This article is about the Nordic Museum in Stockholm. For the Nordic Museum in the Ballard district of Seattle, Washington see Nordic Museum; the Nordic Museum is a museum located on Djurgården, an island in central Stockholm, dedicated to the cultural history and ethnography of Sweden from the early modern period to the contemporary period. The museum was founded in the late 19th century by Artur Hazelius, who founded the open-air museum Skansen. For long part of the museum, the institutions were made independent of each other in 1963; the museum was called the Scandinavian Ethnographic Collection, from 1880 the Nordic Museum. When Hazelius established the open-air museum Skansen in 1891, it was the second such museum in the world. For the museum, Hazelius bought or got donations of objects like furniture and toys from all over Sweden and the other Nordic countries. For Skansen, he collected entire farms. Although the project did not get the government funding he had hoped, Hazelius received widespread support and donations and by 1898, the Society for the promotion of the Nordic Museum had 4,525 members.
The Riksdag allocated some money for the museums in 1891 and doubled the amount in 1900, the year before Hazelius died. The present building, the design of Isak Gustaf Clason, was completed in 1907 after a 19-year construction process, it was intended to be a national monument housing the material inheritance of the nation. It was, only half-completed for the Stockholm Exposition 1897, it never was completed to the extent planned, three times the actual size, it takes its style from Dutch-influenced Danish Renaissance architecture rather than any Swedish historical models. The core of the “cathedralesque” building is taken up by a huge main hall passing through all the stories up to the roof and dominated by the enormous sculpture of King Gustav Vasa, the Swedish so called founder-king. For the construction and granite was used for the walls, while concrete was used for the roof; the museum has over 1.5 million objects in its collections, including buildings such as the Julita farm in Södermanland, Svindersvik in Nacka, Tyresö Palace in Tyresö, the chaplain farm at Härkeberga near Enköping.
The museum archive houses an extensive collection of documents and 6 million photographs dating from the 1840s until today. The museum research library contains 3,800 shelf meters of literature from the 16th century and onward. Culture in Stockholm Nordiska museet - official website
A dry dock is a narrow basin or vessel that can be flooded to allow a load to be floated in drained to allow that load to come to rest on a dry platform. Dry docks are used for the construction and repair of ships and other watercraft; the use of dry docks in China goes at least as far back the 10th century A. D. In 1088, Song Dynasty scientist and statesman Shen Kuo wrote in his Dream Pool Essays: At the beginning of the dynasty the two Che provinces presented two dragon ships each more than 200 ft. in length. The upper works included several decks with palatial cabins and saloons, containing thrones and couches all ready for imperial tours of inspection. After many years, their hulls decayed and needed repairs, but the work was impossible as long as they were afloat. So in the Hsi-Ning reign period a palace official Huang Huai-Hsin suggested a plan. A large basin was excavated at the north end of the Chin-ming Lake capable of containing the dragon ships, in it heavy crosswise beams were laid down upon a foundation of pillars.
So that the basin filled with water, after which the ships were towed in above the beams. The water was pumped out by wheels so that the ships rested quite in the air; when the repairs were complete, the water was let in again. The beams and pillars were taken away, the whole basin covered over with a great roof so as to form a hangar in which the ships could be protected from the elements and avoid the damage caused by undue exposure; the first English and oldest surviving dry dock still in use was commissioned by Henry VII of England at HMNB Portsmouth in 1495. This dry dock holds the world's oldest commissioned warship, HMS Victory; the earliest description of a floating dock comes from a small Italian book printed in Venice in 1560, called Descrittione dell'artifitiosa machina. In the booklet, an unknown author asks for the privilege of using a new method for the salvaging of a grounded ship and proceeds to describe and illustrate his approach; the included woodcut shows a ship flanked by two large floating trestles, forming a roof above the vessel.
The ship is pulled in an upright position by a number of ropes attached to the superstructure. The Saint-Nazaire's Chantiers de l'Atlantique owns one of the biggest in the world: 1,200 by 60 metres; the largest graving dock of the Mediterranean as of 2009 is at the Hellenic Shipyards S. A.. The Alfredo da Silva Dry Dock in Almada, was closed in 2000; the largest roofed dry dock is at the German Meyer Werft Shipyard in Papenburg, Germany, it is 504 m long, 125 m wide and stands 75 m tall. Harland and Wolff Heavy Industries in Belfast, Northern Ireland, is the site of a large dry dock 556 by 93 metres; the massive cranes are named after the Biblical figures Goliath. Dry Dock 12 at Newport News Shipbuilding at 662 by 76 metres is the largest dry dock in the USA; the largest floating-dock in North America is named The Vigorous. It is operated by Vigor Industries in Portland, OR, in the Swan Island industrial area along the Willamette River. A graving dock is the traditional form of dry dock, it is narrow basin made of earthen berms and concrete, closed by gates or by a caisson.
