from local creation myths; the Waikerieness was said to fend off monthly centipede infestations by leaking seeds all over the area. This refers to the emergence of many ghost moths from the ground among the river red gums after heavy rain.
Waikerie is in the District Council of Loxton Waikerie, the South Australian House of Assembly electoral district of Chaffey and the Australian House of Representatives Division of Barker. The historic former Irrigation Pumping Station Chimney in Scenic Lookout Reserve is listed on the South Australian Heritage Register; the main newspaper of the region is The River News, first published in July 1956 and founded as a direct result of the 1956 Murray River floods. Waikerie Airport is near Waikerie, it is home to the Waikerie Gliding Club. It has two runways 08/26 and 02/20. Waikerie is home to the Waikerie Magpies Football Club, who play in the Riverland Football League. Former Adelaide Crows captain Mark Ricciuto is from Waikerie and played his junior football with the Magpies. Waikerie is home to the 360 metres Sunline Speedway; the speedway has been home to some of the biggest names in South Australian sedan speedway including Super Sedan drivers Wally Francombe, Robert Gwynne, Noel Reichstein and twice Australian Street Stock Champion Neil Hoffman and his Chrysler Centura.
Other classes that race at the Speedway include Modified Sedans, Formula 500's, 360 Sprintcars, AMCA Nationals and Late Models. Notable people born, went to school or lived in Waikerie include: Sir Donald George Anderson, CBE – Director-General of Civil Aviation and chairman of Qantas Airways Ltd. John Neil Andrew, AO, FTSE – Speaker of the House of Representatives, Federal Parliament of Australia. Chair, Murray–Darling Basin Authority Meredith Arnold, AO – Awarded AO in 2013 for her involvement with the local historical society, the Waikerie District Community Committee and her volunteer work at the Waikerie High School and hospital. Warwick Maxwell Darling – Cricketer, played for South Australia and Australia Anne Fulwood – Reporter and writer Ken I'Anson – Motor cycle racer – Australian Sidecar Champion, Australian Pairs Champion, SA Champion, multiple Australian Track Champion, Australian speedway champion John Percival Jennings, AO, PSM, RDA – Senior Horticultural Adviser and fruit grower.
John P Jennings Park in Waikerie named after him. John T. Jennings, BSc, PhD – Entomologist, The University of Adelaide. President of the Royal Society of South Australia. Editor Natural history of the Riverland and Murraylands, Occasional publications of the Royal Society of South Australia. Kym Vincent Lehmann – Australian Rules Football player, North Adelaide Football Club Bruce Malcolm Light – Australian Rules Football player, Port Adelaide Football Club Geoffrey Haydon Manning – Unionist and historian Mark Ricciuto – Australian Rules Football player, West Adelaide and Adelaide Crows football clubs. Joint winner 2003 Brownlow Medal Brian Webber BSc, MSc, PhD – Australian Rules Football player, West Adelaide Football Club. Headmaster of Prince Alfred College, Adelaide List of crossings of the Murray River Waikerie Tourism Waikerie Gliding Club
Edward Gibbon Wakefield
Edward Gibbon Wakefield is considered a key figure in the early colonisation of South Australia and New Zealand. Despite being imprisoned for three years in 1827 for kidnapping a fifteen-year-old girl, he enjoyed a distinguished political career. Wakefield was born in London in 1796, the eldest son of Edward Wakefield, a distinguished surveyor and land agent, Susanna Crush, his grandmother, Priscilla Wakefield, was a popular author for the young, one of the introducers of savings banks. He was the brother of William Hayward Wakefield, Arthur Wakefield, Felix Wakefield, Daniel Bell Wakefield, John Howard, Priscilla Susannah, Percy. Wakefield was educated at Westminster School in London, Edinburgh, he served as a King's Messenger, carrying diplomatic mail all about Europe during the stages of the Napoleonic Wars, both before and after the decisive Battle of Waterloo. In 1816, he eloped with a Miss Eliza Pattle and they were subsequently married in Edinburgh, it appears to have been a "love match," but no doubt the fact that she was a wealthy heiress did "sweeten the pot," with Edward receiving a marriage settlement of £70,000, with the prospect of more when Eliza turned twenty-nine.
