Dmanisi is a town and archaeological site in the Kvemo Kartli region of Georgia 93 km southwest of the nation’s capital Tbilisi in the river valley of Mashavera. The hominin site is dated to 1.8 million years ago. It was the earliest known evidence of hominins outside Africa before stone tools dated to 2.1 million years were discovered in 2018 in Shangchen, China. A series of skulls which had diverse physical traits, discovered at Dmanisi in the early 2010s, led to the hypothesis that many separate species in the genus Homo were in fact a single lineage. Known as Skull 5, D4500 is the fifth skull to be discovered in Dmanisi; the town of Dmanisi is first mentioned in the 9th century as a possession of the Arab emirate of Tbilisi, though the area had been settled since the Early Bronze Age. An Orthodox Christian cathedral – "Dmanisi Sioni" – was built there in the 6th century. Located on the confluence of trading routes and cultural influences, Dmanisi was of particular importance, growing into a major commercial center of medieval Georgia.

The town was conquered by the Seljuk Turks in the 1080s, but was liberated by the Georgian kings David the Builder and Demetrios I between 1123 and 1125. The Turco-Mongol armies under Timur laid waste to the town in the 14th century. Sacked again by the Turkomans in 1486, Dmanisi never recovered and declined to a scarcely inhabited village by the 18th century; the castle was controlled by the House of Orbeliani. Extensive archaeological studies continued in the 1960s. Beyond a rich collection of ancient and medieval artifacts and the ruins of various buildings and structures, unique remains of prehistoric animals and humans have been unearthed; some of the animal bones were identified by the Georgian paleontologist A. Vekua with the teeth of the extinct rhino Dicerorhinus etruscus etruscus in 1983; this species dates back to the early Pleistocene epoch. The discovery of primitive stone tools in 1984 led to increasing interest to the archaeological site. In 1991, a team of Georgian scholars was joined by the German archaeologists from Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, the U.

S. French and Spanish researchers. Early human fossils named Homo georgicus and now considered Homo erectus georgicus, were found at Dmanisi between 1991 and 2005. At 1.8 million years old, they are now believed to be a subspecies of Homo erectus and not a separate species of Homo. These fossils represent the earliest known human presence in the Caucasus. Subsequently, four fossil skeletons were found, showing a species primitive in its skull and upper body but with advanced spines and lower limbs, they are now thought to represent a stage soon after the transition from Australopithecus to Homo erectus. Human habitation in the Caucasus goes back to the remotest antiquity; the hominin remains discovered in 1991 by David Lordkipanidze at Dmanisi, Kvemo Kartli are the oldest found outside Africa. Neanderthal remains have been found at elsewhere in the Caucasus; the Dmanisi hominin remains. As of 2014 the Dmanisi skull 5 is in the middle of a controversy: many hominin fossils thought to be different species may not have been separate species at all.

Several early members of the genus Homo were one evolving lineage. Prehistoric Georgia Human evolution List of human evolution fossils Kvemo Kartli Dmanisi archaeological site Kalmakoff, Jonathan J. Doukhobor Genealogy Website Foley, Jim. "Skull D2700". TalkOrigins Archive. Retrieved 9 September 2009. Connor, Steve. "A skull that rewrites the history of man". The Independent. Retrieved 9 September 2009

Harry M. Lydenberg

Harry Miller Lydenberg was an American librarian and book conservationist. He is best known for his decades-long career as a librarian and eventual director for the New York Public Library, American liaison to the international library community, as well as one of the 100 most important library innovators of the 20th century, his written works describe his preferred library reference and conservation practices, as well as his knowledge of the New York Public Library. Harry Miller Lydenberg was born in Ohio; as highlighted in Phyllis Dain's biographical and historical account of Lydenberg's life, entitled, "Harry M. Lydenberg and American library resources: a study in modern library leadership", his early life necessitated that he learn what it meant to make do with little and to conserve resources; as Lydenberg would be heard to quote in his life, "Libraries as well as individuals must adjust themselves to circumstances, will see their ideals affected by the conditions under which they try to realize those ideals."