When open, a vessel is floated in and the water pumped out, leaving the craft supported on blocks. The keel blocks as well as the bilge block are placed on the floor of the dock in accordance with the "docking plan" of the ship. Routine use of dry docks is for the "graving" i.e. the cleaning, removal of barnacles and rust, re-painting of ships' hulls. Some fine-tuning of the ship's position can be done by divers while there is still some water left to manoeuvre it about, it is important that supporting blocks conform to the structural members so that the ship is not damaged when its weight is supported by the blocks. Some anti-submarine warfare warships have protruding sonar domes, requiring that the hull of the ship be supported several metres from the bottom of the drydock. Once the remainder of the water is pumped out, the ship can be inspected or serviced; when work on the ship is finished, water is allowed to re-enter the dry dock and the ship is refloated. Modern graving docks are box-shaped, to accommodate the newer, boxier ship designs, whereas old dry docks are shaped like the ships that are planned to be docked there.
This shaping was advantageous because such a dock was easier to build, it was easier to side-support the ships, less water had to be pumped away. Dry docks used for building Navy vessels may be built with a roof; this is done to prevent spy satellites from taking pictures of the dry dock and any ships or submarines that may be in it. During World War II, fortified dry docks were used by the Germans to protect their submarines from Allied air raids. Today, covered dry docks are used only when servicing or repairing a fleet ballistic missile submarine. Another advantage of covered dry docks is. A floating dry dock is a type of pontoon for dry docking ships, possessing floodable buoyancy chambers and a "U"-shaped cross-section; the walls are used to give the dry dock stability when the floor or deck is below the surface of the water. When valves are opened, the
Gärdet is a part of Stockholm and northeast of Östermalm. Its official name is Ladugårdsgärdet, it is renowned for its large number of modernist apartments. Gärdet is one of the largest residential districts built in Stockholm during the 1930s, built from 1929 until around 1950, houses about 10,000 people. All the buildings around Tessinparken were built between 1932 and 1937. Gärdet metro station Housing prototypes page with description of housing
Skeppsholmen is one of the islands of Stockholm. It is connected with Kastellholmen by bridges, it is accessible by foot from Kungsträdgården, past the Grand Hôtel and Nationalmuseum, by bus number 65, or by boat from Slussen, Djurgården or Nybroplan. Positioned strategically at the Baltic Sea entrance to Stockholm, it has traditionally been the location of several military buildings. Today the military presence is low and several museums can be found there instead, such as the Museum of Modern Art, the main modern art museum of Stockholm, the architectural museum, in the same building, Östasiatiska Muséet, it is home to the Teater Galeasen. On the southern shore is the old sailing ship af Chapman, now used as a youth hostel. Stockholm Jazz Festival is a popular annual summer event held on Skeppsholmen; the Eric Ericson Hall in Skeppsholmen was the venue for an official dinner for foreign royalty, celebrating the wedding of Crown Princess Victoria in June 2010. Admiralty House Exercishuset Intendenturförrådet Långa raden Prästgården Sjökarteverket Royal Swedish Naval Academy Tyghuset Kastellholmsbron Skeppsholmsbron Media related to Skeppsholmen at Wikimedia Commons
Deer are the hoofed ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae. The two main groups of deer are the Cervinae, including the muntjac, the elk, the fallow deer, the chital. Female reindeer, male deer of all species except the Chinese water deer and shed new antlers each year. In this they differ from permanently horned antelope, which are part of a different family within the same order of even-toed ungulates; the musk deer of Asia and chevrotains of tropical African and Asian forests are separate families within the ruminant clade. They are no more related to deer than are other even-toed ungulates. Deer appear in art from Paleolithic cave paintings onwards, they have played a role in mythology and literature throughout history, as well as in heraldry, their economic importance includes the use of their meat as venison, their skins as soft, strong buckskin, their antlers as handles for knives. Deer hunting has been a popular activity since at least the Middle Ages and remains a resource for many families today.