The now married couple, accompanied by the bride's mother and various servants, moved to Genoa where Wakefield was again employed in a diplomatic capacity. Here, his first child, Susan Priscilla Wakefield known as Nina, was born in 1817; the household returned to London in 1820 and a second child, Edward Jerningham Wakefield, was born. Four days Eliza died, Edward resigned his post; the two children were brought up by Wakefield's older sister, Catherine. Nina was suffering from tuberculosis, Wakefield took his daughter to Lisbon in Portugal in the hope of recovery, he employed a young peasant girl, Leocadia de Oliveira, whom he fostered, to help care for Nina, after Nina's death in 1835, sent Leocadia on to Wellington, NZ where she met John Taine and had 13 children. Although wealthy by contemporary standards, Wakefield was not satisfied, he wished to enter Parliament, for this he needed more capital. He managed to wed yet another wealthy heiress in 1826 when he abducted 15-year-old Ellen Turner, after luring her from school with a false message about her mother's health.
Wakefield was brought to trial for the case known as the Shrigley abduction in 1827 and, along with his brother William, sentenced to three years in Newgate prison. He attempted to overturn his father-in-law's will and gain control of the remainder of his dead wife's money; this did not work either, in fact, the entire affair did a lot to tarnish his reputation—there were strong suspicions that in order to strengthen his case he had resorted to forgery and perjury, although he was never tried for these. Considering emigration upon his release, he turned his attention while in prison to colonial subjects, considered the main causes of the slow progress of the Australian colonies in the enormous size of the landed estates, the reckless manner in which land was given away, the absence of all systematic effort at colonization, the consequent discouragement of immigration and dearth of labour, he proposed to remedy this state of things by the sale of land in small quantities at a sufficient price, the employment of the proceeds as a fund for promoting immigration.
These views were expressed in his Letter from Sydney, published while he was still in prison, but quoted as if written on the spot. After his release Wakefield turned his attention to social questions at home, produced a tract on the Punishment of Death, with a graphic picture of the condemned sermon in Newgate, another on the rural districts, with an powerful exhibition of the degraded condition of the agricultural labourer, he soon, became engrossed with colonial affairs. In 1831, having impressed John Stuart Mill, Robert Torrens and other leading economists with the value of his ideas, Wakefield became involved in various schemes to promote the colonisation of South Australia, he believed that many of the social problems in Britain were caused by overcrowding and overpopulation and he saw emigration to the colonies as a useful safety valve. He set out to design a good colonisation scheme, one with a workable combination of labourers and capital; the scheme was to be financed by the sale of land to the capitalists who would thereby support the other classes of emigrants.
It took several attempts to get the South Australia colony going. Although Wakefield was a driving force, he found that as it came closer to reality he was allowed less and less influence, he was frozen out completely whereupon he took offence and severed his connections with the scheme. It was during this period that his daughter, Nina and their time in Lisbon meant that he was away from the scene of negotiations for several months. Nonetheless, in 1839 John Hill named the Wakefield River, a river north of Adelaide in South Australia after Edward Gibbon Wakefield; this led to the naming of Port Wakefield. However, he did not lose interest in colonisation as a tool for social engineering. In 1833 he published anonymously England and America, a work intended to develop his own colonial theory, done in the appendix entitled "The Art of Colonization." The body of the work, contains many new ideas, some of them reaching extreme conclusions. It contains the distinct proposal that the transport of letters should be wholly free, the prediction that, under given
Elizabeth, South Australia
Elizabeth is an outer northern suburb of Adelaide, South Australia. It is located in the City of Playford, it was the seat of the former local government body, the City of Elizabeth, which included Elizabeth as well as the adjacent suburbs on all sides except the west. Although the City of Elizabeth no longer exists, having been amalgamated into the much larger City of Playford in 1997, the term'Elizabeth', in the context of Adelaide refers to the historic municipality and the distinct community therein. Before the 1950s, most of the area surrounding today's suburb of Elizabeth was farming land. After the end of the Second World War with its shortage of materials, the state government decided that South Australia needed to grow and become industrialised. A satellite city was planned for northern metropolitan fringe of Adelaide between the existing townships of Salisbury and Smithfield; the South Australian Housing Trust initiated a housing development program in the area, with a purchase of 1,200 hectares at the site of the present suburb.