As he applied these words to his career and work, so too did these words encompass the way Harry Lydenberg lived his life, from his youth through his career. One of his earliest jobs, delivering newspapers, set the stage for what would be a long career working with the written word, the mechanics of printing. In his teen years, Lydenberg worked as a page for the Dayton Public Library going on to attend Harvard, where he continued to work in the college library, gaining knowledge of library organization and the importance of a well tended library collection, he graduated a year early in 1896 from his four-year program, while earning the title of magna cum laude. Upon graduating, Lydenberg gained employment with the New York Public Library; the director, John Shaw Billings, took notice of Lydenberg's demonstrated dedication to the library field. According to Dain and verified by the 1916 Handbook of the New York Public Library, NYPL was experiencing a major consolidation, as the Lennox and Astor Libraries, through private endowments and the Tilden Trust, were merged to create the "new corporation" called the "New York Public Library, Astor and Tilden Foundation".

Lydenberg became Shaw's personal assistant as well as the head of reference. He and Shaw, along with the library's other main figure, Assistant Director Edwin H. Anderson saw the library through its early years after the consolidation. Lydenberg was promoted to Assistant Director in 1928. One of his main goals included building a collection, based upon need and usability rather than quantity of ownership. In a speech entitled, “Interrelation of Medical and Public Libraries”, given to the Medical Library Association, Lydenberg exemplifies this collection development philosophy; when addressing the specific selection of medical books for NYPL, he warned against retaining or purchasing every book on medicine. Instead he added only those medical books that were interdisciplinary, encompassed other fields of knowledge, he knew there were plenty of medical institutions that contained purely technical books, therefore it was not necessary to have them in the public library's collection. Thus, he was able meet the research needs of his patrons without accumulating materials available in other institutions.

Lydenberg goes on to address in his essay, “The opportunity beckons loud here to demonstrate how necessary is the cooperation between the general and special collection.” Another of Lydenberg's areas of expertise was the preservation of books. According to his colleague, Keyes Metcalf, he oversaw multiple studies pertaining to such subjects as general conservation and leather selection and temperature control. Additionally, he authored several books on these subjects, one of the most notable being, The Care and repair of books, which he co-authored with John Archer, head of NYPL's printing office Lydenberg is quoted in his own chapter of The Wonderful World of Books, as advising: Every Librarian will tell you the biggest part of his work is to learn all he can about the making of books, he and Archer are credited with the generous use of early photocopying technology and color printing. Lydenberg became the Director of NYPL in 1934; this followed his year as president of the American Library Association from 1931–1932.

He continued to see NYPL not only through the issues unique to the management of a large urban library, but through years war recovery and economic uncertainty. His tenure lasted until his retirement in 1941. For two years after, he served as director of Biblioteca Benjamín Franklin in Mexico. Lydenberg held the position of the director of the Board of International Relations of the American Library Association from 1943–1946, his years as director of NYPL had prepared him well for this position, as it was a time when the United States was collectively experiencing a great period of sacrifice and fiscal belt-tightening. He had visited Europe post World War I to study book buying and preservation practices, he felt librarians could enhance American library collections and maintenance practices by learning what other counties did with their information and physical books during wartime. He acknowledged in his 1945 essay, “The Library Rehabilitation Programme of the American Library Association”, “Librarians have joyfully agreed that common efforts, concerted action, rather than rampant rivalry, are necessary in connection with future purchases when the time is ripe for what we may call ordinary buyi

Dachau Bahnhof

Dachau station is a station in the Bavarian town of Dachau on the Munich S-Bahn network. It is classified by Deutsche Bahn as a category 3 station and it has five platform tracks, it is served daily including 150 S-Bahn trains. Dachau station is on the Nuremberg–Munich high-speed railway and is the beginning of the Dachau–Altomünster railway. Dachau Stadt station is on the Dachau–Altomünster Railway. Dachau station is located southeast of the town of Dachau; the station building is located to the west of the tracks and has the address of Bahnhofplatz 1. Frühlingstraße runs to the west of the station, while Langhammerstraße runs west from the Bahnhofplatz. To the east of the tracks is Obere Moosschwaigestraße where there is a park-and-ride area. Schleißheimer Straße passes under the tracks to the north of the station. Augustenfelder Straße runs through an underpass to the south of the station. There is a bus station in the station forecourt. Dachau station was opened on 14 November 1867, together with the Munich–Ingolstadt railway.