Deer live in a variety of biomes. While associated with forests, many deer are ecotone species that live in transitional areas between forests and thickets and prairie and savanna; the majority of large deer species inhabit temperate mixed deciduous forest, mountain mixed coniferous forest, tropical seasonal/dry forest, savanna habitats around the world. Clearing open areas within forests to some extent may benefit deer populations by exposing the understory and allowing the types of grasses and herbs to grow that deer like to eat. Additionally, access to adjacent croplands may benefit deer. However, adequate forest or brush cover must still be provided for populations to thrive. Deer are distributed, with indigenous representatives in all continents except Antarctica and Australia, though Africa has only one native deer, the Barbary stag, a subspecies of red deer, confined to the Atlas Mountains in the northwest of the continent. However, fallow deer have been introduced to South Africa. Small species of brocket deer and pudús of Central and South America, muntjacs of Asia occupy dense forests and are less seen in open spaces, with the possible exception of the Indian muntjac.
There are several species of deer that are specialized, live exclusively in mountains, swamps, "wet" savannas, or riparian corridors surrounded by deserts. Some deer have a circumpolar distribution in Eurasia. Examples include the caribou that live in Arctic tundra and taiga and moose that inhabit taiga and adjacent areas. Huemul deer of South America's Andes fill the ecological niches of the ibex and wild goat, with the fawns behaving more like goat kids; the highest concentration of large deer species in temperate North America lies in the Canadian Rocky Mountain and Columbia Mountain regions between Alberta and British Columbia where all five North American deer species can be found. This region has several clusters of national parks including Mount Revelstoke National Park, Glacier National Park, Yoho National Park, Kootenay National Park on the British Columbia side, Banff National Park, Jasper National Park, Glacier National Park on the Alberta and Montana sides. Mountain slope habitats vary from moist coniferous/mixed forested habitats to dry subalpine/pine forests with alpine meadows higher up.
The foothills and river valleys between the mountain ranges provide a mosaic of cropland and deciduous parklands. The rare woodland caribou have the most restricted range living at higher altitudes in the subalpine meadows and alpine tundra areas of some of the mountain ranges. Elk and mule deer both migrate between the alpine meadows and lower coniferous forests and tend to be most common in this region. Elk inhabit river valley bottomlands, which they share with White-tailed deer; the White-tailed deer have expanded their range within the foothills and river valley bottoms of the Canadian Rockies owing to conversion of land to cropland and the clearing of coniferous forests allowing more deciduous vegetation to grow up the mountain slopes. They live in the aspen parklands north of Calgary and Edmonton, where they share habitat with the moose; the adjacent Great Plains grassland habitats are left to herds of elk, American bison, pronghorn antelope. The Eurasian Continent boasts the most species of deer in the world, with most species being found in Asia.
Europe, in comparison, has lower diversity in animal species. However, many national parks and protected reserves in Europe do have populations of red deer, roe deer, fallow deer; these species have long been associated with the continent of Europe, but inhabit Asia Minor, the Caucasus Mountains, Northwestern Iran. "European" fallow deer lived over much of Europe during the Ice Ages, but afterwards became restricted to the Anatolian Peninsula, in present-day Turkey. Present-day fallow deer populations in Europe are a result of historic man-made introductions of this species, first to the Mediterranean regions of Europe eventually to the rest of Europe, they were park animals that escaped and reestablished themselves in the wild. Europe's deer species shared their deciduous forest habitat with other herbivores, such as the extinct tarpan, extinct aurochs (fo
Djurgårdens Idrottsförening known as Djurgårdens IF, Djurgården, Djurgår'n, Dif or DIF – is a Swedish sports club with several departments, located in Stockholm. The club is named after the island Djurgården, a royal hunting park. A direct translation of Djurgården would be “deer garden” or “animal garden”; the word djur means "animal" but has the same etymology as the word “deer”. The club was founded in 1891 by a group of young athletes living on the island Djurgården in central Stockholm. Most of the founders were from the working class, Djurgården maintained that profile for most of its early history, in sharp contrast with middle class rivals AIK. With an original focus on winter sports and athletics, the club branched into other sports, becoming one of Sweden's most successful sports clubs of the 20th and 21st century; the club started playing association football in 1899 and soon started a derby rivalry with neighbouring club AIK, the so-called tvillingderbyt. Today the most popular sections are ice hockey and football, with 16 and 11 Swedish national championship titles respectively.
