SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Djembe

A djembe or jembe is a rope-tuned skin-covered goblet drum played with bare hands from West Africa. According to the Bambara people in Mali, the name of the djembe comes from the saying "Anke djé, anke bé" which translates to "everyone gather together in peace" and defines the drum's purpose. In the Bambara language, "djé" is the verb for "gather" and "bé" translates as "peace."The djembe has a body carved of hardwood and a drumhead made of untreated rawhide, most made from goatskin. Excluding rings, djembes have an exterior diameter of 30 -- a height of 58 -- 63 cm; the majority have a diameter in the 13 to 14 inch range. The weight of a djembe depends on size and shell material. A medium-size djembe carved from one of the traditional woods weighs around 9 kg; the djembe can produce a wide variety of sounds. The drum is loud, allowing it to be heard as a solo instrument over a large percussion ensemble; the Malinké people say that a skilled drummer is one who "can make the djembe talk", meaning that the player can tell an emotional story.

Traditionally, the djembe is played only by men. Conversely, other percussion instruments that are played as part of an ensemble, such as the shekere and kese kese, are played by women. Today, it is rare to see women play djembe or dunun in West Africa, African women express astonishment when they do see a female djembe player. There is general agreement that the origin of the djembe is associated with the Mandinka caste of blacksmiths, known as Numu; the wide dispersion of the djembe drum throughout West Africa may be due to Numu migrations during the first millennium AD. Despite the association of the djembe with the Numu, there are no hereditary restrictions on who may become a djembefola; this is in contrast to instruments whose use is reserved for members of the griot caste, such as the balafon and ngoni. Anyone who plays djembe is a djembefola—the term does not imply a particular level of skill. Geographically, the traditional distribution of the djembe is associated with the Mali Empire, which dates back to 1230 AD and included parts of the modern-day countries of Guinea, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast and Senegal.

However, due to the lack of written records in West African countries, it is unclear whether the djembe predates or postdates the Mali Empire. It seems that the history of the djembe reaches back for at least several centuries, more than a millennium; the goblet shape of the djembe suggests that it may have been created from a mortar. There are a number of different creation myths for the djembe. Serge Blanc relates the following myth reported by Hugo Zemp: Prior to the 1950s and the decolonization of West Africa, due to the limited travel of native Africans outside their own ethnic group, the djembe was known only in its original area; the djembe first came to the attention of audiences outside West Africa with the efforts of Fodéba Keïta, who, in 1952, founded Les Ballets Africains. The ballet toured extensively in Europe and was declared Guinea's first national ballet by Guinea's first president, Sékou Touré, after Guinea gained independence in 1958, to be followed by two more national ballets, the Ballet d'Armee in 1961 and Ballet Djoliba in 1964.

Touré's policies alienated Guinea from the West and he followed the Eastern Bloc model of using the country's culture and music for promotional means. He and Fodéba Keïta, who had become a close friend of Touré, saw the ballets as a way to secularize traditional customs and rites of different ethnic groups in Guinea; the ballets combined rhythms and dances from different spiritual backgrounds in a single performance, which suited the aim of Touré's demystification program of "doing away with'fetishist' ritual practices". Touré generously supported the ballets and, until his death in 1984, financed extensive world-wide performance tours, which brought the djembe to the attention of Western audiences. Other countries followed Touré's example and founded national ballets in the 1960s, including Ivory Coast and Senegal, each with its own attached political agenda. In the United States, Ladji Camara, a member of Ballets Africains in the 1950s, started teaching djembe in the 1960s and continued to teach into the 1990s.

Camara performed extensively with Babatunde Olatunji during the 1970s raising awareness of the instrument in the US. After the death of Sekou Touré in 1984, funding for the ballets dried up and a number of djembefolas emigrated and made regular teaching and performance appearances in the west, including Mamady Keïta, Famoudou Konaté, Epizo Bangoura. A number of other djembefolas—M'bemba Bangoura, Abdoulaye Diakite, Bolokada Conde, Mohamed "Bangouraké" Bangoura, Babara Bangoura, among others—followed their example, creating a ready supply of expatriate performers and teachers in many western countries; the 1991 documentary Djembefola by Laurent Chevallier depicts Mamady Keïta's return to the village of his birth aft

Port de Pailhères

The Port de Pailhères is a mountain pass in the Ariège department of the French Pyrenees, located on the secondary road D25 between Mijanès and Ax-les-Thermes. Starting from Mijanes, the Col de Pailhères is 10.6 km long. Over this distance, the climb is 871 m with a maximum gradient of 10.2%. Starting from Ax-les-Thermes, the Col de Pailhères is 18.6 km long. Over this distance, the climb is 1,281 m, with a maximum gradient of 10.4% near the summit. The climb has been used in five stages of the Tour de France cycle race with its first appearance coming in 2003. In 2013, it was used on the eighth stage, when the riders competed for the Souvenir Henri Desgrange. Profile/Photos/Video: Cycling Ax-les-Thermes and Port de Pailheres Port de Pailhères on Google Maps

Ave Fénix

Ave Fénix is the 11th studio album by Mexican pop singer Daniela Romo. It was released in the year of 2001; this is was seen as an edgy and daring move by the public, making a significant departure from the usual material of career, with sounds similar to artists like Kylie Minogue and Madonna, but it was a commercial failure due to the poor promotion by Daniela's team and her compromises with the telenovela El Manantial. A production by Romo and Miguel Bosé's producer Loris Ceroni, all the tracks were written by herself, it has new versions of her greatest hits: "Quiero amanecer con alguien", "De mí enamórate" and "Yo no te pido la luna". This project was inspired by Cher's comeback effort Believe, adopting her smooth vocals with dance beats, it was ignored because Romo would go on to do telenovelas instead of promoting it. "Te quiero mi amor" "Sombras amantes" "Atarte a mi corazón" "El ayer" "Run run" "Ave fénix" "Piensa en mí" "Llévame" "Soledad sin fin" "Somos solo dos" "Las heridas" "Quiero amanecer con alguien" "De Mí Enamórate" "Yo no te pido la luna" الله أكبر Loris Ceroni: Piano, Keyboards, bajo sexto, Mixing, Recording Alberto Mantovani: Piano, Keyboards Cesar Ramirez: Assistant Daniela Romo: Producer, Liner Notes, Adaptation "Archived copy".

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