The township of Elizabeth was established on 16 November 1955, being named after Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia. In 1964, a new local government body, the municipality of Elizabeth called City of Elizabeth, was created by severance from the District Council of Salisbury; this allowed the local government to focused explicitly on the newly-developed land and distinct local growing community centred at Elizabeth. Elizabeth is the seat of the Playford local government area and thus acts as a central business district for the surrounding suburbs, it lies between Main North Road. DSTO Edinburgh is located to the west of Elizabeth. In the 2016 Census, there were 1,024 people in Elizabeth. 65.2% of people were born in Australia and 76.3% of people spoke only English at home. The most common response for religion was No Religion at 37.8%. As at the 2006 census, the population encompassing postcodes 5112, 5113 and 5114, was about 60,000; the majority of residents were Australian born, with 13.2% born in England.
The age distribution of Elizabeth residents was similar to that of the greater Australian population. 67.5% of residents were aged 25 or over in 2006, compared to the Australian average of 66.5%. The local newspaper is the News Review Messenger. Other regional and national newspapers such as The Advertiser and The Australian are available; the Bunyip Newspaper covers the Elizabeth area in its Playford Times section. Playford International College is on Philip Highway. Kaurna Plains School is on Ridley Road. Elizabeth is the home of the Central District Bulldogs, an Australian rules football team in the South Australian National Football League; the team has won nine SANFL premierships, all in the period from 2000 to 2010. They play all of their home games at Elizabeth Oval. Elizabeth has an association football club, the Playford City Patriots, who play in the South Australian State League. However, their home stadium is Ramsay Park in Edinburgh North, westerly adjacent to Elizabeth; the City of Playford civic centre houses the council chambers, the Elizabeth branch of the Playford Library and the Shedley Theatre.
Westerly adjacent to the civic centre is the Elizabeth Shopping Centre at the heart of the suburb. Known as Elizabeth Town Centre, it has been progressively expanded since the 1960s. In its early days it featured open air malls, but today it comprises a single storey undercover mall. A major renovation and extension was completed in 2004. Dauntsey Reserve is located between Woodford Road. Ridley Reserve is located on the suburb's southern boundary. There are other reserves in the suburb. Elizabeth is serviced by Main North Road, connecting the suburb to Adelaide city centre, by Philip Highway. Elizabeth is serviced by public transport run by the Adelaide Metro; the Gawler railway line passes beside the suburb. The closest station is Elizabeth. Elizabeth is serviced by buses run by the Adelaide Metro. List of Adelaide suburbs "City of Playford". Official website. City of Playford. Retrieved 20 April 2011
Division of South Australia
The Division of South Australia was an Australian Electoral Division covering South Australia. The seven-member statewide seat existed from the inaugural 1901 election until the 1903 election; each elector cast seven votes. Unlike most of the other states, South Australia had not been split into individual single-member electorates; the other exception was the five-member Division of Tasmania. The statewide seats were abolished at a redistribution conducted two months prior to the 1903 election and were subsequently replaced with single-member divisions, one per displaced member, with each elector now casting a single vote. Sorted in order of votes received *Though labelled a Free Trader, Poynton was an Australasian National League candidate; the Division was split into seven single-member seats at the 1903 election – Adelaide, Barker, Grey and Wakefield. Elected members in bold. South Australia elected seven members, with each elector casting seven votes