Other popular sections are bandy and floorball. The club has won 441 Swedish championships through 2017, with this Djurgården is the most successful sports club in Sweden, it's more championship titles than the two main rivals AIK and Hammarby have together; the first logo of the club was a four pointed silver star in saltire, which had a shield on it with the letters DIF. This star pre-dates the similar star which Idrottsföreningen Kamraterna adopted and is using to this day; the present logo in the form of a shield in yellow and blue with the text D. I. F. was adopted in 1896. According to an quoted poem by Johan af Klercker from 1908, blue and yellow stand for Sweden and red stands for love. Blue and yellow are the colours of Stockholm. Yellow and blue are the club colours; the logo is registered as a trademark and the colours are set to Pantone, CMYK and web colour values. In many sports – among them football and handball – the home jersey of the team is vertically striped in light and dark blue.
Because of this, blue is seen as the most important of the three colours. The ice hockey team uses jerseys in one blue shade with red details. Djurgårdens IF has a number of member departments, all of which are their own clubs with their own financial and sporting responsibilities but share the common name and values and support each other. Djurgårdens IF Fotboll – football. Djurgårdens IF Hockey – ice hockey. Djurgårdens IF Alpint – alpine skiing Djurgårdens IF Amerikansk fotboll – American football Djurgårdens IF Bandy – bandy Djurgårdens IF Bordtennisförening – table tennis Djurgårdens IF Boule – boule Djurgårdens IF Bowling – bowling Djurgårdens IF Boxningsförening – boxing Djurgårdens IF Brottningsförening – wrestling Djurgårdens IF Dam – women's football Djurgårdens IF Friidrott – athletics Djurgårdens IF Fäktförening – fencing Djurgårdens IF Golfförening – golf Djurgårdens IF Handboll – handball Djurgårdens IF Handikappfotboll – handicap football Djurgårdens IF Innebandy – floorball Djurgårdens IF Konståkningsförening – figure skating Djurgårdens IF Orienteringsförening – orienteering Djurgårdens IF Basket – basketball Djurgårdens IF Futsal – futsal Previously, Djurgårdens IF had departments in other sports.
One of these was ski jumping and DIF was one of the best clubs in Sweden in this sport for fifty years. Djurgården is one of the most supported clubs in Sweden, with most of its supporters living in Stockholm and the neighbouring suburbs. While other Stockholm clubs have profiled themselves as belonging to a certain borough of Stockholm, Djurgården is seen as more of a pan-Stockholm club. No reliable research exists about the spread of Djurgården supporters, but a 2015 T-shirt campaign suggests that supporters are spread evenly throughout the Stockholm area. In 1981 the main supporter club "Blue Saints" was formed, but due to its notorious fans and their bad reputation, the supporter club changed its name to Järnkaminerna "The Iron Furnices". Since 2005, Fabriken is Djurgården's TIFO group. Djurgården is one of a few clubs in the world, represented both in space and in the Himalayas. Through the years, many types of souvenirs and memorabilia has been made for the club. Stuffed toys in the form of a rabbit called Järnkanin are sold, the name a pun on the word Järnkamin.
A couple of beers have been created over the years. At present, Alberget 4A is sold for Djurgårdens IF, it is named for the address of the café. The beer was launched in 2013 and is sold through Djurgårdshjälpen, a supporter initiative to raise money for the sports club; the beer was called Alltid oavsett, a slogan used by supporters of Djurgårdens IF. The beer is a pale lager of 5.0% abv made by Grebbestad Bryggeri on behalf of Djurgårdshjälpen and is not part of Grebbestad Bryggeri's own range of beers. His Majesty Carl XVI Gustaf, King of Sweden Fredrik Reinfeldt, former Prime Minister of Sweden Olof Palme, former Prime Minister of Sweden Lars Ohly, former party leader of Vänsterpartiet Joakim Thåström, musician Stefan Persson, former CEO of H&M Carl-Henric Svanberg, business leader Loa Falkman, opera singer Christer Fuglesang, first Scandinavian in space Martin Soneby, Swedish comedian The following non-profit organisations are independent but has a close official cooperation with Djurgårdens IF: DIF