Facilities available by included a turntable, a level junction, a goods shed, an entrance building and a watering point. In the following years, the railway received continuous upgrades. Additional tracks were built around Dachau station in 1884, the station building was upgraded twice, in 1887 and 1895; the branch from Dachau to Markt Indersdorf, known as the Ludwig-Thoma-Bahn, was opened on 8 July 1912. This branch line was extended to Altomünster on 18 December 1913, a new station closer to Dachau town center opened on the branch. To distinguish between the two stations, Dachau station was renamed from Bahnhof Dachau to Dachau Bahnhof; this change indicates. The main line from Munich to Dachau was electrified in 1939, but further electrification to Ingolstadt was delayed by the outbreak of World War II and was not completed until 1960. In 1972, Dachau station was rebuilt again with two new platforms, in preparation for S-Bahn operations, which commenced on 28 May 1972; the S-Bahn line, numbered S2, operates between Petershausen and Munich, with Dachau being an important intermediate station.

General freight operations ended in 1976 and the handling of all other freight was abandoned in 1980. In 1998, the station and forecourt were restructured; the Dachau–Altomünster railway was integrated into Munich S-Bahn in 1995. At that time, diesel railcars were used, the railway operated under a separate entity called "Line A", its electrification was delayed several times, but was finished in 2014. Since some S2 services have been diverted onto the Altomünster branch. In the spring of 2000, construction began on the upgraded line between Ingolstadt and Munich as part of the Nuremberg–Ingolstadt–Munich high-speed line; the Petershausen–Munich line was upgraded for operations at 200 km/h and new tracks are laid for the S-Bahn. On 21 April 2003, the upgrade of the Petershausen–Dachau section was completed, including a third track for line S 2. On 11 December 2005, the upgrade of the Dachau–München-Obermenzing section was completed and the two additional tracks for the S-Bahn were opened, which made possible the operation of S-Bahn services between Munich and Dachau at 10-minute intervals.

Dachau station received new platforms and improved accessibility. Dachau station has five platform tracks on three platforms, with platform tracks 1 and 3 and the bay platform 2 located on the same island platform. Track 1 is served by the S-Bahn towards Munich, track 2 by the S-Bahn to Altomünster and track 3 by the S-Bahn towards Petershausen. Track 4, a single-sided platform, is served by regional services towards Munich and in the peak hour by single S-Bahn services to Altomünster or Munich. Tracks 5 and 6, which have no platforms, are separated from platform 4 by a noise barrier and are used by non-stopping trains on the high-speed line. Track 7 is located on a side platform and is served by regional trains towards Ingolstadt. Another noise barrier separates this side platform from Obere Moosschwaigestraße; the S-Bahn platform is roofed and has digital destination displays, while the two side platforms have no platform canopies or platform displays. The platforms are connected by a tunnel to the station building and are equipped with lifts, making them accessible for the disabled.

The station is located in the area of the Münchner Verkehrs- und Tarifverbund Munich Transport and Tariff Association, MVV). The signals and switches at the station are controlled by a Siemens class 60 track plan push button interlocking; the entrance building houses a McDonald's restaurant. Platform lengths and heights are as follows: Track 1: length 360 m, height 96 cm Track 3: length 240 m, height 96 cm Track 4: length 250 m, height 96 cm Track 7: length 360 m, height 96 cm The station is served by the Munich–Treuchtlingen–Nuremberg Regional-Express service and the Munich–Treuchtlingen Regionalbahn service. Both services run every two hours, resulting in an hourly service between Treuchtlingen; these services are operated with double-deck push–pull trains propelled by class 111 locomotives. In addition, there are single Regionalbahn services operated in the peak hours between Munich and Ingolstadt using Silberling carriages. Dachau station is served by Munich S-Bahn line S2, which runs between Petershausen or Altomünster to Erding, operated using Class 423 electric multiple units.

In peak hours, extra S-Bahn services run between Dachau and Altomünster using a class 420 ele